This article's lead section may be too long for the length of the article. (June 2019)
The Iraqi people, sometimes colloquially, Mesopotamians, or the people of Mesopotamia (Arabic: العراقيون ʿIrāqiyyūn, Kurdish: گهلی عیراق Îraqîyan, Classical Syriac: ܥܡܐ ܥܝܪܩܝܐ ʿIrāqāyā, Turkish: Iraklılar) are people native to the modern country of Iraq, living either inside or outside of the country.
Ancient Iraq is referred to as Mesopotamia and has throughout its history been a multiethnic and multicultural region. Historically, ancient peoples who inhabited Iraq were the Sumerians and Babylonians to the south, Akkadians in the central-south and Assyrians to the north of the country. An Arab population has been present in the country as early as the second or third century BC, about four centuries before the Islamic conquest in the seventh century. The earliest known recorded language in history is the Sumerian language, originating in southern Iraq (Sumer-Babylonia). During the third millennium BC, a very intimate cultural symbiosis developed between the Sumerians of the south and the Akkadians to further north in central Mesopotamia, in which there was very widespread bilingualism of both peoples able to speak the Sumerian and Akkadian languages. The Syriac language (which originated in Mesopotamia), as well as Christianity, has been present in Iraq since the first century, which was introduced by Thomas the Apostle. Christians in Iraq are one of the world's oldest continuous communities in the world, and after Palestine/Israel, Iraq is the location of the most biblical history than any other country in the world. Before the advent of Islam to Iraq, the majority of the population who inhabited Iraq followed various branches of Eastern Christianity, Judaism or indigenous ancient Mesopotamian religions. The pre-Islamic people of Iraq included people from various ethnic groups in Mesopotamia; and the majority of them spoke the Syriac language, despite not all being ethnic Syriacs, Assyrians or Christians. Syriac Christianity first emerged in Upper Mesopotamia and the Nestorian Church (Church of the East) and its successor churches were established in the major ancient Mesopotamian Greek-Persian city of Seleucia-Ctesiphon in central-southern Iraq. The first Arab kingdom outside Arabia was established in Northern Iraq in the second century and was called the Kingdom of Araba. Additionally, the Lakhmids were Arabs present in parts of central-southern Mesopotamia from the third century until the Islamic conquest. The Lakhmids were Nestorian Christians following Syriac Christianity, and were bilingual in both Syriac and Arabic, and contributed greatly to the Church of the East. Iraq boasts a rich and vital contribution to Christian history, in particular Eastern and Syriac Christianity, which has been the most dominant branch of Christianity in Iraq since its establishment for over fifteen centuries, and is one of the largest in the greater Fertile Crescent region (Mesopotamia and the Levant) as a whole. The Lakhmids of Mesopotamia have also played a key role in Arab history; it was in the Arab Syriac Christian capital of Al-Hirah where the alphabet of the Arabic language was standardised. Additionally, during the Arab and Islamic Golden Age, Iraq and the capital Baghdad became the centre of the scientific world for centuries, where the people of the region excelled in the development of medicine, biology, physics, chemistry, astronomy, mathematics, agriculture, economics, architecture, sociology, literature, art, poetry and philosophy, and included not only Arabs and Muslims, but also Persians, Syriacs, Christians, Nestorians, Assyrians and others from various ethnoreligious backgrounds, which formed an integral part in the cultivation of Arab civilization, of which Iraq and its cultural diversity has played a key and major role in.
