Sulu (locally [sʊˈlu]; Tausūg: Wilāya sin Lupa' Sūg; Tagalog: Lalawigan ng Sulu) is a province of the Philippines in the Sulu Archipelago and part of the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (BARMM).

Sulu
  • Lupa' Sūg
Province of Sulu
Sulu Provincial Capitol Building in Jolo
Sulu Provincial Capitol Building in Jolo
Flag of Sulu
Official seal of Sulu
Location in the Philippines
Location in the Philippines
OpenStreetMap
Coordinates: 6°N 121°E / 6°N 121°E / 6; 121Coordinates: 6°N 121°E / 6°N 121°E / 6; 121
CountryPhilippines
RegionBangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao
FoundedMarch 10, 1917
Capital
Government
 • TypeSangguniang Panlalawigan
 • GovernorAbdusakur M. Tan
 • Vice GovernorAbdusakur A. Tan II
Area
 • Total1,600.40 km2 (617.92 sq mi)
Area rank66th out of 81
Highest elevation811 m (2,661 ft)
Population
 (2020 census) [3]
 • Total1,000,108
 • Rank33rd out of 81
 • Density620/km2 (1,600/sq mi)
 • Density rank10th out of 81
Divisions
 • Independent cities0
 • Component cities0
 • Municipalities
 • Barangays410
 • Districts1st and 2nd districts of Sulu
Time zoneUTC+8 (PHT)
ZIP code
7400–7416
IDD:area code+63 (0)68
ISO 3166 codePH-SLU
Spoken languages
Income classification2nd class

Its capital is Jolo on the island of the same name.[4] Maimbung, the royal capital of the Sultanate of Sulu, is also located in the province. Sulu is along the southern border of the Sulu Sea and the northern boundary of the Celebes Sea.

HistoryEdit

Pre-Spanish and Spanish erasEdit

Prior to the arrival of Islam in Sulu, the province used to adhere to local animist religions; this later changed to Hindu and Buddhist belief systems. Throughout this time, the Kingdom of Lupah Sug had been established centuries before Islam arrived.

The advent of Islam around 1138 through merchants and traders had a distinct influence on Southeast Asia. The coming of Arabs, Persians and other Muslims paved the way for the arrival of religious missionaries, traders, scholars and travelers to Sulu and Mindanao in the 12th century.

 
Painting of Sulu home & coconut plantation

A landmark born of the social process was the founding of the Sultanate of Sulu. Year 1380 CE, Karim-ul Makhdum came to Sulu and introduced Islam to the Philippines. In 1450 CE, Johore-born Arab adventurer Sayyid Abubakar Abirin came to Sulu and lived with Rajah Baguinda Ali. Sayyid Abubakar eventually married Ali's daughter, Dayang-dayang Paramisuli, and inherited Rajah Baguinda's polity (which was a principality before), which he turned into the Sultanate of Sulu and become its first Sultan. To consolidate his rule, Sayyid Abubakar united the local political units under the umbrella of the Sultanate. He brought Sulu, Zamboanga Peninsula, Palawan, and Basilan under its aegis.

The navigational error that landed Ferdinand Magellan in Limasawa brought awareness of Europe to the Philippines and opened the door to Spanish colonial incursion. The Spaniards introduced Catholicism and a political system of church-state dichotomy, which encountered fierce resistance in the devastating Moro wars from 1578 to 1899. The Sultanate of Sulu formally recognised Spanish sovereignty in Tawi-Tawi and Sulu in middle of 19th century, but these areas remained partially ruled by the Spanish as their sovereignty was limited to military stations, garrisons, and pockets of civilian settlements, until they had to abandon the region as a consequence of their defeat in the Spanish–American War.

American and Japanese erasEdit

After Spain ceded the Philippines to the United States, American forces came to Jolo and ended the 23 years of Spanish military occupation (1876 to 1899). On August 20, Sultan Jamalul Kiram II and Brig. Gen. John C. Bates signed the Bates Agreement that continued the gradual emasculation of the Sultanate started by Spain (Treaty of 1878) until March 1915 when the Sultan abdicated his temporal powers in the Carpenter Agreement. The Agreement eliminated opposition to the civilian government of Gov. Clinton Solidum.

