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Titus Livius (Classical Latin: [ˈtɪ.tʊs ˈliː.wi.ʊs]; 64 or 59 BC – AD 12 or 17) — often rendered as Livy /ˈlɪvi/ in English language sources — was a Roman historian. He wrote a monumental history of Rome and the Roman people – Ab Urbe Condita Libri (Books from the Foundation of the City) – covering the period from the earliest legends of Rome before the traditional foundation in 753 BC through the reign of Augustus in Livy's own lifetime. He was on familiar terms with members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, advising Augustus's grandnephew, the future emperor Claudius, as a young man not long before 14 AD in a letter to take up the writing of history.[2] Livy and Augustus's wife, Livia, were from the same clan in different locations, although not related by blood.[citation needed]

Titus Livius (Livy)
Titus Livius.png
Titus Livius
Born 64 or 59 BC[1]
Patavium, Adriatic Veneti (modern Padua, Italy)
Died AD 12 or 17
Patavium, Italy, Roman Empire
Occupation Historian
Genre History
Subject History, biography, oratory
Literary movement Golden Age of Latin

Contents

LifeEdit

Livy was born Titus Livius in Patavium in northern Italy, now modern Padua. There is a debate[citation needed] about the year of Titus Livius' birth, 64 BC or more likely 59 BC (see below). At the time of his birth, his home city of Patavium was the second wealthiest on the Italian peninsula, and the largest in the province of Cisalpine Gaul. In his works, Livy often expressed his deep affection and pride for Patavium, and the city was well known for its conservative values in morality and politics.[3] "He was by nature a recluse, mild in temperament and averse to violence; the restorative peace of his time gave him the opportunity to turn all his imaginative passion to the legendary and historical past of the country he loved."[4]

Livy’s teenage years were during the 40s BC, a period of numerous civil wars throughout the Roman world. The governor of Cisalpine Gaul at the time, Asinius Pollio, tried to sway Patavium[when?] into supporting Marcus Antonius (Mark Anthony), leader of one of the warring factions. The wealthy citizens of Patavium refused to contribute money and arms to Asinius Pollio, and went into hiding. Pollio then attempted to bribe the slaves of those wealthy citizens to expose the whereabouts of their masters; his bribery did not work, and the citizens instead pledged their allegiance to the Senate. It is therefore likely[citation needed] that the Roman civil wars prevented Livy from pursuing a higher education in Rome or going on a tour of Greece, which was common for adolescent males of the nobility at the time. Many years later, Asinius Pollio derisively commented on Livy's "patavinity", saying that Livy's Latin showed certain "provincialisms" frowned on at Rome. Pollio's dig may have been the result of bad feelings he harboured toward the city of Patavium from his experiences there during the civil wars.[5]

Titus Livius probably went to Rome in the 30s BC[citation needed], and it is likely that he spent a large amount of time in the city after this, although it may not have been his primary home. During his time in Rome, he was never a senator nor held a government position. His writings contain elementary mistakes on military matters, indicating that he probably never served in the Roman army. However, he was educated in philosophy and rhetoric. It seems that Livy had the financial resources and means to live an independent life, though the origin of that wealth is unknown. He devoted a large part of his life to his writings, which he was able to do because of his financial freedom.[6]

Livy was known to give recitations to small audiences, but he was not heard of to engage in declamation, then a common pastime. He was familiar with the emperor Augustus and the imperial family. Augustus was considered by later Romans to have been the greatest Roman emperor, benefiting Livy’s reputation long after his death. Suetonius described how Livy encouraged the future emperor Claudius, who was born in 10 BC, to explore the writing of history during his childhood.[7] Livy himself was married and had at least one daughter and one son.[6]

Livy’s most famous work was his history of Rome. In it he narrates a complete history of the city of Rome, from its foundation to the death of Augustus. Because he was writing under the reign of Augustus, Livy’s history emphasizes the great triumphs of Rome.[8] He wrote his history with embellished accounts of Roman heroism in order to promote the new type of government implemented by Augustus when he became emperor.[9] In Livy’s preface to his history, he said that he did not care whether his personal fame remained in darkness, as long as his work helped to "preserve the memory of the deeds of the world’s preeminent nation".[10] Because Livy was mostly writing about events that had occurred hundreds of years earlier, the historical value of his work was questionable, although many Romans came to believe his account to be true.[11] He also produced other works, including an essay in the form of a letter to his son, and numerous dialogues, most likely modelled on similar works by Cicero.[12]

Titus Livius died in his home city of Patavium in either (see below) AD 12 or 17; the latter would have been three years after the death of the emperor Augustus.[3]

WorksEdit

 
Ab Urbe condita (1715)

Livy's only surviving work is the "History of Rome" (Ab Urbe Condita), which was his career from an age in middle life, probably 32, until he left Rome for Padua in old age, probably in the reign of Tiberius after the death of Augustus. When he began this work he was already past his youth; presumably, events in his life prior to that time had led to his intense activity as a historian. Seneca the Younger gives brief mention that he was also known as an orator and philosopher and had written some treatises in those fields from a historical point of view.[13]