Following the Islamic conquest of Mesopotamia in the seventh century, a large proportion of the indigenous Syriac, Persian and other non-Arabic speaking people of Iraq (who largely practiced Eastern Christianity, Judaism or ancient Mesopotamian religions) became Muslims and were Arabized, eventually adopting the Arab identity with their religion, despite the majority of them not being ethnic Arabs. Along with the Arabized Mesopotamian natives, the minor migrations that took place during the rule of successive Islamic dynasties, and the pre-Islamic Arabs who had lived in the country centuries before, the Arabic-speaking people of Iraq would eventually become the present-day Iraqi Arab ethnic group. Despite Arabization of a large proportion of the Mesopotamians, a Christian group of indigenous people from Mesopotamia, resisted Islamization as well as Arabization, retaining their Syriac Christian religion and language to this day. This group would become the present-day Chaldo-Assyrian peoples of Iraq, who make up the majority of Iraqi Christians. Mesopotamian Arabic developed as the dominant language in the country, and is a Syriac substrate, and also shares significant influences from ancient Mesopotamian languages of Akkadian, Sumerian and Babylonian, as well as other local and Middle Eastern languages such as Persian, Turkish and Greek. Mesopotamian Arabic is said to be the most Syriac influenced dialect of Arabic, due to Syriac having originated in Mesopotamia, and spread throughout the Middle East (Fertile Crescent) during the Mesopotamian Neo-Assyrian period, eventually becoming the lingua franca of the entire region for centuries before the spread of the Arabic language. Mesopotamian Arabs and Assyrians are the largest Semitic peoples of Iraq, sharing significant similarities in language between Mesopotamian Arabic and Syriac, and Kurds are the largest Iranic ethnic group, sharing similarities in language with the other Iranic peoples in the country, such as the Yazidis and Shabaks. Iraqi Turkmen are the largest Turkic ethnic group in the country. Studies indicate that the different ethnoreligious groups of Iraq and Mesopotamia share significant similarities in genetics, and that Iraqi Mesopotamian Arabs, who make up the majority of Iraqis, are more genetically related to other non-Arab populations in the region such as Assyrians, Kurds, Iranians and Turks, than they are to Arabs of the Arabian peninsula.
Iraq today remains one of the most multicultural countries in the region, with various indigenous peoples, as well as a diverse number of diasporic communities from around the world who have chosen to make Iraq their home. The population was estimated to be 40,194,216 in 2018 (residing in Iraq), and over 10 million living in the diaspora, with most of the population being Mesopotamian Arab (75%), followed by Kurds (20%), Chaldo-Assyrians (10-15%) (500,000+ (in Iraq) to 2 million in total with diaspora numbers), Turkmen (3 million), Afro-Iraqis (1 million), Yazidis (500,000-900,000) and Shabaks (300,000-500,000). Other minorities include Iraqi-Armenians, Mandeans, Yarsans, Doms and Kawliya (Indian descent), Ajam (Persian descent), Circassians and Chechens (North Caucasian descent) and others. Iraqis are 64% Shia Muslim, 31% Sunni Muslim, 10-15% Christian (majority of whom are Syriacs but also Greek Orthodox and Melkite Catholic Arabs), 1.4% Yazidi, and several other indigenous faiths. The most spoken languages are Mesopotamian Arabic (which is taught and spoken by all those living in Iraq), Kurdish, Syriac and Iraqi Turkmen of the Turkish language. The percentages of different ethnoreligious groups residing in Iraq vary from source to source due to the last Iraqi census having taken place over 30 years ago. A new census of Iraq is planned to take place in 2020 in which the populations of each ethnoreligious group in Iraq will be clearly defined.
In ancient and medieval times Mesopotamia was the political and cultural centre of many great empires, such as the Akkadian Empire, Assyria, and Babylonia. The ancient Mesopotamian civilization of Sumer is the oldest known civilization in the world, and thus Iraq is widely known as the cradle of civilization. Iraq remained an important centre of civilization for millennia, up until the Abbasid Caliphate (of which Baghdad was the capital), which was the most advanced empire of the medieval world (see Islamic Golden Age).
One study found that Haplogroup J-M172 originated in northern Iraq. In spite of the importance of this region, genetic studies on the Iraqi people are limited and generally restricted to analysis of classical markers due to Iraq's modern political instability, although there have been several published studies displaying a genealogical connection between all Iraqi peoples and the neighbouring countries, across religious, ethnic and linguistic barriers. Studies indicate the different ethnoreligious groups of Iraq and Mesopotamia share significant similarities in genetics, and that Iraqi Mesopotamian Arabs are more genetically related to other non-Arab populations in the region such as Assyrians, Kurds, Iranians and Turks, as well as Levantines, than they are to Arabs of the Arabian peninsula. There are also significant differences in genetics between Mesopotamian Arabs compared to Arabs from Arabia and from countries like Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Semitic peoples of Iraq and the region, such as Iraqi Arabs and Assyrians are also more genetically related to each other than to non-Semitic populations such as the Indo-European populations like Iranians and Kurds, who are more genetically related, however they are all more closely genetically related that than they are to other members from other countries who speak the same language. The majority of Mesopotamian Arabs are also largely descendants of pre-Islamic indigenous peoples until they adopted the Arab identity in the 7th century during the Islamic conquest, and although Arab migrations may have taken place, they were minor and largely insignificant to the genetic demography of the region. Scientific studies on genetics of the peoples of the region has indicated:
In the 7th century A.D., after the conversion to Islam, the Arabs of the Arabian peninsula conquered large areas, including Mesopotamia and adjacent regions. Arabic became the major language of the region and an Arab nation was established there under Islam. But again, the pre-existing indigenous population, mainly Christian (including Assyrians), did not physically disappear, and the majority must have become part of the Arab population. Looking at the figure, one sees a very large genetic separation between the Arabs of the South - Saudis, Yemenites - and those in the region of Mesopotamia - Jordanian, Iraqi. The latter two groups are much closer genetically to the four non-Arab people of the region that we are interested in (Turk, Iranian, Kurd, Assyrian) than to the Arabs of the Arabian peninsula. As in the case of the Turks in Anatolia, these findings provide a clue that a relatively small number of Arabs from the Arabian peninsula may have carried out the conquest of a region with a much larger population, which included a number of cities, and that although the dominant language, religion and culture changed, the genes of the previous population may not have been significantly diluted and were transmitted to the present population of that region.
