Bangsamoro, officially the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, or BARMM, (Filipino: Rehiyong Awtonomo ng Bangsamoro sa Muslim Mindanao; Arabic: منطقة بانجسامورو ذاتية الحكم Munṭiqah banjisāmūrū dhātiyyah al-ḥukm) is an autonomous region within the southern Philippines.
|Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao|
Filipino: Rehiyong Awtonomo ng Bangsamoro sa Muslim Mindanao
Arabic: منطقة بانجسامورو ذاتية الحكم فى مسلمى مينداناو
Location in the Philippines
|Creation plebiscite||21 January 2019|
|Formulation of the Bangsamoro Transition Authority||22 February 2019|
|Turnover of ARMM to BARMM||26 February 2019|
|Inauguration||29 March 2019|
|Regional center||Cotabato City (de facto)|
|• Type||Devolved regional parliamentary government within a unitary presidential constitutional republic|
|• Body||Bangsamoro Transition Authority|
|• Wali||Kalifa Usman Nando|
|• Chief Minister||Murad Ebrahim|
|• Deputy Chief Ministers||Ali Solaiman|
(Deputy for the Mainland)
(Deputy for the Islands)
|• Speaker of the Parliament||Pangalian Balindong|
|Time zone||UTC+08:00 (PST)|
|Barangays||2,590 (includes 63 Cotabato barangays)|
Replacing the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM), the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region was formed after voters decided to ratify the Bangsamoro Organic Law in a January 21, 2019 plebiscite. The ratification was announced on January 25 by the Commission on Elections. This marks the beginning of the transition of the ARMM to the BARMM. Another plebiscite was held in nearby regions that sought to join the area on February 6. This plebiscite saw 63 of 67 barangays in North Cotabato join Bangsamoro.
Early history and arrival of IslamEdit
For the most part of Philippines' history, the region and most of Mindanao have been a separate territory, which enabled it to develop its own culture and identity. The westernmost and west-central areas have been the traditional homeland of Muslim Filipinos since the 15th century, even before the arrival of the Spanish, who began to colonize most of the Philippines in 1565. Majority of Mindanao was the homeland of indigenous Lumad groups, who were neither Christians nor Muslims.
Muslim missionaries arrived in Tawi-Tawi in 1380 and started the colonization of the area and the conversion of the native population to Islam. In 1457, the Sultanate of Sulu was founded, and not long after that, the sultanates of Maguindanao and Buayan were also established. Many indigenous Lumad communities were displaced as a result of some of the area's 'Islamization'. At the time when most of the Philippines was under Spanish rule, these sultanates maintained their independence and regularly challenged Spanish domination of the Philippines by conducting raids on Spanish coastal towns in the north and repulsing repeated Spanish incursions in their territory. It was not until the last quarter of the 19th century that the Sultanate of Sulu formally recognized Spanish suzerainty, but these areas remained loosely controlled by the Spanish as their sovereignty was limited to military stations and garrisons and pockets of civilian settlements in Zamboanga and Cotabato, until they had to abandon the region as a consequence of their defeat in the Spanish–American War.
Spanish colonial eraEdit
The Moros had a history of resistance against Spanish, American, and Japanese rule for over 400 years. The violent armed struggle against the Japanese, Filipinos, Spanish, and Americans is considered by modern Moro Muslim leaders as part of the four centuries long "national liberation movement" of the Bangsamoro (Moro Nation), although the term is only used in mainland Mindanao as those in the Sulu archipelago had a much distinct culture. The 400-year-long resistance against the Japanese, Americans, and Spanish by the Moro Muslims persisted and morphed into a war for independence against the Philippine state.
American colonial eraEdit
The United States' Insular Government of the Philippine Islands had only been in existence for two years in 1903 when it initiated the "Homestead Program," which was meant to encourage migration of landless populations from non-muslim areas of the country into the muslim-majority areas in Mindanao. Lanao and Cotabato in particular saw an influx of migrants from Luzon and Visayas. This influx of migrants led to tensions about land ownership and disenfranchisement of Lumads and Muslims, because the mostly-Christian migrants established claims on the land, whereas the native peoples of Mindanao didn't have a land titling system in place at the time. This US-led Homestead Program, which was later continued or copied by Philippine administrations after independence, is therefore often cited as one of the root-causes of what would later become the larger Moro conflict.