 
Sulu in 1918, which covered the current province of Tawi-Tawi

The Department of Mindanao and Sulu under Gov. Carpenter was created by Philippine Commission Act 2309 (1914) and ended on February 5, 1920, by Act of Philippine Legislature No. 2878. The Bureau of Non-Christian Tribes was organized and briefly headed by Teofisto Guingona Sr. With the enactment by the US Congress of the Jones Law (Philippine Autonomy Law) in 1916, ultimate Philippine independence was guaranteed and the Filipinization of public administration began. Sulu, however, had an appointed American governor until 1935, and the Governor General in Manila had a say in Sulu affairs.

At any rate, the essence of local governance forged by Rajah Baguinda continued to permeate the ethos of Sulu politics despite centuries of colonial presence. History points to a local government in Sulu that antedates other similar systems in the country.

The province hosted the Daru Jambangan (Palace of Flowers) which was the royal palace of the Sultan of Sulu since historical times. The palace, located in Maimbung was made of wood, and was destroyed in 1932 by a huge storm.

During the brief Japanese occupation years, Sulu was bombed by the Japanese and was conquered afterwards. The Japanese were eventually expelled by the Americans and the natives of Sulu, and the Americans started to push for the independence of the Philippines as 'one country'. This prompted various leaders from Mindanao and the Sulu archipelago to campaign against being lumped with the Catholic natives of Luzon and the Visayas. Despite the campaign against the 'one Philippines model', the United States granted independence to the Philippines, effectively giving control of Mindanao and the Sulu archipelago to the Filipino government in Manila.

 
Daru Jambangan (Palace of Flowers) in Maimbung before it was destroyed by a typhoon. The palace was the seat of the Sultanate of Sulu's reigning monarch for generations.

Postwar eraEdit

At the beginning of Philippine independence era, the reconstruction of the Daru Jambangan continued to be of huge importance to the people of Sulu as only a few arches and posts remain from the once grand palace complex. Many members of the royal family advocated for the reconstruction of the palace, however, the government of the Philippines made no official position or fund for the matter. During that time, the Mindanao sentiment to become a free country on its own was also felt in Sulu.

In 1948, Hadji Kamlon, a World War II veteran, started an uprising on Luuk, Sulu. He surrendered in 1949 but started another uprising in 1952. He then surrendered on 31 July 1952 to Secretary of Defense Ramon Magsaysay. However, he started a third uprising a week later. He surrendered again on 9 November 1952 but would start another uprising in early 1953. He would then surrender on 11 August 1953 after an encounter with Philippines Government troops. He violated the terms of his surrender a week later. Two years later, on 24 September 1955, he would then surrender after an encounter with government troops in Tandu Panuan, Luuk.

In 1973, the municipalities of South Ubian, Tandubas, Simunul, Sitangkai, Balimbing (Panglima Sugala), Bungao, Cagayan de Sulu (Mapun), and Turtle Island were transferred from the jurisdiction of Sulu to the newly formed province of Tawi-Tawi pursuant to Presidential Decree No. 302 of September 11, 1973.[5]

The Marcos dictatorshipEdit

During Marcos era, Sulu was one of the provinces that fought back against Ferdinand Marcos as he tortured, killed, and exterminated hundreds of Moros. When news broke out regarding the planned invasion of eastern Sabah, Marcos ordered the military to massacre Tausug warriors, which led to the brutal 1968 Jabidah massacre, the worst human rights violation against the natives of Sulu.

News about the Jabidah Massacre led to the rise of numerous separatist movements in Mindanao, including Sulu, eventually leading to groups engaging in armed conflict with the Philippine government.[6][7] One of the most destructive clashes, the 1974 Battle of Jolo,[8] was so destructive that it was estimated to have rendered 40,000 people homeless in Jolo, the capital of Sulu.[9]

The Sultan of Sulu, members of the royal family, and the leaders of Sulu were in favor of the People Power Revolution in Manila that successfully toppled the dictatorship and restored democracy in the country.