The results of these scientific studies lead to the startling realization that Turks, Iranians, Kurds, Iraqis, Jordanians, Lebanese are more closely related genetically to Assyrians than they are to other members of their own respective language families in Asia. These seven groups (and Jews) are genetically close. The great language, cultural and religious differences are not reflected in the most fundamental aspect of their biology - their genes, which are the most accurate indicators of their shared origins and ancestry.
No significant differences in Y-DNA variation were observed among Iraqi Mesopotamian Arabs, Assyrians, or Kurds. Modern genetic studies indicate that Iraqi Arabs and Iraqi Kurds are distantly related, though Iraqi Mesopotamian Arabs are more related to Iraqi-Assyrians than they are to Iraqi Kurds.
For both mtDNA and Y-DNA variation, the large majority of the haplogroups observed in the Iraqi population (H, J, T, and U for the mtDNA, J-M172 and J-M267 for the Y-DNA) are those considered to have originated in Western Asia and to have later spread mainly in Western Eurasia. The Eurasian haplogroups R1b and R1a represent the second most frequent component of the Iraqi Y-chromosome gene pool, the latter suggests that the population movements from Central Asia into modern Iran also influenced Iraq.
Many historians and anthropologists provide strong circumstantial evidence to posit that Iraq's Marsh Arabs share very strong links to the ancient Sumerians—the oldest human civilization in the world and most ancient inhabitants of central-southern Iraq.
The Iraqi-Assyrian population was found to be significantly related to other Iraqis, especially Mesopotamian Arabs, yet due to religious endogamy have developed a distinct genetic profile.
Studies have reported that most Irish and Britons have ancestry to Neolithic farmers who left modern day Iraq, Jordan and Syria 10,000 years ago. Genetic researchers say they have found compelling evidence that, on average, four out of five (80%) Europeans can trace their Y chromosome to the ancient Near East. In another study, scientists analysed DNA from the 8,000-year-old remains of early farmers found at an ancient graveyard in Germany. They compared the genetic signatures to those of modern populations and found similarities with the DNA of people living in today's Turkey and Iraq.
Iraq's national languages are Arabic and the Kurdish languages. Arabic is spoken as a first language by around 79 percent of Iraqi people, and Kurdish by around 17 percent. The two main regional dialects of Arabic spoken by the Iraqi people are Mesopotamian Arabic (spoken in the Babylonian alluvial plain and Middle Euphrates valley) and North Mesopotamian Arabic (spoken in the Assyrian highlands). The two main dialects of Kurdish spoken by Kurdish Iraqis are Central Kurdish (spoken in the Erbil and Sulaymaniyah Governorates) and Northern Kurdish (spoken in Dohuk Governorate). In addition to Arabic, most Assyrians and Mandaeans speak Neo-Aramaic languages.
English is also used and spoken.
Iraq has many devout followers of its religions. In 1968 the Iraqi constitution established Islam as the official religion of the state as the majority of Iraqis (97%) are Muslim (predominantly Shīʻī, but also including minority Sunni).
In addition to Islam, many Iraqi people are Christians belonging to various Christian denominations. The majority of Iraqi Christians are ethnic Chaldo-Assyrians, whilst non-Syriac Christians are mostly Iraqi Arabs and Armenians. Iraqi-Assyrians largely belong to belong to the Syriac Orthodox Church, the Assyrian Church of the East, Chaldean Catholic Church, Ancient Church of the East, and the Syriac Catholic Church. Iraqi Arab Christians belong to the Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch and the Melkite Greek Catholic Church of Antioch, and Iraqi-Armenians belong to the Armenian Orthodox Church and Armenian Catholic Church. Their numbers inside Iraq have dwindled to around 500,000+ following the US invasion of Iraq.
