Open main menu
Painting of a man feeding a baby, two women and another child
Familienidylle by Aimé Pez, 1839

A household consists of one (or more) people who live in the same dwelling and share meals. It may also consist of a single family or another group of people.[1] A dwelling is considered to contain multiple households if meals or living spaces are not shared. The household is the basic unit of analysis in many social, microeconomic and government models,[2] and is important to economics and inheritance.[3]

Household models include families, blended families, shared housing, group homes, boarding houses, houses of multiple occupancy (UK), and single room occupancy (US). In feudal societies, the Royal Household and medieval households of the wealthy included servants and other retainers.

Government definitionsEdit

For statistical purposes in the United Kingdom, a household is defined as "one person or a group of people who have the accommodation as their only or main residence and for a group, either share at least one meal a day or share the living accommodation, that is, a living room or sitting room".[4] The introduction of legislation to control houses of multiple occupation in the UK Housing Act (2004)[5] required a tighter definition of a single household. People can be considered a household if they are related: full- or half-blood, foster, step-parent/child, in-laws (and equivalent for unmarried couples), a married couple or unmarried but "living as ..." (same- or different-sex couples).[6]

The United States Census definition also hinges on "separate living quarters": "those in which the occupants live and eat separately from any other persons in the building."[7] According to the U.S. census, a householder is the "person (or one of the people) in whose name the housing unit is owned or rented (maintained)"; if no person qualifies, any adult resident of a housing unit is considered a householder. The U.S. government formerly used "head of the household" and "head of the family", but those terms were replaced with "householder" in 1980.[8] In the census definition of a household, it

... includes all the persons who occupy a housing unit. A housing unit is a house, an apartment, a mobile home, a group of rooms, or a single room that is occupied (or if vacant, is intended for occupancy) as separate living quarters. Separate living quarters are those in which the occupants live and eat separately from any other persons in the building and which have direct access from the outside of the building or through a common hall. The occupants may be a single family, one person living alone, two or more families living together, or any other group of related or unrelated persons who share living arrangements. (People not living in households are classified as living in group quarters.)[9]

On July 15, 1998, Statistics Canada said: "A household is generally defined as being composed of a person or group of persons who co-reside in, or occupy, a dwelling."[10]

Economic definitionEdit

Although a one-income-stream economic theory simplifies modeling, it does not necessarily reflect reality. Many, if not most, households have several income-earning members. Most economic models do not equate households and traditional families, and there is not always a one-to-one relationship between households and families.

Social definitionsEdit

In social work, a household is defined similarly: a residential group in which housework is divided and performed by householders. Care may be delivered by one householder to another, depending upon their respective needs, abilities, and (perhaps) disabilities. Household composition may affect life and health expectations and outcomes for its members.[11][12] Eligibility for community services and welfare benefits may depend upon household composition.[13]

In sociology, household work strategy (a term coined by Ray Pahl in his 1984 book, Divisions of Labour)[14][15] is the division of labour among members of a household. Household work strategies vary over the life cycle as household members age, or with the economic environment; they may be imposed by one person, or be decided collectively.[16]

Feminism examines how gender roles affect the division of labour in households. In The Second Shift and The Time Bind, sociologist Arlie Russell Hochschild presents evidence that in two-career couples men and women spend about equal amounts of time working; however, women spend more time on housework.[17][18] Cathy Young (another feminist writer) says that in some cases, women may prevent the equal participation of men in housework and parenting.[19]

ModelsEdit

Household models in the English-speaking world include traditional and blended families, shared housing, and group homes for people with support needs. Other models which may meet definitions of a household include boarding houses, houses in multiple occupation (UK), and single room occupancy (US).

HistoryEdit

In feudal or aristocratic societies, a household may include servants or retainers who derive their income from the household's principal income.

