National Artist of the Philippines

The Order of National Artists of the Philippines (Filipino: Orden ng mga Pambansang Alagad ng Sining ng Pilipinas) is an order bestowed by the Philippines on Filipinos who have made significant contributions to the development of Philippine art. Members of the Order are known as National Artists. Originally instituted as an award, it was elevated to the status of an order in 2003.[1]

Order of National Artists of the Philippines
Orden ng mga Pambansang Alagad ng Sining ng Pilipinas
National Artist of the Philippines.svg
Emblem of the Order of National Artists, which appears on the collar bestowed on members.
Awarded by  Philippines
TypeOrder
Awarded forhaving made significant contributions to the development of Philippine arts
StatusCurrently constituted
SovereignPresident of the Philippines
Statistics
First induction1972
Precedence
Next (higher)Order of Gabriela Silang
Next (lower)Gawad Mabini
EquivalentOrder of National Scientists, Gawad sa Manlilikha ng Bayan, Order of Lakandula – Special Class of Champion for Life
PHL Blue White Red.png
Ribbon bar of the Order

The Order is administered by the Cultural Center of the Philippines by virtue of President Ferdinand Marcos's Proclamation № 1001 of April 2, 1972 and the National Commission for Culture and the Arts. The first award was posthumously conferred on Filipino painter Fernando Amorsolo.

DefinitionEdit

The order of the highest state honor is conferred on individuals deemed as having done much for their artistic field. Deserving individuals must have been recommended by both the Cultural Center and the National Commission for Culture and the Arts prior to receiving the award. Such people are then titled, by virtue of a Presidential Proclamation, as National Artist (Filipino: Gawad Pambansang Alagad ng Sining), and are inducted into the Order.

CategoriesEdit

Categories under which National Artists can be recognized originally included:[2]

  • Music – singing, composition, direction, and/or performance;
  • Dance – choreography, direction and/or performance;
  • Theater – direction, performance and/or production design;
  • Contemporary Arts – painting, sculpture, printmaking, photography, installation art, mixed media works, illustration, graphic arts, performance art and/or imaging;
  • Literature – poetry, fiction, essay, playwriting, journalism and/or literary criticism;
  • Film and Broadcasting/Broadcast Arts – direction, writing, production design, cinematography, editing, camera work, and/or performance; and
  • Architecture, Design and Allied Arts – architecture design, interior design, industrial arts design, landscape architecture and fashion design.

However, National Artists have since been honored under new categories. The NCCA created the category of National Artist for Fashion Design when it nominated Ramon Valera, but subsumed that category under "Architecture, Design and Allied Arts". President Fidel V. Ramos issued an executive order creating the category of National Artist for Historical Literature before conferring the honor to Carlos Quirino.

CriteriaEdit

The National Artist of the Philippines are based on a broad criteria, as set forth by the Cultural Center of the Philippines and the National Commission on Culture and the Arts:[2]

  1. Living artists who have been Filipino citizens for the last ten years prior to nomination as well as those who have died after the establishment of the award in 1972 but were Filipino citizens at the time of their death;
  2. Artists who have helped build a Filipino sense of nationhood through the content and form of their works;
  3. Artists who have distinguished themselves by pioneering in a mode of creative expression or style, making an impact on succeeding generations of artists;
  4. Artists who have created a significant body of works and/or have consistently displayed excellence in the practice of their art form, enriching artistic expression or style; and
  5. Artists who enjoy broad acceptance through prestigious national and/or international recognition, awards in prestigious national and/or international events, critical acclaim and/or reviews of their works, and/or respect and esteem from peers within an artistic discipline.

Nominations are then submitted to the National Artist Secretariat that is created by the National Artist Award Committee; experts from the different art fields then sit on a First Deliberation to prepare the short list of nominees. A Second Deliberation, which is a joint meeting of the Commissioners of the NCCA and the Board of Trustees of the CCP, decides on the final nominees. The list is then forwarded to the President of the Philippines, who, by Presidential Proclamation, proclaims the final nominees as members of the Order of National Artists.[3]

BenefitsEdit

  • The rank and title of National Artist, as proclaimed by the President of the Philippines;[4]
  • The insignia of a National Artist and a citation;
  • A lifetime emolument and material and physical benefits comparable in value to those received by the highest officers of the land such as:
  1. a cash award of one hundred thousand pesos (100,000.00) net of taxes, for living awardees;
  2. a cash award of seventy-five thousand pesos (₱75,000.00) net of taxes, for posthumous awardees, payable to legal heir/s;
  3. a monthly life pension, medical and hospitalization benefits;
  4. life insurance coverage for Awardees who are still insurable;
  5. a state funeral and burial at the Libingan ng mga Bayani;
  6. a place of honor, in line with protocolar precedence, at national state functions, and recognition at cultural events;