ReceptionEdit

Imperial eraEdit

Livy's History of Rome was in high demand from the time it was published and remained so during the early years of the empire. Pliny the Younger reported that Livy's celebrity was so widespread, a man from Cadiz travelled to Rome and back for the sole purpose of meeting him.[14] Livy's work was a source for the later works of Aurelius Victor, Cassiodorus, Eutropius, Festus, Florus, Granius Licinianus and Orosius. Julius Obsequens used Livy, or a source with access to Livy, to compose his De Prodigiis, an account of supernatural events in Rome from the consulship of Scipio and Laelius to that of Paulus Fabius and Quintus Aelius.[citation needed]

Livy wrote during the reign of Augustus, who came to power after a civil war with generals and consuls claiming to be defending the Roman Republic, such as Pompey. Patavium had been pro-Pompey. To clarify his status, the victor of the civil war, Octavian Caesar, had wanted to take the title Romulus (the first king of Rome) but in the end accepted the senate proposal of Augustus. Rather than abolishing the republic, he adapted it and its institutions to imperial rule.

The historian Tacitus, writing in the generation after Livy's, described the Emperor Augustus as his friend. This despite his prior works praising Gnaeus Pompeius (Pompey Magnus), who had opposed Gaius Julius Caesar during the civil war: in which Cremutius Cordus is put on trial for his life for offenses no worse than Livy's and defends himself face-to-face with the frowning Tiberius as follows:

"I am said to have praised Brutus and Cassius, whose careers many have described and no one mentioned without eulogy. Titus Livius, pre-eminently famous for eloquence and truthfulness, extolled Cnaeus Pompeius in such a panegyric that Augustus called him Pompeianus, and yet this was no obstacle to their friendship."[15]

While awaiting the verdict, Cordus starved himself to death to avoid a possible conviction. However, this did not prevent the eventual order that his books be burned by the aediles, although many of them escaped this fate. Livy's reasons for returning to Padua after the death of Augustus (if he did) are unclear, but the circumstances of Tiberius' reign certainly allow for speculation.[citation needed]

LaterEdit

 
Titus Livius by Andrea Briosco (c. 1567)

During the Middle Ages, interest in Livy declined because Western scholars were more focused on religious texts.[16] Due to the length of the work, the literate class was already reading summaries rather than the work itself, which was tedious to copy, expensive, and required a lot of storage space. It must have been during this period, if not before, that manuscripts began to be lost without replacement.

The Renaissance was a time of intense revival; the population discovered that Livy's work was being lost and large amounts of money changed hands in the rush to collect Livian manuscripts. The poet Beccadelli sold a country home for funding to purchase one manuscript copied by Poggio.[16] Petrarch and Pope Nicholas V launched a search for the now missing books. Laurentius Valla published an amended text initiating the field of Livy scholarship. Dante speaks highly of him in his poetry, and Francis I of France commissioned extensive artwork treating Livian themes; Niccolò Machiavelli's work on republics, the Discourses on Livy is presented as a commentary on the History of Rome. Respect for Livy rose to lofty heights. Walter Scott reports in Waverley (1814) as an historical fact that a Scotchman involved in the first Jacobite uprising of 1715 was recaptured (and executed) because, having escaped, he yet lingered near the place of his captivity in "the hope of recovering his favorite Titus Livius."[17]

Modern historians have developed their own views of Livy and his place in the ancient world, which were not current in ancient times. For example, one text on western civilization pronounces: "Livy was the prose counterpart of Vergil," as both have been standard in the study of Golden Age Latin literature.[18] Golden Age Latin was not known as such in classical times and the ancient reader could choose from a vastly larger bibliography; but, in fact, private reading was a privilege of the literate few, who had the wealth to buy manuscripts or have them copied and had the time for library research. Public readings of works, however, were common and the usual method in which an author became known.

DatesEdit

Livy was likely born between 64 and 59 B.C. and died sometime between A.D. 12 to 17. He started his work sometime between 31 B.C. and 25 B.C. St. Jerome says that Livy was born the same year as Marcus Valerius Messala Corvinus and died the same year as Ovid.[19] Messala, however, was born earlier, in 64 BC, and Ovid's death, usually taken to be the same year as Livy's, is more uncertain. As an alternative view, Ronald Syme argues for 64 BC – 12 AD as a range for Livy, setting the death of Ovid at 12.[20] A death date of 12, however, removes Livy from Augustus' best years and makes him depart for Padua without the good reason of the second emperor, Tiberius, being not as tolerant of his republicanism. The contradiction remains.

The authority supplying information from which possible vital data on Livy can be deduced is Eusebius of Caesarea, a bishop of the early Christian Church. One of his works was a summary of world history in ancient Greek, termed the Chronikon, dating from the early 4th century AD. This work was lost except for fragments (mainly excerpts), but not before it had been translated in whole and in part by various authors such as St. Jerome. The entire work survives in two separate manuscripts, Armenian and Greek (Christesen and Martirosova-Torlone 2006). St. Jerome wrote in Latin. Fragments in Syriac exist.[21]

Eusebius' work consists of two books: the Chronographia, a summary of history in annalist form, and the Chronikoi Kanones, tables of years and events. St. Jerome translated the tables into Latin as the Chronicon, probably adding some information of his own from unknown sources. Livy's dates appear in Jerome's Chronicon.