Housing statisticsEdit

Dwellings with bathrooms[20]
Country 1960 1970 1980
Belgium 23.6% 49.1% 73.9%
Denmark 39.4% 73.1% 85.4%
France 28.0% 48.9% 85.2%
Germany 51.9% 71.5% 92.3%
Greece 10.4% - 69.3%
Ireland 33.0% 55.3% 82.0%
Italy 10.7% 64.5% 86.4%
Luxembourg 45.7% 69.4% 86.2%
Netherlands 30.3% 75.5% 95.9%
Portugal 18.6% - 58%
Spain 24.0% 77.8% 85.3%
United Kingdom 78.3% 90.9% 98.0%
Indoor WC, bath/shower and hot running water (1988)[21]
Country Indoor WC Bath/shower Hot running water
Belgium 94% 92% 87%
Denmark 97% 94% N/A
France 94% 93% 95%
Germany 99% 97% 98%
Greece 85% 85% 84%
Ireland 94% 92% 91%
Italy 99% 95% 93%
Luxembourg 99% 97% 97%
Netherlands N/A 99% 100%
Portugal 80% N/A N/A
Spain 97% 96% N/A
UK 99% 100% N/A
1981–82 censuses[20]
Country Bath/shower Indoor WC Central heating
Belgium 73.9% 79.0% -
Denmark 85.1% 95.8% 54.6%
France 85.2% 85.4% 67.6%
Germany 92.3% 96.0% 70.0%
Greece 69.3% 70.9% -
Ireland 82.0% 84.5% 39.2%
Italy 86.4% 87.7% 56.5%
Luxembourg 86.2% 97.3% 73.9%
Netherlands 95.9% - 66.1%
Portugal 58.0% 58.7% -
Spain 85.3% - 22.5%
United Kingdom 98.0% 97.3% -
Average usable floor space, 1976[22]
Country Area
Austria 86 m2 (930 sq ft)
Belgium 97 m2 (1,040 sq ft)
Bulgaria 63 m2 (680 sq ft)
Canada 89 m2 (960 sq ft)
Czechoslovakia 69 m2 (740 sq ft)
Denmark 122 m2 (1,310 sq ft)
Finland 71 m2 (760 sq ft)
France 82 m2 (880 sq ft)
East Germany 60 m2 (650 sq ft)
West Germany 95 m2 (1,020 sq ft)
Greece 80 m2 (860 sq ft)
Hungary 65 m2 (700 sq ft)
Ireland 88 m2 (950 sq ft)
Luxembourg 107 m2 (1,150 sq ft)
Netherlands 71 m2 (760 sq ft)
Norway 89 m2 (960 sq ft)
Poland 58 m2 (620 sq ft)
Portugal 104 m2 (1,120 sq ft)
Romania 54 m2 (580 sq ft)
Soviet Union 49 m2 (530 sq ft)
Spain 82 m2 (880 sq ft)
Sweden 109 m2 (1,170 sq ft)
Switzerland 98 m2 (1,050 sq ft)
United Kingdom 70 m2 (750 sq ft)
United States 120 m2 (1,300 sq ft)
Yugoslavia 65 m2 (700 sq ft)
Average usable floor space, 1994[23]
Country Area
Austria 85.3 m2 (918 sq ft)
Belgium 86.3 m2 (929 sq ft)
Denmark 107 m2 (1,150 sq ft)
Finland 74.8 m2 (805 sq ft)
France 85.4 m2 (919 sq ft)
East Germany 64.4 m2 (693 sq ft)
West Germany 86.7 m2 (933 sq ft)
Greece 79.6 m2 (857 sq ft)
Ireland 88 m2 (950 sq ft)
Italy 92.3 m2 (994 sq ft)
Luxembourg 107 m2 (1,150 sq ft)
Netherlands 98.6 m2 (1,061 sq ft)
Spain 86.6 m2 (932 sq ft)
Sweden 92 m2 (990 sq ft)
United Kingdom 79.7 m2 (858 sq ft)
Floor space, 1992–1993[24]
Country Year Area
Australia 1993 191 m2 (2,060 sq ft)
United States 1992 153.2 m2 (1,649 sq ft)
South Korea 1993 119.3 m2 (1,284 sq ft)
United Kingdom 1992 95 m2 (1,020 sq ft)
Germany 1993 90.8 m2 (977 sq ft)
Japan 1993 88.6 m2 (954 sq ft)
Households without an indoor WC, 1980[25]
Country %
Belgium 19%