World War IIEdit
In 1942, during the early stages of the Pacific War of the Second World War, troops of the Japanese Imperial Forces invaded and overran Mindanao, and the native Moro Muslims waged an insurgency against the Japanese. Three years later, in 1945, combined United States and Philippine Commonwealth Army troops liberated Mindanao, and with the help of local guerrilla units, ultimately defeated the Japanese forces occupying the region.
Under pressure to resolve agrarian unrest in various parts of the country, and noting that Mindanao was rich in mineral resources and weather favorable to agriculture, later Philippine presidents continued the promotion of migration which the American colonial government began in 1903. Massive arrivals of non-Muslim migrants happened particularly during the Commonwealth period under President Manuel Quezon and later under right-wing presidents Ramon Magsaysay and Ferdinand Marcos. As a result, the proportion of indigenous peoples in Mindanao to shrink from majority in 1913 to minority by 1976. The best lands in Mindanao were given to settlers and owners of corporate agriculture, while most development investments and government services were offered to the Christian population. This caused the Muslim population to be backward and rank among the poorest in their own country. The resettlement programme was not entirely peaceful as some settlers managed to obtain land from the native Muslims through harassment and other violent efforts which drove the Muslims out of their own lands.
The Muslims felt alienated by the Philippine government and felt threatened by the migrants' economic and political domination in their own homeland, the same way the Lumads were displaced centuries ago when Islam arrived in the Philippines. Some Muslim groups turned to extortion and violence to protect their land and avoid being displaced. These efforts at “integration” are credited for helping the Moro identity in mainland Mindanao crystallize, because the Muslims’ ability to identify with the rest of Filipino nation suffered in light of the threat to their economic and social well being.[buzzword]
As an effect of the resettlement, traditional Muslim leaders (also referred as datu) were also voted out during the polls as Christians, who made up a significant majority of the voters, preferred the Christian politicians over them. These local datus suffered a loss in prestige as they could no longer control the Muslim lands. These politicians lost much of the capabilities they had possessed initially to manage the Muslim populace.
The Jabidah Massacre and its impactEdit
In March 1968, fishermen in Manila Bay rescued a Muslim man named Jibin Arula from the waters. They discovered that he had suffered from gunshot wounds, and he later recounted that he was the lone survivor of what would later be termed the "Jabidah Massacre."
According to Jibin Arula's account, the Marcos administration had gathered a group of Tausug recruits for an operation called "Project Merdeka" (merdeka being the Malay "freedom"). The military began training them on the island of Corregidor to form a secret commando unit called "Jabidah," which would destabilize and take over Sabah. The trainees eventually rejected their mission, for reasons that are still debated by historians today. Jibin Arula said that whatever the reasons behind their objections, all of the recruits aside from him were killed, and he escaped only by pretending to be dead.
Rashid Lucman and the Bangsamoro Liberation OrganizationEdit
Then Lanao del Sur congressman Haroun al-Rashid Lucman called for Congress to begin proceedings to impeach President Marcos after the "exposé" implied that Marcos was ultimately responsible for the massacre. When his proposal didn't get enough congressional support, he became convinced that Muslims should rule themselves in Muslim Mindanao - a conviction which led him to eventually establish the Bangsamoro Liberation Organization (BMLO), which later joined forces with the Moro National Liberation Front.
Datu Udtog Matalam and the Muslim Independence MovementEdit
Cotabato Governor Datu Udtog Matalam  saw the anger of the Muslim people of Mindanao and established the Muslim Independence Movement (MIM), which openly called for the secession of the region to create a Muslim state. The MIM did not last long because Datu Udtog Matalam negotiated with Marcos and accepted a post in his cabinet, but many of its members broke away and became the main force of the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF).