Other religious groups include Mandaeans, Shabaks, Yazidis and followers of other minority religions. Furthermore, Jews had also been present in Iraq in significant numbers historically, and Iraq had the largest Jewish population in the Middle East, but their population dwindled, after virtually all of them migrated to Israel between 1949 and 1952. From 1949 to 1951, 104,000 Jews were evacuated from Iraq in Operations Ezra and Nechemia (named after the Jewish leaders who took their people back to Jerusalem from exile in Babylonia beginning in 597 B.C.E.); another 20,000 were smuggled out through Iran.
Iraqis form one of the largest diasporas in the world. The Iraqi diaspora is not a sudden exodus but one that has grown rapidly through the 20th century as each generation faced some form of radical transition or political conflict. From 1950 to 1952 Iraq saw a great exodus of roughly 120,000 - 130,000 of its Jewish population under the Israel-led "Operation Ezra and Nehemiah". There were at least two large waves of expatriation of both Christians and Muslims alike. A great number of Iraqis left the country during the regime of Saddam Hussein and large numbers have left during the Second Gulf War and its aftermath. The United Nations estimates that roughly 40% of Iraq's remaining and formerly strong middle-class have fled the country following the U.S.-led invasion in 2003.
- "Iraq". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 2009-04-27.
- "NGO's claim Iraqis have hit 2 million in Syria". Retrieved 2010-12-11.
- "500,000 Iraqis in Iran". Retrieved 2010-12-10.
- "Ethnic groups of Turkey". Joshua Project. Retrieved 2010-12-10.
- "As New York's Iraqi Jews sit down for Passover, old traditions bring sadness and hope" (PDF). HighBeam. Archived from the original on 2011-07-16. Retrieved 2003-04-18.
- "The Iraqi Embassy estimates that the Iraqi population is around 350,000-450,000" (PDF). International Organization for Migration. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-16. Retrieved 2010-12-10.
- "Arab American Demographics". Arab American Institute. Archived from the original on 2010-12-02. Retrieved 2010-12-10.
- "Iraqis In Egypt". HRW. Retrieved 2007-08-18.
- Constantine, Zoi (28 August 2008). "UAE Iraqis restricted by passport delays". The National. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
- "Statistics Sweden". Statistics Sweden. Retrieved 2010-12-15.[dead link]
- "Iraqis in Lebanon". aina.org. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2007-08-15.
- "Iraqis In Yemen". HRW. Retrieved 2007-09-08.
- "Australian Iraqi population estimated to be as high as 80,000". The Sydney Morning Herald. 2005-01-22. Retrieved 2010-12-10.
- "United Nations Population Division - Department of Economic and Social Affairs". un.org.
- "Iraqi community in Greece" (PDF). UNHCR. Retrieved 2007-08-14.
- "Bevölkerung zu Jahresbeginn seit 2002 nach detaillierter Staatsangehörigkeit" [Population at the beginning of the year since 2002 by detailed nationality] (PDF). Statistics Austria (in German). 14 June 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
- Barker, Geoff (2012), Iraq, Britannica, p. 23, ISBN 1-61535-637-1
- "Middle East :: Iraq — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". cia.gov.
- "Iraq - Arabs". Encyclopedia Britannica.
- "بوابة الالهه - بلاد الرافدين" (in Arabic). Retrieved 2019-05-02.
- عبدالمهدي Prime Minister of Iraq, عادل (2014-10-21). "( المكتب / افتتاحية صحيفة العدالة ) بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم انقذوا بلاد الرافدين.. بانقاذ الزراعة في 13/8/2011... http://fb.me/6qco8zE2k". @AdilAbdAlMahdi (in Arabic). Retrieved 2019-05-02. External link in
- Press, The Associated (2005-08-28). "Iraqi Constitution: "We the people of Mesopotamia..."". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-05-02.
- "Iraqi – a native or inhabitant of Iraq". Reference.com. Retrieved 2010-12-10.
- "BBC - History - Ancient History in depth: Mesopotamia". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2019-05-02.