France 17%
West Germany 7%
Greece 29%
Ireland 22%
Italy 11%
Japan 54%
Norway 17%
Portugal 43%
Spain 12%
United Kingdom 6%
Households without a bath or shower
Country %
Belgium 24%
France 17%
West Germany 11%
Italy 11%
Japan 17%
Norway 18%
Spain 39%
United Kingdom 4%
Households with an indoor WC[26]
Country 1960–61 1970–71 1978–79
Britain 87% 88% 95%
Germany 64% 85% 92.5%
Households with a bath or shower[26]
Country 1960–61 1970–71 1978–79
Britain 72% 91% 94.3%
Germany 51% 82% 89.1%
Principal residences in France lacking amenities:[22]
Year Running water WC Bath or shower Central heating
1962 21.6% 59.5% 71.1% 80.7%
1968 9.2% 45.2% 52.5% 65.1%
1975 2.8% 26.2% 29.8% 46.9%
1978 1.3% 20.9% 22.9% 39.7%
Households with central heating[citation needed]
Country 1970 1978
Great Britain 34% 53%
Germany 44% 64%
US dwellings with bathroom amenities, 1970[27]
Amenity %
Bath/shower 95%
Flush toilet 96%
East German amenities[22]
Amenity 1961 1971 1979
Running water 66% 82.2% 89%
WC 33% 41.8% 50%
Bath/shower 22.4% 38.7% 50%
Central heating 2.5% 10.6% 22%
Amenities in European dwellings, 1970–71[28]
Country Running water WC Bath/shower
Austria 84.2% 69.8% 52.9%
Belgium 88.0% 50.4% 47.8%
Czechoslovakia 75.3% 49.0% 58.6%
Denmark 98.7% 90.3% 76.5%
Finland 72.0% 61.4% -
Greece 64.9% 41.2% 35.6%
Hungary 36.1% 27.2% 31.7%
Ireland 78.2% 69.2% 55.4%
Italy 86.1% 79.0% 64.5%
Netherlands - 80.8% 81.4%
Norway 97.5% 69.0% 66.1%
Portugal 47.8% 33.7% 32.6%
Spain 70.9% 70.9% 46.4%
Sweden 97.4% 90.1% 78.3%
Switzerland - 93.3% 80.9%
United Kingdom - 86.3% 90.7%
Yugoslavia 33.6% 26.2% 24.6%
British households lacking amenities[29]
Year Bath Indoor/outdoor WC Hot running water Indoor WC
1951 37.6% 7.7% - -[contradictory]
1961 22.4% 6.5% 21.8% -[contradictory]
1966 15.4% 1.7% 12.5% 18.3%
1971 9.1% 1.1% 6.5% 11.5%
British households sharing amenities[29]
Year Bath Indoor/outdoor WC Hot running water Indoor WC
1951 7.5% 14.9% - -[contradictory]
1961 4.4% 6.7% 1.8% -
1966 4.1% 6.4% 2.0% 4.4%
1971 3.2% 4.1% 1.9% 3.1%
Households with durable goods, 1964–1971[30]
Country Year Washing machine Refrigerator Television Telephone
Northern Ireland 1971 45.4% 40.1% 87.5% 27.0%
Scotland 1971 65.0% 53.2% 92.1% 36.1%
United Kingdom 1964 53.0% 34.0% 80.0% 2.2%
United Kingdom 1971 64.3% 68.8% 91.4% 37.8%
United States 1965 87.4% 99.5% 97.1% 85.0%
United States 1970 92.1% 99.85 98.7% 92.0%
EEC manual workers with durable goods, 1963–1964[30]
Country Washing machine Refrigerator Television Telephone
Belgium 74.7% 24.9% 47.6% 8.2%
France 39.6% 47.0% 34.4% 1.4%
West Germany 66.2% 62.1% 51.3% 1.8%
Italy 13.6% 50.2% 47.9% 20.0%
Luxembourg 82.3% 64.7% 27.9% 23.0%
Netherlands 80.4% 25.5% 58.0% 9.4%