Autonomy and recent historyEdit

In 1989, the province of Sulu became part of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao or ARMM. A peace pact between the Moro National Liberation Front or MNLF and the Philippine government was also made. The founder and leader of the MNLF, Nur Misuari, who was a native of Sulu and adhered to the Sultanate of Sulu, became the governor of the entire ARMM from 1996 to 2001.

In 2016, a small replica of Daru Jambangan was built in the neighboring town of Talipao and became a centerpiece for a 'vacation park'. The replica was about 25% of the actual size of the real Daru Jambangan during its heyday. A campaign to restore the Daru Jambangan in its original location in Maimbung is still ongoing. The National Commission for Culture and the Arts and the National Museum of the Philippines were tasked to faithfully restore or reconstruct the Daru Jambangan in Maimbung.[10]

In 2019, the Bangsamoro autonomy plebiscite led to the ratification of the Bangsamoro Organic Law (BOL) creating the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (BARMM) to replace the ARMM. The initiative lost by a 54.3% margin in Sulu, but was carried nonetheless because the votes of the entire ARMM were counted as one. (Several other localities in Mindanao which had not originally been part of the ARMM also ratified the BOL and were thus added to the BARMM.)[11]

GeographyEdit

 
Jolo and its adjacent islets seen from space

The province covers an area of 1,600.40 square kilometres (617.92 sq mi).[2] Sulu's main island, Jolo, has an area of 868.5 square kilometres (335.3 sq mi),[12] making it the 16th largest island of the Philippine Archipelago by area.

Sulu is a part of the Sulu Archipelago, which stretches from the tip of the Zamboanga Peninsula on the north to the island of Borneo in the south. The main island and its islets are situated between the island-provinces of Basilan to the northeast, and Tawi-Tawi to the southwest. Sulu is bordered by two seas; the Sulu Sea to the north, and the Celebes Sea to its south. Sulu has over 157 islets, some of which remain unnamed.[1]

The islands are organized into four groups:[1]

  • Jolo group
  • Pangutaran group
  • Tongkil-Banguingui (Samales) group
  • Siasi-Tapul group

Administrative divisionsEdit

Sulu comprises 19 municipalities that are organized into two legislative districts and further subdivided into 410 barangays.

Political map

DemographicsEdit

Population census of Sulu
YearPop.±% p.a.
1903 73,914—    
1918 127,977+3.73%
1939 201,348+2.18%
1948 182,295−1.10%
1960 248,304+2.61%
1970 315,421+2.42%
1975 240,001−5.33%
1980 360,588+8.48%
1990 469,971+2.69%
1995 536,201+2.50%
2000 619,668+3.15%
2007 849,670+4.45%
2010 718,290−5.93%
2015 824,731+2.67%
2020 1,000,108+3.86%
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority [14][15][17]

The population of Sulu in the 2020 census was 1,000,108 people, [3] with a density of 620 inhabitants per square kilometre or 1,600 inhabitants per square mile.

Although consisting of a mixed community of Muslims, the Tausugs dominate the Sulu Archipelago. The Tausug were among the first inhabitants of the Philippines to embrace Islam as a religion and a way of life. They are referred to as ‘people of the current’, reflective of their close ties to the sea. The Tausug language is the lingua franca of Sulu. The other local language is the indigenous Sama, which is widely used in varied tones and accents. This variety led to the development of Sinama dialects. The major ones are Sinama Sibutu (spoken mainly in the Sibutu-Sitangkai Region), Sinama Simunul (concentrated in Simunul-Manuk-Mangkaw Islands), Sinama Kapoan (spoken in the South Ubian-Tandubas and Sapa-Sapa Regions) and Sinama Banguingui (concentrated in Buan Island and spoken by Banguingui people).

The Bajau-Sama language is also spoken, as are the official languages of Tagalog (Filipino) and English. Many locals and barter traders can speak Sabah Malay, while Chavacano is also spoken by Christian and Muslim locals who maintain contacts and trade with the mainland Zamboanga Peninsula and Basilan. Many Muslims can also speak Cebuano because of the mass influx of Cebuano settlers to Mindanao, especially among the Tau Sūg since Tausug is a related Visayan language.

ReligionEdit

 
Tulay Mosque in Jolo

Sulu inhabitants are predominantly Muslim, constituting about 99%[18] of the provincial population in 2015.

