Black Hispanic and Latino Americans
In the United States, a Black Hispanic or Afro-Hispanic (Spanish: Afrohispano), is a person who is racially black and is from Latin America and/or speaks the Spanish language natively. They are officially classified by the United States Census Bureau, Office of Management and Budget and other U.S. government agencies.
0.4% of the total U.S. population (2010)
2.5% of all Black People(2010)
2.5% of all Hispanic and Latino Americans (2010)
|Regions with significant populations|
|Northeast • Midwest • West Coast • Texas • Florida|
|American English • American Spanish • Spanish creole • Spanglish • Nuyorican English|
|Roman Catholicism, but also Protestantism, Judaism, and African diasporic religions|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Afro-Latin Americans and other Latin Americans • African Americans • Black people and African ethnic groups • Hispanic and Latino Americans and other ethnic groups of the United States • Afro-Caribbeans|
Hispanicity, which is independent of race, is the only ethnic category, as opposed to racial category, which is officially collated by the U.S. Census Bureau. The distinction made by government agencies for those within the population of any official race category, including "Black", is between those who report Hispanic backgrounds and all others who do not. Non-Hispanic Blacks consists of an ethnically diverse collection of all others who are classified as Black or African American that do not report Hispanic ethnic backgrounds.
States like New York, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Connecticut have some of the highest percentages of Hispanics identifying as Black, where up to 25% of Hispanics identify as black, compared to 2.5% of Hispanics nationwide. Overall, the Northeast region has the largest concentration of Black Hispanics, this is partly because of the large Puerto Rican, Dominican, and other mostly or partly African descended Hispanic populations in the region.
Black Hispanics account for 2.5% of the entire U.S. Hispanic population. Most Black Hispanics in the United States come from within the Dominican and Puerto Rican populations. Aside from the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, large numbers of Black Hispanics can also be found in populations originating from Cuba, northern South America, and the Caribbean coast of Central America as well, including the Cuban, Panamanian, and Colombian communities, among others.
The main aspects which distinguish Black Hispanics born in the United States of America from African Americans is having Spanish as their mother tongue or most recent ancestors' native language, their culture passed down by their parents, and their Spanish surnames. Of all Hispanic groups, Puerto Ricans have the closest relationship with the African American community, and because of this there is also increasing intermarriages and offspring between non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics of any race, mainly between Puerto Ricans and African Americans, which increases both the Hispanic ethnic and black racial demographics.
Since the early days of the movie industry in the United States of America, when Black Hispanic actors were given roles, they would usually be cast as African Americans. For those with Spanish-speaking accents that betrayed an otherwise presumed African American, they may seldom have been given roles as Hispanics, and the mixed race Hispanic and Latino actors of African appearance were mostly given Hispanic roles.
Those who claim that Black Hispanics are not sought to play Hispanic roles in the United States allege this unfairly leads the masses of viewers to an ignorance to the existence of darker skinned Hispanics. Further, some Black Hispanics who identify themselves as black but of also mixed race heritage once affirming their Hispanicity may be deprived of their status as Black people among African Americans, and categorized by society as non-Black in the American historical context.
The same thing happens in U.S. Hispanic media; critics accuse U.S. Hispanic media, including Latin American media, of overlooking black Hispanic and Latino Americans and black Latin Americans in the telenovelas, mostly stereotyping them as impoverished people.
One drop rule and Fluidity of 'Blackness'Edit
Many Latinos who come to the United States, come from countries that do not socially practice the pseudoscience backed United States-originated One-drop rule and have a different view of race. In many of these countries, particularly in the Spanish Caribbean where the majority of the population is mixed to varying amounts with African ancestry, mixed race people (Mulatto/tri-racial) are classed as a separate "race" apart from "pure blooded" whites and blacks especially in Cuba and Dominican Republic, and are grouped with whites in Puerto Rico via Regla del Sacar, a social practice opposite that of the US One drop rule. Majority of them who come to the United States retain their view of race and mixed race identity, despite being considered "black" by majority of American society due to the One drop rule. On the contrary, there are also some mixed-race Caribbean Latinos who have lived in the United States multi-generationally and have assimilated into American customs, who abandon the racial views of their home countries and embrace African American ideologies like the one drop rule, self identifying as black Afro Latino.
Countries like majority-mixed race Brazil and majority-black Haiti practice similar racial views that separate the mixed race from the "pure blooded" blacks. The Spanish speaking countries that practice racial views similar to that of United States (one drop of black blood) are the ones with much smaller overall African descendant populations, where mixed race mulatto and black populations together make up less than 10% and thus grouped together by the white/mestizo majorities.
"Blackness" has historically been viewed negatively among many Latin American countries, with even some darkskinned Afro Latinos with a clearly African phenotype (not mixed race) known to deny their African ancestry. A large portion of Latinos in the United States only choose to embrace the Hispanic/Latino ethnic identity and their nationality instead of their race, this is especially true for non-white Latinos, including those of mixed race, black African, and indigenous backgrounds. This can be because of various reasons, including negative views towards African and/or indigenous Native American peoples, confusion or disagreement with American racial views (especially those of mixed heritage), and strong nationalist pride to the point that nationality is far more important than race.