EEC white-collar workers with durable goods, 1963–1964[30]
Country Washing machine Refrigerator Television Telephone
Belgium 68.5% 57.3% 48.3% 40.0%
France 48.2% 71.3% 43.3% 15.2%
West Germany 62.2% 79.1% 51.8% 19.6%
Italy 38.3% 81.9% 79.3% 57.9%
Luxembourg 82.3% 79.2% 25.2% 67.3%
Netherlands 73.9% 51.6% 56.2% 57.4%
Dwellings with amenities, 1960–71[30]
Country Year Running water Indoor running water Toilet Flush toilet Bath/shower
Austria 1961 100.0% 63.6% - - 29.6%
1970 - 85.3% 69.7% - 54.5%
Belgium 1961 76.9% - 99.9% 47.6% 24.3%
Bulgaria 1965 28.5% 28.2% 100.0% 11.8% 8.7%
Canada 1961 89.1% - - 85.2% 80.3%
1967 - 95.2% 93.5% 92.5% 89.8%
1971 - - - 95.4% 93.4%
Czechoslovakia 1961 60.5% 49.1% - 39.5% 33.3%
Denmark 1960 - 92.9% 100.0% 83.6% 48.3%
1965 96.7% 96.7% 100.0% 90.9% 63.4%
England and Wales 1961 - 98.7% 93.4% - 78.7%
1966 - - - 98.2% 85.1%
Finland 1960 47.1% 47.1% - 35.4% 14.6%
France 1962 - 77.5% 43.1% 39.3% 28.0%
1968 92.8% 91.5% 56.2% 53.2% 48.9%
East Germany 1961 - 65.7% 33.7% - 22.1%
West Germany 1965 - 98.2% - 83.3% 64.3%
1968 99.0% - - 86.5% 66.8%
Hungary 1960 - - 100.0% 22.5% -
1963 32.5% 25.9% - - 18.5%
1970 58.6% 36.4% 100.0% 32.7% 32.2%
Ireland 1961 57.2% 51.0% 64.9% 53.5% 33.2%
Italy 1961 71.6% 62.3% 89.5% - 28.9%
Luxembourg 1960 98.8% - 100.0% 81.6% 45.7%
Netherlands 1956 89.6% - 99.9% 67.5% 26.8%
New Zealand 1960 - 90.0% - - -
1961 99.6% 87.8% - 88.5% -
1966 99.7% 90.3% - 94.0% 98.1%
Norway 1960 94.0% 92.8% 100.0% 57.9% 45.2%
Poland 1960 39.1% 29.9% 26.9% 18.9% 13.9%
1966 - 46.8% - 33.3% -
Romania 1966 48.4% 12.3% 100.0% 12.2% 9.6%
Scotland 1961 - 94.0% - 92.8% 69.9%
1966 - - - 95.7% 77.4%
Sweden 1960 - 90.0% - 76.2% 61.0%
1965 95.2% 94.3% 99.7% 85.3% 72.9%
Switzerland 1960 - 96.1% 99.7% - 68.8%
United States 1960 94.0% 92.9% - 89.7% 88.1%
Yugoslavia (urban) 1961 - 42.4% 34.5% - 22.5%
European households with at least one car, 1978[31]
Country %
Belgium 69.9%
Denmark 57.0%
France 66.9%
West Germany 62.6%
Ireland 65.1%
Italy 69.1%
Netherlands 67.2%
United Kingdom 54.4%
Housing tenure, 1980–1990[32]
Country Year Public rental Private rental Owner-occupied
Australia 1988 5% 25% 70%
Belgium 1986 6% 30% 62%
Denmark 1990 21% 21% 58%
France 1990 17% 30% 53%
Germany 1990 25% 38% 37%
Ireland 1990 14% 9% 78%
Italy 1990 5% 24% 64%
Netherlands 1988 43% 13% 44%
Spain 1989 1% 11% 88%
United Kingdom 1990 27% 7% 66%
United States 1980 2% 32% 66%
EEC households with a garden, 1963–64[33]
Country %
Belgium 58%
France 47%
Italy 17%
Netherlands 21%
Germany 45%
Luxembourg 81%
Households with durable goods, 1962[34]
Country Television Vacuum cleaner Washing machine Refrigerator Car
France 25% 32% 31% 37% 33%
Great Britain 78% 71% 43% 22% 30%
United States 87% 75% 95% 98% 75%