- Deutscher, Guy, 1969- (2000). Syntactic change in Akkadian : the evolution of sentential complementation. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. pp. 20–22. ISBN 9780191544835. OCLC 352917905.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- "Northern Iraq - 2017 - page 3" (PDF).
- "Iraq Christian heritage sites condemned to oblivion". MEO. 2018-03-22. Retrieved 2019-05-02.
- Müller-Kessler, Christa (2003). "Aramaic 'K', Lyk' and Iraqi Arabic 'Aku, Maku: The Mesopotamian Particles of Existence". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 123 (3): 641–646. doi:10.2307/3217756. ISSN 0003-0279. JSTOR 3217756.
- Pipes, Daniel; Morony, Michael G. (February 1985). "Iraq after the Muslim Conquest". The American Historical Review. 90 (1): 189. doi:10.2307/1860866. ISSN 0002-8762. JSTOR 1860866.
- Al-Khalili, Jim (2010-09-25). "When Baghdad was centre of the scientific world". The Observer. ISSN 0029-7712. Retrieved 2019-05-07.
- Hill, Donald Routledge. (1993). Islamic science and engineering. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0748604579. OCLC 30541011.
- O'Leary, De Lacy, 1872-1957 (2015-12-22). How Greek science passed to the Arabs. [Place of publication not identified]. p. 748. ISBN 9781317847489. OCLC 1019603086.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- "Who are the Assyrians? 10 Things to Know about their History & Faith". Christianity.com. Retrieved 2019-05-07.
- "Ḥunayn ibn Isḥāq | The Arab Syriac Nestorian Christian scholar during the Arab Golden Age". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2019-05-07.
- "The Genetics of Modern Assyrians and their Relationship to Other People of the Middle East". atour.com. Retrieved 2019-05-10.
- Nadia Al-Zahery; Maria Pala; Vincenza Battaglia; Viola Grugni; Mohammed A. Hamod; Baharak Hooshiar Kashani; Anna Olivieri; Antonio Torroni; Augusta S. Santachiara-Benerecetti; Ornella Semino (2011) (2011). "In search of the genetic footprints of Sumerians: a survey of genetic variation in the Arabs of Iraq". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 11: 288. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-288. PMC 3215667. PMID 21970613.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Taheri, Amir (2002-11-14). "Saddam Hussein's Delusion". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-05-02.
- "Early Loan Words in Western and Central Asia: Substrates, Migrations and Trade" (PDF).
- Archaeological encyclopedia of the Holy Land. Negev, Avraham., Gibson, Shimon. (Rev. and updated ed.). New York: Continuum. 2001. p. 196. ISBN 978-0826413161. OCLC 45610126.CS1 maint: others (link)
- "mesopotamia | Origin and meaning of mesopotamia by Online Etymology Dictionary". etymonline.com. Retrieved 2019-05-02.
- Humanism, Culture, and Language in the Near East : Studies in Honor of Georg Krotkoff. Krotkoff, Georg., Afsaruddin, Asma, 1958-, Zahniser, A. H. Mathias, 1938-. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns. 1997. ISBN 9781575065083. OCLC 747412055.CS1 maint: others (link)
- Smart, J. R.; Smart, J. R. (2013-12-16). Tradition and modernity in Arabic language and literature. Smart, J. R., Shaban Memorial Conference (2nd : 1994 : University of Exeter). Richmond, Surrey, U.K. ISBN 9781136788123. OCLC 865579151.
- Sanchez, Francisco del Rio. """Influences of Aramaic on dialectal Arabic", in: Archaism and Innovation in the Semitic Languages. Selected papers"". Cite journal requires
- Duh, Kevin; Kirchhoff, Katrin (2005). "POS tagging of dialectal Arabic". Proceedings of the ACL Workshop on Computational Approaches to Semitic Languages - Semitic '05. Morristown, NJ, USA: Association for Computational Linguistics: 55. doi:10.3115/1621787.1621798.
- "Minorities in Iraq: EU Research Service" (PDF).
- Mitchell, T. F. (1990–1993). Pronouncing Arabic. Oxford [England]: Clarendon Press. p. 37. ISBN 0198151519. OCLC 18020063.CS1 maint: date format (link)[verification needed]
- Cavalli-Sforza, L. Luca; Menozzi, Paolo; Piazza, Alberto (2018-06-05). The History and Geography of Human Genes. Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691187266.