The main problem with the information given in the manuscripts is that, between them, they often give different dates for the same events or different events, do not include the same material entirely, and reformat what they do include. A date may be in Ab Urbe Condita or in Olympiads or in some other form, such as age. These variations may have occurred through scribal error or scribal license. Some material has been inserted under the aegis of Eusebius.

The topic of manuscript variants is a large and specialized one, on which authors of works on Livy seldom care to linger. As a result, standard information in a standard rendition is used, which gives the impression of a standard set of dates for Livy. There are no such dates.[citation needed] A typical presumption is of a birth in the 2nd year of the 180th Olympiad and a death in the first year of the 199th Olympiad, which are coded 180.2 and 199.1 respectively.[19] All sources use the same first Olympiad, 776/775–773/772 BC by the modern calendar. By a complex formula (made so by the 0 reference point not falling on the border of an Olympiad), these codes correspond to 59 BC for the birth, 17 AD for the death. In another manuscript the birth is in 180.4, or 57 BC.[22]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ "Livy." A Dictionary of World History. : Oxford University Press, 2015. Oxford Reference. 2015. Date Accessed 4 Dec. 2016 <http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780199685691.001.0001/acref-9780199685691-e-2177>.
  2. ^ Foster 1874, p. xii, citing Suetonius, Claudius, xli.
  3. ^ a b Livy 1998, ix.
  4. ^ Aubrey de Sélincourt, translator (1978). Livy: The History of Early Rome. The Easton Press. Norwalk Connecticut: Collector’s Edition. pp. viii. 
  5. ^ Livy 1998, ix–x.
  6. ^ a b Livy 1998, x.
  7. ^ Suetonius, Life of Claudius 41.1[full citation needed]
  8. ^ Payne, Robert (1962), The Roman Triumph, London: Robert Hale, p. 38 .
  9. ^ Dudley, Donald R (1970), The Romans: 850 BC – AD 337, New York: Alfred A Knopf, p. 19 .
  10. ^ Feldherr, Andrew (1998), Spectacle and Society in Livy’s History, London: University of California Press, p. ix .
  11. ^ Heichelheim, Fritz Moritz (1962), A History of the Roman People, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, p. 47 .
  12. ^ Livy 1998, xi.
  13. ^ Seneca the Younger. "Letter 100, 9". Moral Letters to Lucilius. ...for Livy wrote both dialogues (which should be ranked as history no less than as philosophy), and works which professedly deal with philosophy.  (...scripsit enim et dialogos, quos non magis philosophiae adnumerare possis quam historiae, et ex professo philosophiam continentis libros)
  14. ^ Pliny the Younger, Epistles, II.3.
  15. ^ Tacitus, Annales IV.34.
  16. ^ a b Foster 1874, p. xxiv.
  17. ^ Sir Walter Scott, Waverley, Chap. 6.
  18. ^ Harrison, John Baugham; Sullivan, Richard Eugene (1971). A short history of Western civilization (3 ed.). Knopf. p. 198. ISBN 0-394-31057-8. 
  19. ^ a b "St. Jerome (Hieronymus): Chronological Tables — for Olympiads 170 to 203 [= 100 BC – 36 AD]". Attalus. Retrieved 14 August 2009. 
  20. ^ Livy & Kraus 1994, p. 1, citing several articles by Syme.
  21. ^ Fotheringham 1905, p. 1.
  22. ^ Livius, Titus (1881). Seeley, John Robert, ed. Livy. Book 1. Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 1. ISBN 0-86292-296-8. 

BibliographyEdit

  • Foster, B.O. (2008) [1874], Livy, Trollope Press, ISBN 0-674-99256-3 
  • Livy (1998), The Rise of Rome, Books 1–5, trans. TJ Luce, Oxford: Oxford University Press .
  • Livy (1994), Kraus, Christina Shuttleworth, ed., Ab vrbe condita, Book VI, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-41002-9 



Further readingEdit

  • Dorey, TA, ed. (1971), Livy, London & Toronto: Routledge & K. Paul .
  • Fotheringham, John Knight (1905), The Bodleian Manuscript of Jerome's Version of the Chronicles of Eusebius, Oxford: The Clarendon Press .
  • Hornblower, Simon; Spawforth, Antony, eds. (2003), The Oxford Classical Dictionary, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-860641-3 .
  • Kraus, CS; Woodman, AJ (2006), Latin Historians, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-922293-3 .
  • Syme, Ronald (1959). "Livy and Augustus". Harvard Studies in Classical Philology. 64: 27–87. JSTOR 310937. doi:10.2307/310937.  Also in Badian, E, ed. (1979), Roman Papers, I, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 400–54 .
  • Walsh, PG (1966), "5 Livy", in Dorey, Thomas Alan; Thompson, EA, Latin Historians, Studies in Latin Literature and its Influence, London: Routledge & K Paul, pp. 115–42 .

External linksEdit