Martial Law and the creation of the Moro National Liberation FrontEdit
On September 23, 1972, Ferdinand Marcos announced that he had placed the entirety of the Philippines, including Muslim Mindanao, under Martial law. While Datu Udtog Matalam's MIM was already defunct, one of its former members, Nur Misuari, established the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) a month after the declaration of Martial Law, on October 21, 1972.
Proclamation 1081 dissolved the various political groups that had been previously established in the Moro provinces, and with the MIM having already been dissolved, Marcos' declaration of martial law effectively assured the MNLF, which was more radical than its predecessors, would come to dominate the Moro separatist movement.
The 1976 Tripoli AgreementEdit
On December 23, 1976, the Tripoli Agreement was signed between the Philippine government and the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) with the deal brokered by then-Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi. Under a deal an autonomous region was to be created in Mindanao.
Marcos would later implement the agreement by creating two regional autonomous governments, rather than one, in Regions 9 and 12, which cover ten (instead of thirteen) provinces. This led to the collapse of the peace pact and the resumption of hostilities between the MNLF and Philippine government forces.
Establishment of the Moro Islamic Liberation FrontEdit
In signing the 1976 Tripoli Agreement, however, Misuari did not consult on of the MNLF's key commanders, Ustadz Salamat Hashim. Salamat formed a splinter faction along with 57 other MNLF ground commanders, which then became the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF).
1987 Jeddah AccordEdit
A year after Marcos was ousted from power during the People Power Revolution, the government under Corazon Aquino signed the 1987 Jeddah Accord in Saudi Arabia with the MNLF, agreeing to hold further discussions on the proposal for autonomy to the entirety of Mindanao and not just the thirteen provinces stated in the 1976 Tripoli Agreement. In 1989, however, an act establishing the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao was passed. The MNLF demanded that the thirteen Tripoli Agreement provinces, majority of which were Christian provinces, be included in the ARMM, but the government refused; eight of those provinces were predominantly Christian. Shortly thereafter, the government held only four provinces as only Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sulu and Tawi-tawi voted to be included in the ARMM. The four provinces were the only Muslim-majority provinces at the time.
ARMM and peace deal with the MILFEdit
A plebiscite was held in 1989 for the ratification of the charter which created the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) with Zacaria Candao, a counsel of the MNLF as the first elected Regional Governor. In September 2, 1996, a final peace deal was signed between the MNLF and the Philippine government under then President Fidel Ramos. MNLF leader and founder Nur Misuari was elected regional governor three days after the agreement. In 1996 peace talks between the Philippine government and MNLF's rival group, the MILF, began.
The first deal between the national government and the MILF was made in 2008; the Memorandum of Agreement on Ancestral Domain. The agreement would be declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court many weeks later. Under the administration of President Benigno Aquino III, two deals were agreed upon between the national government and the MILF: the Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro signed on October 15, 2012 and the Comprehensive Agreement on the Bangsamoro in March 27, 2014. which include plans regarding the establishing of a new autonomous region.
Attempts to create a Bangsamoro autonomous regionEdit
In 2012, Aquino intended to establish a new autonomous political entity under the name "Bangsamoro" to replace the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao which he called a "failed experiment." Under his administration, a draft for the Bangsamoro Basic Law (BBL) was made but failed to get traction to become law to the Mamasapano clash of January 2015 which involved the murder of 44 mostly-Christian Special Action Force (SAF) personnel by allegedly combined forces of the MILF and the Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters (BIFF) after an operation to kill Malaysian militant Zulkifli Abdhir known by the alias "Marwan".
Bangsa Sug declaredEdit
In 2018, a unification gathering of all the sultans of the Sulu archipelago and representatives from all ethnic communities in the Sulu archipelago (Basilan, Sulu, and Tawi-tawi) commenced in Zamboanga City, declaring themselves as the Bangsa Sug peoples and separating them from the Bangsa Moro peoples of mainland central Mindanao. They cited the complete difference in cultures and customary ways of life as the primary reason for their separation from the Muslims of mainland central Mindanao. They also called the government to establish a separate Philippine state, called Bangsa Sug, from mainland Bangsa Moro or to incorporate the Sulu archipelago to whatever state is formed in the Zamboanga Peninsula, if ever federalism in the Philippines is approved in the coming years.