A review of twenty-one studies found Black Hispanics to have poorer health compared to White Hispanics. The causes are still unknown, but researchers suggested that racial discrimination and segregation may contribute to racial health differences among the Hispanic population in the United States.
Although Black Hispanics are often overlooked or dichotomized as either "black" or "hispanic" in the United States of America, Black Hispanic writers often reflect upon their racialized experience in their works. The most commonly used term in literature to speak of this ambiguity and multilayered hybridity at the heart of Latino/a identity and culture is miscegenation.:48 This "mestizaje" depicts the multi-faceted racial and cultural identity that characterize Black Hispanics and highlights that each individual Black Hispanic has a unique experience within a broader racial and ethnic range.:49 The memoirs, poetry, sociological research, and essays written by the following Afro-Latino writers reflect this concept of mestizaje in addition to revealing the confusion and uncertainty about one's self-image of being both "Black" and "Hispanic". The psychological and social factors also prove to be central in determining how one ultimately defines him/herself.
Political Contributions in the United StatesEdit
- Humes, Karen R.; Nicholas A. Jones; Roberto R. Ramirez (March 2011). "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010" (PDF) (Press release). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved November 3, 2016.
- "U.S. Census Bureau Guidance on the Presentation and Comparison of Race and Hispanic Origin Data". U.S. Census Bureau. June 12, 2003. Retrieved January 23, 2016.
- "Race: 2010 Census of Population, P94-171 Redistricting Data File". U.S. Census Bureau. 2010. Retrieved November 3, 2016.
- "ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates: 2013 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". US Census Bureau. 2013. Archived from the original on January 2, 2016.
- "Coming Out As Black, When You Were Hispanic". npr.org. June 6, 2013. Retrieved January 23, 2016.
- Szot, Hilary S. (February 26, 2014). "Black History Month: New Generation Of Afro-Latinos Tackles Race And Identity". Fox News Latino. Retrieved November 3, 2016.
- Bailey, Benjamin (2006). "Dominican-American Etbnic/Racial Identities and United States Social Categories". International Migration Review. 35 (3): 677–708. doi:10.1111/j.1747-7379.2001.tb00036.x. JSTOR 2675839.
- Garsd, Jasmine (May 25, 2013). "'Las Caras Lindas': To Be Black And Puerto Rican In 2013". npr.org. Retrieved November 3, 2016.
- Guadalupe, Patricia; Suzanne Gamboa (February 27, 2014). "Afro Latinos' Mixed Identity Can Leave Them Out of the Mix". NBC News. Retrieved November 3, 2016.
- Cruz, José E. (2000). "Interminority Relations in Urban Settings". In Yvette Marie Alex-Assensoh; Lawrence J. Hanks (eds.). Black and Multiracial Politics in America. NYU Press. pp. 96–97. ISBN 978-0-8147-0663-3. Retrieved November 4, 2016.
- Torres, Andrés (1995). Between Melting Pot and Mosaic: African Americans and Puerto Ricans in the New York Political Economy. Temple University Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-56639-280-8. Retrieved November 4, 2016.
- "Detailed tables: Hispanic or Latino By Race". U.S. Census Bureau. 2007. Archived from the original on September 10, 2010. Retrieved November 29, 2014.
- "Myth: Hispanics are portrayed accurately on TV". thehispanicmyth.com. Archived from the original on June 4, 2008. Retrieved May 17, 2008.
- Quinonez, Ernesto (June 19, 2003). "Y Tu Black Mama Tambien: Latinos Are Racist, Too. Just Turn On The Tv". newsweek.com. Archived from the original on October 27, 2008. Retrieved May 2, 2008.
- Fletcher, Michael A. (August 6, 2000). "Racial Bias Charged On Spanish-language Tv". sun-sentinel.com. Retrieved November 4, 2016.
- Cuevas, Adolfo G.; Dawson, Beverly Araujo; Williams, David R. (December 2016). "Race and Skin Color in Latino Health: An Analytic Review". American Journal of Public Health. 106 (12): 2131–2136. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2016.303452. ISSN 0090-0036. PMC 5104999. PMID 27736206.
- Pinn, Anthony B.; Benjamin Valentin (2001). Ties That Bind: African American and Hispanic American/Latino/a Theologies in Dialogue. Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN 978-0-8264-1326-0.
- "Neither enemies nor friends: Latinos, blacks, Afro-Latinos". Choice Reviews Online. 43 (06): 43–3718-43-3718. February 1, 2006. doi:10.5860/choice.43-3718. ISSN 0009-4978.
- The Afro-Latin@ Project - The Afro Latin@ Project aims to document, promote, coordinate and support the development of Afro-Latin@ studies and grass roots activities in the United States. This primary focus is informed and enriched by the historical and contemporary experience of African-descendant peoples in the Americas.
- RUSQ Afro-Latino Archives - An extensive list of books, films, memoirs, databases, and articles which provide more insight into the Afro-Latino experience, in and out of the United States.
- Black, Brown and Woman: Afro-Latinas and Legacies of Imperialism (February 2015). "Activist Charo Mina-Rojas talks about African history in Latin America and the specific struggles of Afro-Latinas in Colombia." The Real News
- PBS: A Cultural Identity (June 1997). Essayist Richard Rodriguez on the meaning of the "Hispanic" label.