A majority of Sulu's Muslim population practice Sunni Islam of the Shafi'i tradition, as taught by Arab, Persian, Indian Muslim, Chinese Muslim and Malaccan missionaries from the 14th Century onwards.

Relatively newer Islamic sects, mostly brought by returning veterans of the Afghan wars and missionaries from Pakistan's stricter Sufi traditions, referred to as the Tableegh, have been active in propagating what they believe to be a "purer" Islamic way of life and worship. A very small number who have since married into Iranian or Iraqi families have converted to Shiite Islam.

The majority of Sulu Christians are Roman Catholics.[1] They are under the jurisdiction of Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Zamboanga through its suffragan Apostolic Vicariate of Jolo. Non-Catholic Christians include Evangelicals, Jesus Miracle Crusade, Episcopalian, Iglesia ni Cristo (INC), Mormons, Seventh-day Adventists, Jehovah's Witnesses, and a number of other Protestant denominations. Only the most recent Chinese immigrants adhere to Buddhism or Taoism, while most of the older Chinese families have acculturated and have either converted to Christianity or Islam while retaining many of their Chinese beliefs.

LanguagesEdit

  • Tausug
  • Pangutaran Sama
  • Balangingih Sama
  • Yakan
  • Southern Sama
  • Central Sama
  • Mapun
  • Batak
  • Palawan Batak
  • Central Subanen
  • Western Subanon
  • Kolibugan Subanen

GovernmentEdit

Governors after People Power Revolution 1986:

  • 1986 - 1989: Habib Loong
  • 1989 - 1992: Habib Loong
  • 1992 - 1995: Habib Loong
  • 1995 - 1998: Abdusakur Mahail Tan
  • 1998 - 2001: Abdusakur Tan
  • 2001 - 2004: Yusop Jikiri
  • 2004 - 2007: Benjamin Loong
  • 2007 - 2010: Abdusakur Tan
  • 2010 - 2013: Abdusakur Tan
  • 2013 - 2016: Abdusakur Tan II
  • 2016 - 2019: Abdusakur Tan II
  • 2019 - present: Abdusakur Tan

Vice Governors after People Power Revolution 1986:

  • 1986 - 1989,
  • 1989 - 1992: Kimar Tulawie
  • 1992 - 1995:
  • 1995 - 1998,
  • 1998 - 2001: Munib Estino
  • 2001 - 2004: Abdel Anni
  • 2004 - 2007: Nur-Ana Sahidulla
  • 2007 - 2010: Nur-Ana Sahidulla
  • 2010 - 2013: Benjamin Loong
  • 2013 - 2016: Abdusakur Tan
  • 2016 - 2019: Nurunisah Tan
  • 2019 - present: Abdusakur Tan II

EconomyEdit

Sulu is predominantly agricultural with farming and fishing as its main livelihood activities. Its fertile soil and ideal climate can grow a variety of crops such as abaca, coconuts, Sulu coffee,[26] oranges, and lanzones as well as exotic fruits seldom found elsewhere in the country such as durian and mangosteen.

Fishing is the most important industry since the Sulu Sea is one of the richest fishing grounds in the country. The province also has an extensive pearl industry, with a pearl farm on Marungas Island. The backs of sea turtles are made into beautiful trays and combs. During breaks from fishing, the people build boats and weave mats. Other industries include coffee processing and fruit preservation.

The handicrafts of Sulu have both Islamic and Malay influences. Skilled artisans make boats, bladed weapons, bronze and brassware, pis cloth, embroidered textiles, shellcraft, traditional house carvings, and carved wooden grave markers.

The province used to be one of the most prosperous in the southern Philippines. However, due to conflicts, terrorism, and the establishment of jihadists groups such as the Abu Sayyaf, the province's economy has suffered badly and has been reduced to its current state.