Bangsamoro Organic Law and 2019 plebisciteEdit
Under the presidency of Aquino's successor, Rodrigo Duterte, a new draft for the BBL was made and became legislated into law as the Bangsamoro Organic Law (BOL) in 2018. A plebiscite was held on January 21, 2019 to ratify the BOL with majority of ARMM's voters deciding for the ratification of the law which meant the future abolition of the ARMM and the establishment of the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region. Voters in Cotabato City voted to join the new autonomous region while Christian-majority Isabela City voted against inclusion. The Commission on Elections proclaimed that the BOL "deemed ratified" on January 25, 2019. The provincial government of Sulu, where majority voted against inclusion, was also not in favor of the law with its governor challenging the constitutionality of the law before the Supreme Court. Despite voting against inclusion, Sulu was still included in the Bangsamoro region due to rules stated in the BOL, sparking outrage from the natives.
In February 2019, the second round of the plebiscite was held in the province of Lanao del Norte and some towns in North Cotabato. The plebiscite resulted in the inclusion of 63 of 67 barangays in North Cotabato which participated. It also resulted in the rejection from the province of Lanao del Norte against the bid of 6 of its Muslim-majority towns to join the Bangsamoro, despite the 6 towns (Baloi, Munai, Nunungan, Pantar, Tagoloan and Tangcal) opting to join the Bangsamoro by a sheer majority with one town even voting for inclusion by 100%. A major camp of the MILF was within the Muslim areas of Lanao del Norte.
With the ratification of the Bangsamoro Organic Law following a plebiscite on January 21, 2019 the abolition process of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) begins paving way for the formal creation of the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region. Under the law a transition body, the Bangsamoro Transition Authority (BTA), is to be organized pending the election of the new region's government officials in 2022. The second part of the plebiscite held on February 6, 2019 expanded the scope of the future Bangsamoro region to include 63 barangays in North Cotabato. The members of the Bangsamoro Transition Authority took their oaths on February 22, 2019 along with the ceremonial confirmation of the plebiscite results of both the January 21, and February 6, 2019 votes. The official turnover from the ARMM to the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region took place on February 26, 2019 which meant the full abolition of the former.
The inauguration of the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao and the inaugural session of the Bangsamoro Parliament took place on March 29, 2019.
Bangsamoro will consist at least 3 component cities, 116 municipalities, and 2,590 barangays. The city of Isabela despite being part of Basilan will not be under the administrative jurisdiction of the autonomous region. Likewise, 63 barangays in North Cotabato also are part of Bangsamoro despite North Cotabato and their respective parent municipalities not under the administrative jurisdiction of the autonomous region.
|km2||sq mi||/km2||/sq mi|
|Lanao del Sur||Marawi||27.6%||1,045,429||3,872.89||1,495.33||270||700||1||39||1,159|
|North Cotabato barangays||‡‡||—||—||—||—||—||—||—||—||—||63|
|67 barangays are part of the region while their parent municipalities and parent province North Cotabato are not part of Bangsamoro; Total population and area figures for the whole Bangsamoro is yet to into account of these barangays.|
Between the ratification of the Bangsamoro Organic Law and the inauguration of its first permanent government in 2022, the Bangsamoro Transition Authority will head the region. After the ratification of the BOL, the Bangsamoro Transition Commission (BTC) begins to transition the ARMM into the BARMM.
The ceremonial head of the region is a Wali. The future Bangsamoro Parliament will select and appoint the Wali. The Wali will have ceremonial functions and powers such as moral guardianship of the territory and convocation and dissolution of its proposed legislature.
The regional government will be headed by a Chief Minister. An interim Chief Minister will be appointed by the Philippine President to lead the Bangsamoro Transition Authority.