- "Middle East :: Iraq — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". cia.gov. Retrieved 2019-04-08.[verification needed]
- "Minorities in Iraq - European Research Service" (PDF).[verification needed]
- "Iraq prepping to conduct a census in 2020". rudaw.net. Retrieved 2019-05-01.[verification needed]
- "Minorities in Iraq - European Research Service" (PDF).[verification needed]
- "Christian areas hit by Baghdad bombs". 2013-12-25. Retrieved 2019-05-01.[verification needed]
- McIntosh, Jane (2005). Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspectives. ABC-CLIO. p. 313. ISBN 978-1-57607-965-2.
Iraqis have always been proud of their heritage and of their unique position as guardians of the Cradle of Civilization.
- Spencer, William (2000). Iraq: Old Land, New Nation in Conflict. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-7613-1356-4.
The Iraqi heritage is a proud one. Iraqi ancestors made such contributions to our modern world as a written language, agriculture and the growing of food crops, the building of cities and the urban environment, basic systems of government, and a religious structure centered on gods and goddesses guiding human affairs.
- Al-Zahery; et al. (Oct 2011). "In search of the genetic footprints of Sumerians: a survey of Y-chromosome and mtDNA variation in the Marsh Arabs of Iraq" (PDF). BMC Evolutionary Biology. 11: 288. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-288. PMC 3215667. PMID 21970613. Retrieved 16 February 2012.
- "N. Al-Zahery et al. "Y-chromosome and mtDNA polymorphisms in Iraq, a crossroad of the early human dispersal and of post-Neolithic migrations" (2003)" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-12-10.
- Hammer, M. F.; Redd, A. J.; Wood, E. T.; Bonner, M. R.; Jarjanazi, H.; Karafet, T.; Santachiara-Benerecetti, S.; Oppenheim, A.; Jobling, M. A. (2000-05-09). "Jewish and Middle Eastern non-Jewish populations share a common pool of Y-chromosome biallelic haplotypes". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 97 (12): 6769–6774. doi:10.1073/pnas.100115997. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 18733. PMID 10801975.
- Cavalli-Sforza, L. Luca; Menozzi, Paolo; Piazza, Alberto (2018-06-05). The History and Geography of Human Genes. Princeton University Press. doi:10.2307/j.ctv301gjp. ISBN 9780691187266.
- Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza, Paolo Menozzi, Alberto Piazza, The History and Geography of Human Genes, p. 242
- "Cavalli-Sforza et al. Genetic tree of West Asia". Retrieved 2010-12-10.
- Achilli A, Olivieri A, Pala M, et al. (April 2007). "Mitochondrial DNA variation of modern Tuscans supports the near eastern origin of Etruscans". American Journal of Human Genetics. 80 (4): 759–68. doi:10.1086/512822. PMC 1852723. PMID 17357081.
- Abu-Amero KK, González AM, Larruga JM, Bosley TM, Cabrera VM (2007). "Eurasian and African mitochondrial DNA influences in the Saudi Arabian population". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 7: 32. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-7-32. PMC 1810519. PMID 17331239.
- Spencer, William (2000). Iraq: Old Land, New Nation in Conflict. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-7613-1356-4.
- Dr. Joel J. Elias, Emeritus, University of California, The Genetics of Modern Assyrians and their Relationship to Other People of the Middle East
- Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza, Paolo Menozzi, Alberto Piazza, The History and Geography of Human Genes, p. 243
- Derbyshire, David (2010-01-20). "Most Britons descended from male farmers who left Iraq and Syria 10,000 years ago". London: Daily Mail. Retrieved 2010-12-10.
- "Migrants from the Near East 'brought farming to Europe'". BBC. 2010-11-10. Retrieved 2010-12-10.
- "Country Profile: Iraq". Mongabay. Retrieved 2010-12-10.
- "The Kurdish language". KRG. Retrieved 2010-12-12.
- Muller-Kessler, Christa (Jul–Sep 2003). "Aramaic 'K', Lyk' and Iraqi Arabic 'Aku, Maku: The Mesopotamian Particles of Existence". The Journal of the American Oriental Society. 123 (3): 641–646. doi:10.2307/3217756. JSTOR 3217756.
- "Iraq". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 4 May 2011.
- "Minorities in Iraq: EU Research Group" (PDF).
- Farrell, Stephen (2008-06-01). "Baghdad Jews Have Become a Fearful Few". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-12-10.
- Van Biema, David (2007-07-27). "The Last Jews of Baghdad". Time. Retrieved 2010-12-15.
- "Jews in Islamic Countries: Iraq".