Notable peopleEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e "Brief Profile". Province of Sulu, Philippines. Archived from the original on 26 February 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2016. Various government agencies report varying land areas for Sulu. According to the National Mapping and Resources Information Authority, Sulu has a total land area of 160,040 hectares. On the other hand, based on the Philippine Statistics Authority (NSO) 2000 Demographic and Socio-Economic profile, the province has a land area of 1,754.6.
  2. ^ a b Province of Sulu: Brief Profile Archived 2011-02-26 at the Wayback Machine (There seems to be major discrepancies among authoritative sources: 343,699 ha (NSCB 2007), 175,460 ha (NSCB 2000), 167,377 ha (NAMRIA))
  3. ^ a b Census of Population (2020). Highlights of the Philippine Population 2020 Census of Population. PSA. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
  4. ^ "Jolo Branch Museum". National Museum. Retrieved February 22, 2020.
  5. ^ "Presidential Decree No. 302, s. 1973 | GOVPH". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved 2021-09-14.
  6. ^ Majul, Cesar A. (1985). The Contemporary Muslim Movement in the Philippines. Mizan Press. p. 45.
  7. ^ Yegar, Moshe (2002). Between Integration and Secession: The Muslim Communities of the Southern Philippines, Southern Thailand and Western Burma/Myanmar. Lexington Books. pp. 267–268.
  8. ^ "ARMM gov: Martial Law killings a 'painful part of our history as Moros'". The Philippine Star. September 24, 2018. Archived from the original on September 24, 2018. Retrieved October 6, 2019.
  9. ^ Cal, Ben (September 11, 2013). "MNLF's first try to raise flag was 39 years ago". Manila Bulletin. Philippine News Agency. Retrieved November 20, 2014.
  10. ^ "Talipao, Sulu: Sleeping Like a Sultan at the Royal Palace Replica -".
  11. ^ "Comelec ratifies Bangsamoro Organic Law". BusinessMirror. Retrieved 2019-01-27.
  12. ^ "Islands by Land Area". Island Directory Tables. United Nations Environment Programme. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
  13. ^ a b "Province: Sulu". PSGC Interactive. Quezon City, Philippines: Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
  14. ^ a b Census of Population (2015). Highlights of the Philippine Population 2015 Census of Population. PSA. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
  15. ^ a b Census of Population and Housing (2010). Population and Annual Growth Rates for The Philippines and Its Regions, Provinces, and Highly Urbanized Cities (PDF). NSO. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
  16. ^ "PSGC Interactive; List of Provinces". Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved 18 April 2016.
  17. ^ Census of Population and Housing (2010). "ARMM – Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. NSO. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
  18. ^ Philippine Statistics Authority (July 26, 2017). "Muslim Population in Mindanao (based on POPCEN 2015". Retrieved Aug 31, 2018.
  19. ^ "Poverty incidence (PI):". Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved 28 December 2020.
  20. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/NSCB_LocalPovertyPhilippines_0.pdf; publication date: 29 November 2005; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  21. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/2009%20Poverty%20Statistics.pdf; publication date: 8 February 2011; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  22. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/Table%202.%20%20Annual%20Per%20Capita%20Poverty%20Threshold%2C%20Poverty%20Incidence%20and%20Magnitude%20of%20Poor%20Population%2C%20by%20Region%20and%20Province%20%20-%202006%2C%202009%2C%202012%20and%202015.xlsx; publication date: 27 August 2016; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  23. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/Table%202.%20%20Annual%20Per%20Capita%20Poverty%20Threshold%2C%20Poverty%20Incidence%20and%20Magnitude%20of%20Poor%20Population%2C%20by%20Region%20and%20Province%20%20-%202006%2C%202009%2C%202012%20and%202015.xlsx; publication date: 27 August 2016; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  24. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/Table%202.%20%20Annual%20Per%20Capita%20Poverty%20Threshold%2C%20Poverty%20Incidence%20and%20Magnitude%20of%20Poor%20Population%2C%20by%20Region%20and%20Province%20%20-%202006%2C%202009%2C%202012%20and%202015.xlsx; publication date: 27 August 2016; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  25. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/Table%202.%20%20Updated%20Annual%20Per%20Capita%20Poverty%20Threshold%2C%20Poverty%20Incidence%20and%20Magnitude%20of%20Poor%20Population%20with%20Measures%20of%20Precision%2C%20by%20Region%20and%20Province_2015%20and%202018.xlsx; publication date: 4 June 2020; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  26. ^ "The untold heritage of Sulu's fascinating coffee culture". cnn.

External linksEdit

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