Once the Bangsamoro Parliament is created the Chief Minister will be elected by the members of the Bangsamoro Parliament. The Chief Minister of the Bangsamoro is the chief executive of the regional government, and is assisted by a cabinet not exceeding 10 members. He appoints the members of the cabinet, subject to confirmation by the Bangsamoro Parliament. He has control of all the regional executive commissions, agencies, boards, bureaus, and offices.
The Bangsamoro Cabinet is composed of two Deputy Chief Minister and Ministers from the members of the Parliament. The Deputy Chief Minister will be nominate by the Chief Minister and elected by the members of the Parliament while the Ministers in the cabinet will be appointed by the Chief Minister.
Council of LeadersEdit
The Council of Leaders advises the Chief Minister on matters of governance of the autonomous region. It is roughly an equivalent of an unelected Senate, though only advisory, without legislative powers, and not part of the Parliament.
The council shall include:
- Chief minister
- Members of the Congress from the Bangsamoro
- Governors and mayors of chartered cities in the Bangsamoro
- Representatives of traditional leaders, non-Moro indigenous communities, women, settler communities, the Ulama, youth, and Bangsamoro communities outside the region.
- Other sector representatives subject to mechanism laid out by the parliament
Under the Bangsamoro Organic Law, the Bangsamoro Parliament serves as the legislature of the autonomous region and is to compose of 80 members and is led by the Speaker. The Wali, a ceremonial head, could dissolve the parliament.
Regional ordinances are created by the Bangsamoro Parliament, composed of Members of Parliament, also elected by direct vote. Regional elections are usually held one year after general elections (national and local) depending on legislation from Congress. Regional officials have a fixed term of three years, which can be extended by an act of Congress.
Under the Bangsamoro Organic Law ratified in 2019, the Bangsamoro Transition Authority (BTA), is to be organized as a transition body pending the election of the new region's government officials in 2022, with the first regular session of the parliament to be held in 2022.
The Bangsamoro Autonomous Region will have its own regional justice system which applies Shari'ah to its residents like its predecessor the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao. Unlike its predecessor though, the Bangsamoro will have a Shari'ah High Court to be consist of five justices including a presiding justice in addition to appellate courts, district courts, and circuit courts. Non-Muslims could also volunteer to submit themselves under the jurisdiction of Shari'ah law. The Bangsamoro justice system also recognizes traditional or tribal laws but these would only apply to disputes of indigenous peoples within the region.
Relation to the central governmentEdit
Bangsamoro Organic Law provides that BARMM "shall remain an integral and inseparable part of the national territory of the Republic." The President exercises general supervision over the Regional Chief Minister. The Regional Government has the power to create its own sources of revenues and to levy taxes, fees, and charges, subject to Constitutional provisions and the provisions of No. 11054.
The people of the Bangsamoro region, including Muslims, Lumads, and Christians, have a culture that revolves around kulintang music, a specific type of gong music, found among both Muslim and non-Muslim groups of the Southern Philippines. Each ethnic group in BARMM also has their own distinct architectures, intangible heritage, and craft arts. A fine example of a distinct architectural style in the region is the Royal Sulu architecture which was used to make the Daru Jambangan (Palace of Flowers) in Maimbung, Sulu. The palace was demolished during the American period after been heavily damaged by a typhoon in 1932, and was never rebuilt. It used to be the largest royal palace built in the Philippines. A campaign to faithfully re-establish it in Maimbung town has been ongoing since 1933. A very small replica of the palace was made in a nearby town in the 2010s, but it was noted that the replica does not mean that the campaign to reconstruct the palace in Maimbung has stopped as the replica does not manifest the true essence of a Sulu royal palace. In 2013, Maimbung was designated as the royal capital of the former Sultanate of Sulu by one of the family claimants to the Sulu Sultanate throne where the pretenders are buried there.[clarification needed]
The region possesses a vast array of natural landscapes and seascapes with different types of environs. The mainland area includes the Liguasan Marsh, a proposed UNESCO tentative site, and Lake Lanao, one of the 17 most ancient lakes in the world. The Sulu archipelago region includes the Turtle Islands Wildlife Sanctuary (a UNESCO tentative site), Bongao Peak, and the Basilan Rainforest.