Housing conditionsEdit

BelgiumEdit

A 1961–62 National Housing Institute survey estimated that 13.8 percent of Belgian dwellings were unfit and incapable of improvement. A further 19.5 percent were unfit but had the potential to be improved, and 54 percent were considered suitable (without alteration or improvement) for modern living standards. Seventy-four percent of dwellings lacked a shower or bath, 19 percent had inadequate sewage disposal, and 3.6 percent lacked a drinking-water supply; 36.8 percent had an indoor water closet.[35] According to a 1964 study, 13 percent of Belgium's housing consisted of slums.[36]

FranceEdit

Between 1954 and 1973, the percentage of French homes with a shower or bath increased from 10 to 65 percent. During that period, the percentage of homes without flush toilets fell from 73 to 30 percent; homes without running water fell from 42 to 3.4 percent. A 1948 law permitted gradual, long-term rent increases for existing flats on the condition that part of the money was spent on repairs. According to John Ardagh, the law, "vigorously applied, was partly successful in its twofold aim: to encourage both repairs and new building."[37]

United KingdomEdit

After World War II, a large percentage of British housing was single-family housing. Seventy-eight percent of housing in 1961 consisted of single-family homes, compared to 56 percent in the Netherlands, 49 percent in West Germany and 32 percent in France.[38] In England and Wales in 1964, 6.6 percent of housing units had two or fewer rooms; 5.8 percent had seven or more rooms, 15.2 percent had six rooms, 35.1 percent had five rooms, 26.3 percent had four rooms, and 11.1 percent had three rooms. These figures included kitchens when they were used for eating meals. Fifty percent of 1964 housing had three bedrooms; 1.9 percent had five or more bedrooms, 6.2 percent had four bedrooms, 10.5 percent had one bedroom or none, and 31.3 percent had two bedrooms. A 1960 social survey estimated that 0.6 percent of households in England and Wales exceeded the statutory overcrowding standard; the 1964 percentage was 0.5 percent. In 1964, 6.9 of all households exceeded one person per room. The 1960 figure was 11 percent, with 1.75 percent having two or more bedrooms below the standard and 9.25 percent having one bedroom below the standard. This declined slightly by 1964 to 9.4 percent of households below the standard, with 8.1 percent having one bedroom below the standard and 1.3 percent having two bedrooms or more below the standard. According to local authorities in 1965, five percent of the housing stock in England and Wales was unfit for habitation.[39]

U.S. and CanadaEdit

Housing conditions improved in Canada and the U.S. after World War II. In the U.S., 35.4 percent of all 1950 dwellings did not have complete plumbing facilities; the figure fell to 16.8 percent in 1960 and 8.4 percent in 1968. In Canada from 1951 to 1971, the percentage of dwellings with a bath or shower increased from 60.8 to 93.4 percent; the percentage of dwellings with hot and cold running water increased from 56.9 to 93.5 percent.[30] In the United States from 1950 to 1974, the percentage of housing without full plumbing fell from 34 to three percent; during that period, the percentage of housing stock considered dilapidated fell from nine percent to less than four.[40]

