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Afro-Haitians is not a term that is used in Haiti nor does it reflect how Haitians refer to themselves as a people. To call the majority of the Haitian population "Afro-Haitian" is to utilise an oxymoronic term. Haitians are black and to be Haitian means to be a person of African-descent. Certainly there are people of mixed European, native, and African descents in Haiti, but they are black by the definition of the nation-state. This is very important because Haiti was created as the first Black Republic in 1804 by descendants of African slaves during the Haitian Revolution (1791-1804). Haiti's Founding Fathers (Toussaint, Dessalines, Christophe, Petion) proclaimed the principle of universal human rights and established Haiti as the first Black Republic precisely to oppose the racist and pro-slavery societies that thrived in the Western Hemisphere[2].[3]

Afro-Haitians
Total population
c. 10,114,378[1]
Languages
French · Haitian Creole
Religion
Catholicism · Haitian Vodou
Related ethnic groups
Haitians · West/Central Africans · Afro-Argentines · Afro-Caribbeans · Afro-Chileans · Afro-Costa Ricans · Afro-Cubans · Afro-Dominicans (Dominican Republic) · Afro-Ecuadorians · Afro-Jamaicans · Afro-Latin Americans · Afro-Mexicans · Afro-Peruvians · Afro-Puerto Ricans · Afro-Trinidadians and Tobagonians · Afro-Uruguayans · Creoles · Louisiana Creoles · African Americans

Contents

OriginsEdit

Haitians are people of African descent and originate from West Africa, specifically Benin, formerly Dahomey]. Haitians also come from other areas of Africa because of the slave trade which led to the forced migration of people from West, Central, and even East Africa. Some of these groups include those from the former Kongo kingdom (Kongo), Benin (Ewe[4] and Yoruba) and Togo land.[5] Others in Haiti came from Senegal,[6] Guinea (imported by the Spanish since the sixteenth century and then by the French), Sierra Leone, Windward Coast, Angola, Cameroon, Nigeria, Ghana and Southeast Africa (such as the Bara tribesmen of Madagascar, who arrived in Haiti in the eighteenth century).[7]

DemographyEdit

Although Haiti averages approximately 250 people per square kilometre (650 per sq mi.), its population is concentrated most heavily in urban areas, coastal plains, and valleys. Haiti's population was about 9.8 million according to UN 2008 estimates,[8] with half of the population being under 20 years old.[9] The first formal census, taken in 1950, showed a population of 3.1 million.[10]

According to The World Factbook, 95% of Haitians are primarily of African descent; the remaining 5% of the population are mostly of mixed-race and European background,[1] and a number of other ethnicities.[11][12]

CultureEdit

Culture, religion and social organization are the result in Haiti of a process of syncretism between French and African traditions, mainly Dahomey-Nigerian. A small minority cultural practice in Haiti is Haitian Vodou. This probably originated in Benin, although there are strong elements added from the Congo of Central Africa and the Igbo of Nigeria, and many African nations are represented in the liturgy of Sèvis Lwa. A generally ignored but significant element is that of the Taino people, the indigenous people of Hispaniola. The Tainos were influential in the belief system of Haitian Vodou, especially in the Petro cult, a religious group with no counterpart on the African continent. Characterized by the worship of the loa, the sect has influences from Native American folklore zemis. The entire northern area of Haiti is influenced by the practices of the Congo. In the north, these are often called Rites Congo or Lemba. In the south, the Congo influence is called Petwo (Petro). Many loa are of Congolese origin, such as Basimbi and Lemba.[13]

Polygyny persists alongside Catholic marriages. The dances and some forms of recreation tie in with African activities. The preparation of beans is done in the style of Western Africa. Popular literature retains fables and other forms that are expressed in the vernacular. Economic activities are typical of Western culture and clothing tends to be European, but the scarf worn by women over the head is typical of clothing worn throughout West Africa.

Two languages are spoken in Haiti. French is taught in schools and known by about 42% of the population,[14] but spoken by a minority of mulattos and blacks, in Port-au-Prince and other cities. Haitian Creole, with roots in French and African languages, is a language with dialectal forms in different regions. It is spoken throughout the country, but is used extensively in rural areas.[15]

The music of Haiti is heavily influenced by the rhythms which came from Africa with the slaves. Two of these rhythms come directly from the harbour and the Congo; a third rhythm, the "petro", developed on the island during the colonial era. All are part of the rhythms used in Vodou ceremonies. These rhythms have created a musical style, rasin, where percussion is the most important musical instrument, and despite being closely related to religion has become a popular kind of folk music. Another type of music, which arises spontaneously from people with hand-held instruments, is twoubadou, a musical style that has endured to this day. Currently the music heard in Haiti's genre is a little softer than the merengue, and combines Congo rhythms with European and Caribbean influences. Kompa is the most current version of this rhythm.[16]

See alsoEdit

References and footnotesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Haiti: People and society: Population". The World Factbook. July 2017.
  2. ^ https://www.academia.edu/346020/On_the_International_Responses_to_the_Haitian_Revolution
  3. ^ Michel Rolph-Trouillot, Silencing the Past: Power and the Production of History, 20th Anniversary Edition, 2nd edition (Beacon Press, 2015)
  4. ^ Fernández Esquivel, Franco (2001). "Procedencia de los esclavos negros analizados a través del complejo de distribución, desarrollado desde Castagena" [Origin of black slaves analyzed through a distribution complex developed from Castagena] (PDF) (in Spanish). Revistas Académicas de la Universidad Nacional. Retrieved 7 October 2016.
  5. ^ "African Origins of Haitians". haiti360.com. Archived from the original on 15 November 2014.
  6. ^ Hall, Catherine, Review of The Birth of the Modern World 1780–1914: Global Connections and Comparisons, by Christopher Bayly online at history.ac.uk, accessed 7 August 2008
  7. ^ "Opinión: El merengue Dominicano y su origines" [Review: The Dominican merengue and its origins] (in Spanish). ciao.es. 16 August 2003. Retrieved 7 October 2016.
  8. ^ "Country profile: Haiti". bbc.co.uk. 17 October 2012. Retrieved 7 October 2016.
  9. ^ "New Haiti Census Shows Drastic Lack of Jobs, Education, Maternal Health Services". United Nations Population Fund. 10 May 2006. Retrieved 7 October 2016.
  10. ^ "Haiti: Population". Library of Congress Country Studies. Retrieved 7 October 2016.
  11. ^ "The Virtual Jewish History Tour: Oceania: Haiti". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. 2010. Retrieved 7 October 2016.
  12. ^ Shanshan, Wang; Huang Zhiling; Guo Anfei (19 January 2010). "Chinese in Haiti may be evacuated". chinadaily.com.cn. Retrieved 18 October 2016.
  13. ^ "Zombis: Vudú haitiano" [Zombies: Haitian Voodoo] (in Spanish). linkmesh.com. Retrieved 7 October 2016.
  14. ^ Wolff, Alexandre (2014). La langue française dans le monde 2014 [The French language in the world in 2014] (PDF) (in French). Paris: Nathan. ISBN 978-2-09-882654-0. Retrieved 7 October 2016.
  15. ^ Michel DeGraff, "Language Barrier in Haiti," The Boston Globe, June 16, 2010
  16. ^ "Población haitiana" [Haitian population] (in Spanish). mondolatino.eu. Retrieved 7 October 2016.