Proposed set-up in a federal governmentEdit
The Bangsamoro Basic Law bill was considered for shelving by the 17th Congress of the Philippines. The bill was planned to be integrated to the federalism concept proposal by President Rodrigo Duterte. In case the proposed federalism fails to be passed, President Duterte said that he will concede to the provisions of the bill.
In January 2017, Nene Pimentel proposed in a federalism forum that the Bangsamoro state should be divided into two autonomous regions, namely, mainland Muslim Mindanao and the Sulu archipelago, as the two Muslim areas are distinct from each other in terms of culture. He made the statement after going around the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao, whose people told him that the Muslims of the offshore islands (Basilan, Sulu, Tawi-Tawi) do not want to be lumped together with the mainland Muslims of Mindanao as they are distinct from each other. Pimentel also noted that Shariah law could only be applied in the Bangsamoro state (composed of Autonomous Region of Mainland Bangsamoro and Autonomous Region of Sulu) if the two parties are Muslims, but if one or both parties are non-Muslims, national law will always apply.
|Body||Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao||Bangsamoro Autonomous Region|| Republic of the Philippines|
(National Government only)
|Constitutional document||ARMM Organic Act (Republic Act No. 6734)||Organic Law for the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region (Republic Act No. 11054)||Constitution of the Philippines|
|Head of the region or territory||Regional Governor of the ARMM||Wali of Bangsamoro||President of the Philippines|
|Head of government||Chief Minister of Bangsamoro|
|Executive||Executive Departments of the ARMM||Bangsamoro Cabinet||Executive Departments of the Philippines|
|Legislative||Regional Legislative Assembly||Bangsamoro Parliament||Bicameral: Senate and Congress|
|Judiciary||None (under Supreme Court)||Shariah High Court (under Supreme Court)||Supreme Court|
|None (under Philippine government)||Planned (before 2016)||Department of Justice|
|Police Force(s)||Philippine National Police;
under the National Government
|Philippine National Police|
|Military||Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP);
under the National Government
|Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP)|
|Currency||Philippine peso||Philippine peso|
|Foreign relations||None||full rights|
|Shariah law||Yes, for Muslims only||"Code of Muslim Personal Laws of the Philippines" issued in 1977 under Presidential Directive 1083|
- Unson, John (27 February 2019). "ARMM turns over power to Bangsamoro authority". The Philippine Star. Retrieved 27 February 2019.
- Arguilas, Carolyn (27 February 2019). "Murad vows a government "free of all the ills of governance;" names 10 ministers". MindaNews. Retrieved 27 February 2019.
- Depasupil, William; TMT; Reyes, Dempsey (23 January 2019). "'Yes' vote prevails in 4 of 5 provinces". The Manila Times. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
- Galvez, Daphne (22 January 2019). "Zubiri: Overwhelming 'yes' vote for BOL shows Mindanao shedding its history of conflict". Inquirer.net. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
- Esguerra, Christian V. (25 January 2019). "New era dawns for Bangsamoro as stronger autonomy law ratified". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
- Sarmiento, Bong S. "21 of 67 villages in North Cotabato join BARMM". newsinfo.inquirer.net.
- Suson, Divina. "'No' wins in 13 Lanao del Norte towns; 'Yes' wins in only 9 towns". newsinfo.inquirer.net.
- Jennings, Ralph (27 July 2018). "Historic Autonomy Deal for Philippine Muslims Takes Aim at 50 Years of Strife". Voice of America. Retrieved 28 July 2018.
- Esguerra, Anthony Q. (27 July 2018). "EU expresses support for Bangsamoro Organic Law". Inquirer.net. Retrieved 28 July 2018.
- Fonbuena, Carmela. "63 out of 67 barangays in Cotabato to join Bangsamoro region". Rappler.