See alsoEdit

Other sourcesEdit

  • The Economist Book Of Vital World Statistics: A Complete Guide To The World In Figures (introduction by Claus Moser). The Economist Books, fourth reprint, paperback edition, October 1992. Contains a section, "Consumer Durables", with estimates of household ownership of a wide range of consumer durables in OECD and East European countries.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Haviland, William A. (2003). Anthropology. Wadsworth/Thomson Learning. ISBN 978-0-534-61020-3.
  2. ^ Hemakumara, Gpts; Ranasinghe, W. C. (2018-06-30). "Spatial modelling of the householders' perception and assessment of the potentiality to improve the urban green coverage in residential areas: A case study from Issadeen Town Matara, Sri Lanka". Ruhuna Journal of Science. 9 (1). ISSN 2536-8400.
  3. ^ O'Sullivan, Arthur; Steven M. Sheffrin (2003). Economics: Principles in action. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458: Pearson Prentice-Hall. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-13-063085-8. Archived from the original on 2016-12-20.
  4. ^ "National Statistics" (PDF). Statistics.gov.uk\accessdate=2015-05-17. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-06-26.
  5. ^ "UK Housing Act 2004" (PDF). See section 258 on p. 201.
  6. ^ "Single Household: brief summary of HA 2004 definition". Flat Justice: Helping Tenants to Get Rent Back.
  7. ^ "Households". Quickfacts.census.gov. 2015-03-24. Archived from the original on 2015-04-27. Retrieved 2015-05-17.
  8. ^ "U.S. Census: Current Population Survey – Definitions and Explanations". Census.gov. Archived from the original on 2012-03-22. Retrieved 2012-03-24.
  9. ^ "Households, Persons Per Household, and Households with Individuals Under 18 Years, 2000". Census.gov. 2011-05-29. Archived from the original on 2011-05-29. Retrieved 2019-08-28.
  10. ^ "Statistical unit – Household". Statcan.gc.ca. 2012-02-23. Archived from the original on 2011-07-14. Retrieved 2012-03-24.
  11. ^ Muriuki, Andrew Mburu (2007). "The role of household environment on health outcomes for female adolescents in Kenya". University of Missouri-Columbia. OCLC 183405613. Archived from the original on 2016-01-07. Retrieved 2015-10-13. Pdf. Archived 2017-01-02 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ Dhungel, Basundhara (14 May 2001). "A study of Nepalese families' paid and unpaid work after migration to Australia". University of Sydney. OCLC 271516251. Archived from the original on 7 January 2016. Retrieved 2014-09-25. Pdf. Archived 2013-05-12 at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ Pierson, John; Thomas, Martin (2002). Collins dictionary of social work. Glasgow, UK: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-00-714396-2.
  14. ^ "Tributes paid to Professor Ray Pahl". University of Essex. 8 June 2011. Archived from the original on 7 January 2016.
  15. ^ Pahl, Ray (1984). Divisions of labour. Oxford New York: Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-13274-5.
  16. ^ "household work strategy – Dictionary definition of household work strategy | Encyclopedia.com: FREE online dictionary". encyclopedia.com. Archived from the original on 2011-09-11. Retrieved 2012-03-24.
  17. ^ Russell Hochschild, Arlie; Machung, Anne (2003). The second shift: working families and the revolution at home. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 9780142002926
  18. ^ Russell Hochschild, Arlie (2001). The time bind: when work becomes home and home becomes work. New York: Henry Holt & Co. ISBN 9780805066432
  19. ^ Young, Cathy (12 June 2000). "The Mama Lion at the Gate". Salon.com. Salon. Archived from the original on 11 February 2012. Retrieved 2008-07-08.
  20. ^ a b "A social portrait of Europe – Population and social conditions – EU Bookshop". bookshop.europa.eu. 1992-02-18. Retrieved 2014-09-25.
  21. ^ "Report on Housing". Coe.int. Archived from the original on 2012-05-08. Retrieved 2012-03-24.
  22. ^ a b c Wynn, Martin, ed. (1984). Housing in Europe. Croom Helm. ISBN 978-0-312-39351-9.[page needed]
  23. ^ European Commission; Oxley, Michael; Smith, Jacqueline (1996). Housing Policy and Rented Housing in Europe. E & F Spon. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-419-20720-7.
  24. ^ Ōmae, Ken'ichi (1995). The End of the Nation State: The Rise of Regional Economies. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0-02-923341-2.[page needed]
  25. ^ Simon, Julian (1996). The State of Humanity. Wiley. p. 244. ISBN 978-1-55786-585-4.
  26. ^ a b Couch, Chris (1985). Housing Conditions in Britain and Germany. Anglo-German Foundation for the Study of Industrial Society. ISBN 978-0-905492-42-1.[page needed]
  27. ^ Lansley, Stewart (1979-). Housing and Public Policy. Croom Helm. ISBN 978-0-7099-0052-8. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  28. ^ Howenstine, Emanuel Jay (1985). Housing Vouchers: A Comparative International Analysis. Transaction Publishers. p. 46. ISBN 978-1-4128-5049-0.
  29. ^ a b Stafford, D. C. (1978). The Economics of Housing Policy. Croom Helm. ISBN 978-0-85664-159-6.[page needed]
  30. ^ a b c d e Karn, Valerie Ann (1973). Housing standards and costs: a comparison of British standards and costs with those in the U.S.A., Canada, and Europe. University of Birmingham. ISBN 978-0-7044-0053-5.[page needed]
  31. ^ Dawson, John (2014). Commercial Distribution in Europe. Routledge. p. 62. ISBN 978-1-317-59886-2.
  32. ^ Hill, Michael James (1996). Social Policy: A Comparative Analysis. Prentice-Hall/Harvester Wheatsheaf. ISBN 978-0-13-353905-9.[page needed]
  33. ^ Sampson, Anthony (1971). The new Europeans: a guide to the workings, institutions and character of contemporary Western Europe. Panther.[page needed]
  34. ^ Logemann, J. (2012-07-16). The Development of Consumer Credit in Global Perspective: Business, Regulation, and Culture. Palgrave Macmillan US. p. 194. ISBN 978-1-137-06207-9.
  35. ^ Watson, Christopher John (1971). Social housing policy in Belgium. University of Birmingham.[page needed]
  36. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-10-29. Retrieved 2016-10-29.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  37. ^ Ardagh, John (1979). The New France: A Society in Transition, 1945–1977. Penguin.[page needed]
  38. ^ Kertzer, David I.; Barbagli, Marzio (2003). Family Life in the Twentieth Century. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-09494-7.
  39. ^ Holman, Robert (1970). Socially deprived families in Britain. Bedford Square P. of the National Council of Social Service. ISBN 0-7199-0795-0. OCLC 103175.[page needed]
  40. ^ Brown, Clair (1994). American Standards of Living: 1918–1988. Wiley. p. 298. ISBN 978-1-55786-371-3.

External linksEdit