- Kapahi, Anushka D.; Tañada, Gabrielle (2018). "The Bangsamoro Identity Struggle and the Bangsamoro Basic Law as the Path to Peace". Counter Terrorist Trends and Analyses. 10 (7): 1–7. JSTOR 26458484.
- Mindanao Peace Process, Fr. Eliseo R. Mercado, Jr., OMI.
- Banlaoi 2012, p. 24.
- Banlaoi 2005 Archived 2016-02-10 at the Wayback Machine, p. 68.
- Damien Kingsbury; Senior Lecturer in International Development Damien Kingsbury; Costas Laoutides (5 March 2015). Territorial Separatism in Global Politics: Causes, Outcomes and Resolution. Routledge. p. 55. ISBN 978-1-317-63139-2.
- Werning, Rainer (2009). "Southern Philippines: Bitter Legacies of a Long-Lasting War". In Graf, Arndt; Kreuzer, Peter; Werning, Rainer (eds.). Conflict in Moro Land: Prospects for Peace?. Universiti Sains Malaysia. pp. 6–8.
- Rodell, Paul A. (2005). "The Philippines and the Challenges of International Terrorism". In Smith, Paul J. (ed.). Terrorism and Violence in Southeast Asia: Transnational Challenges to States and Regional Stability. M. E. Sharpe. pp. 125–127.
- Muslim, Macapado A. (1994). The Moro Armed Struggle in the Philippines: The Nonviolent Autonomy Alternative. Office of the President and College of Public Affairs, Mindanao State University. pp. 91–93.
- Wurfel, David (1988). Kahin, George McT. (ed.). Filipino Politics: Development and Decay. Cornell University Press. p. 31.
- Rüland, Jürgen (2006). "Ethnic Conflict, Separatism and Terrorism". In Hoadley, Stephen; Rüland, Jürgen (eds.). Asian Security Reassessed. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 233.
- McKenna, Thomas M. (1988). Muslim Rulers and Rebels: Everyday Politics and Armed Separatism in the Southern Philippines. University of California Press. p. 137.
- Marites Dañguilan Vitug; Glenda M. Gloria (18 March 2013). "Jabidah and Merdeka: The inside story". Rappler. Archived from the original on 13 September 2015. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- "Marcos order: Destabilize, take Sabah". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 2 April 2000. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
- "Martyrs & Heroes: LUCMAN, Haroun Al Rashid". Bantayog ng mga Bayani. 26 May 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
- Fallon, Joseph E. (August 1989). "Igorot and Moro National Reemergence". Fourth World Journal. 2 (1). Archived from the original on 18 August 2007. Retrieved 5 September 2007.
- George, T. J. S. (1980). Revolt in Mindanao: The Rise of Islam in Philippine Politics. Oxford University Press. pp. 130–134.
- Majul, Cesar A. (1985). The Contemporary Muslim Movement in the Philippines. Mizan Press. p. 45.
- Yegar, Moshe (2002). Between Integration and Secession: The Muslim Communities of the Southern Philippines, Southern Thailand and Western Burma/Myanmar. Lexington Books. pp. 267–268.
- "Moro National Liberation Front". Stanford University Mapping Militants Project. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
- Unson, John (27 January 2019). "Plebiscite in Mindanao: Will it be the last?". The Philippine Star. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
- Kin Wah, Chin (2004). Southeast Asian Affairs 2004. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 978-9812302380.
- Howe, Brendan M. (2014). Post-Conflict Development in East Asia. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-1409469438.
- Mayuga, Sylvia L. (26 March 2019). "Stripped naked by history". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
- Legaspi, Amita O. (9 April 2015). "'Who is he?' Senate panel to press Iqbal on real name". GMA News. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
- Regencia, Ted (25 March 2014). "Philippines prepares for historic peace deal". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 23 August 2015.
- Calonzo, Andreo (7 October 2012). "Govt, MILF agree to create 'Bangsamoro' to replace ARMM". GMA News. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
- Orendain, Simone (28 March 2015). "Philippines, Muslim Rebels Try to Salvage Peace Pact". Voice of America. Retrieved 23 August 2015.
- Garcia, Bong (10 May 2018). "Sulu Sultanate, Bangsa Sug push revision of BBL". SunStar Zamboanga. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
- "Sulu, cities of Isabela, Cotabato to reject BOL". 20 January 2019.
- Ranada, Pia. "Comelec: Bangsamoro Organic Law 'deemed ratified'". Rappler.
- "Sulu voters reject BOL". GMA News Online.
- Tomacruz, Sofia. "Sulu rejects Bangsamoro law". Rappler.
- France-Presse, Agence. "Key rebel stronghold left out of Bangsamoro territory". ABS-CBN News.
- News, ABS-CBN. "Excluded Lanao del Norte towns may still benefit from new Bangsamoro region - transition body member". ABS-CBN News.
- Arguillas, Carolyn. "Bangsamoro law ratified; how soon can transition from ARMM to BARMM begin?". MindaNews. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
- Arguillas, Carolyn (18 February 2019). "Bangsamoro Transition Authority to take oath Feb. 20; ARMM to BARMM turnover on Feb. 25". MindaNews. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
- Arguillas, Carolyn (20 March 2019). "BARMM inauguration reset again; new date is March 29". MindaNews. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
- Arguilas, Carolyn (8 February 2019). "Pikit's fate: 20 barangays remain with North Cotabato, 22 joining BARMM". Minda News. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
- Census of Population (2015). "ARMM – Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. PSA. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
- "Bangsamoro Development Plan Integrative Report, Chapter 10" (PDF). Bangsamoro Development Agency. 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
- Quintos, Patrick (25 January 2019). "After Bangsamoro Organic Law is ratified, now comes the hard part". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
The autonomous Bangsamoro government will be parliamentary-democratic, similar to the United Kingdom, and based on a political party system.
- Calonzo, Andreo (10 September 2014). "PNoy personally submits draft Bangsamoro law to Congress leaders". GMA News. Retrieved 2 February 2015.
- Gavilan, Jodesz (31 January 2019). "Key positions in the Bangsamoro government". Rappler. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
- "Bicam approves creation of Shari'ah High Court in Bangsamoro". Rappler. 12 July 2018. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
- Kamlian, Jamail A (1999). "Bangsamoro society and culture : a book of readings on peace and development in Southern Philippines". MSU-Iligan Institute of Technology. Iligan Center for Peace Education and Research. Retrieved 26 January 2019 – via University of Wisconsin–Madison Libraries.
- "Bangsamoro Development Plan Integrative Report, Chapter 11" (PDF). Bangsamoro Development Agency. 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
- Selga, Miguel (1932). "The Typhoon of Jolo—Indo-China (April 29–May 5, 1932)". Monthly Weather Review. 60 (5): 124–125. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1932)60<124b:TTOJAM>2.0.CO;2 – via AMS Publications.
- Philippines. Weather Bureau (1932). Meteorological Bulletin. Bureau of Printing.
- Whaley, Floyd (21 October 2013). "Obituary: Jamalul Kiram III / Self-proclaimed 'poorest sultan'". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved 2 February 2015.
- Whaley, Floyd (21 September 2015). "Esmail Kiram II, Self-Proclaimed Sultan of Sulu, Dies at 75". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 February 2015.
- Diaz, Jess (22 May 2016). "No BBL: Next Congress to focus on federalism". PhilStar Global. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
- "Duterte to concede to BBL if federalism bid fails". PhilStar Global. 10 July 2016. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
- Pimentel, Nene (2016). "Balancing the Distribution of Government Powers (Federalism)" (PDF). Development Academy of the Philippines: 54 and 63 of 130. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
- "DOCUMENT: Marcos submits overhauled Bangsamoro bill". Rappler. 10 August 2015. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
- "A Decree to Ordain and Promulgate a Code Recognizing the System of Filipino Muslim Laws, Codifying Muslim Personal Laws, and Providing for Its Administration and for Other Purposes". The LawPhil Project. Retrieved 26 January 2019.