The Roster of National ArtistsEdit

President Year Picture Awardee Province Category Notes
 
Ferdinand Marcos
1972   Fernando Cueto Amorsolo
(1892–1972)
Manila Visual Arts – Painting posthumous conferment
1973 Francisca Santos Reyes-Aquino
(1899–1983)
Bulacan Dance
  Carlos Modesto "Botong" Villaluz Francisco
(1912–1969)
Rizal Visual Arts – Painting posthumous conferment
Amado Vera Hernández
(1903–1970)
Manila Literature
Antonio Jesus Naguiat Molina
(1894–1980)
Manila Music
Juan Felipe de Jesus Nakpil
(1899–1986)
Manila Architecture
Guillermo Estrella Tolentino
(1890–1976)
Bulacan Visual Arts – Sculpture
  José García Villa
(1908–1997)
Manila Literature
1976 Napoleón "Billy" Veloso Abueva
(1930–2018)
Bohol Visual Arts – Sculpture
  Leonor Luna Orosa-Goquingco
(1917–2005)
Batangas Dance
  Lamberto Vera Avellana
(1915–1991)
Mountain Province Film and Theater
  Nicomedes "Nick" Márquez Joaquín
(1917–2004)
Manila Literature
Jovita Flores Fuentes
(1895–1978)
Capiz Music
  Victorio Cándido Edades
(1895–1985)
Pangasinan Visual Arts – Painting
Pablo Sebero Antonio Sr.
(1901–1975)
Manila Architecture posthumous conferment
1981 Vicente Silva Manansala
(1910–1981)
Pampanga Visual Arts – Painting
1982   Gerardo "Gerry" Ilagan de Leon
(1913–1981)
Manila Film
  Carlos Peña Rómulo
(1898–1985)
Tarlac Literature
 
Corazon Aquino
1987 Honorata "Atang" Márquez de la Rama-Hernández
(1902–1991)
Manila Theater and Music
1988 Antonino Ramírez Buenaventura
(1904–1996)
Bulacan Music
Lucrecia Faustino Reyes-Urtula
(1929–1999)
Iloilo Dance
1989   Lucrecia Roces Kasilag
(1918–2008)
La Union Music
1990 Zacarias Francisco "Franz" Quino Arcellana
(1916–2002)
Manila Literature
Cesar Torrente Legaspi
(1917–1994)
Manila Visual Arts – Painting
Leandro Valencia Locsín
(1928–1994)
Negros Occidental Architecture
1991 Hernando Ruiz Ocampo
(1911–1978)
Manila Visual Arts – Painting posthumous conferment
  Lucio Diestro San Pedro Sr.
(1913–2002)
Rizal Music
 
Fidel V. Ramos
1997 Catalino "Lino" Ortiz Brocka
(1939–1991)
Sorsogon Film posthumous conferment
  Felipe Padilla de León
(1912–1992)
Nueva Ecija Music
  Wilfrido María Barredo Guerrero
(1911–1995)
Manila Theater
Rolando Santos Tinio
(1937–1997)
Manila Theater and Literature
  Néstor Vicente Madali González
(1915–1999)
Romblon Literature
  Levi Celerio Cruz
(1910–2002)
Manila Music & Literature
Arturo Rogerio Luz
(1926–2021)
Manila Visual Arts – Painting
  José Montserrat Maceda
(1917–2004)
Manila Music
  Carlos Lozada Quirino
(1910–1999)
Manila Historical Literature
 
Joseph Estrada
1999 Jerry Navarro Elizalde
(1924–1999)
Antique Visual Arts – Painting posthumous conferment
Ernani Joson Cuenco
(1936–1988)
Bulacan Music
Andrea Carriaga Ofilada-Veneracion
(1928–2013)
Manila
  Edith Cutaran López-Tiempo
(1919–2011)
Nueva Vizcaya Literature
  Daisy Pardo Hontiveros-Avellana
(1917–2013)
Capiz Theater
 
Gloria Macapagal Arroyo
2001 Ishmael Bernal Ledesma
(1938–1996)
Manila Film posthumous conferment
  Severino Tabat Montano
(1915–1980)
Ilocos Norte Theater
  Francisco Sionil José
(b. 1924)
Pangasinan Literature
Ang Kiukok
(1931–2005)
Davao del Sur Visual Arts – Painting
2003 José Tanig Joya
(1931–1995)
Manila posthumous conferment
  Virgilio Senadrin Almario
(b. 1944)
Bulacan Literature
Alejandro Reyes Roces
(1924–2011)
Manila
  Edgar Sinco Romero
(1924–2013)
Negros Oriental Film and Broadcast Arts
Salvador Floro Bernal
(1945–2011)
Pangasinan Theater and Design
2006   Benedicto Reyes Cabrera
(b. 1942)
Manila Visual Arts – Painting
Abdulmari Asia Imao
(1936–2014)
Sulu Visual Arts – Sculpture
Bienvenido Lumbera

(b. 1932)

Batangas Literature
Ramon Arevalo Obusan
(1938–2006)
Albay Dance
Ildefonso Paez Santos Sr.
(1929–2014)
Manila Architecture – Landscape
  Ronald Allan "Fernando" Kelley Poe Jr.
(1939–2004)
Manila Film posthumous conferment
Ramón Oswald Valera
(1912–1972)
Abra Architecture, Design and Allied Arts – Fashion Design
20091[5]   Manuel Pabustan Urbano
(1915–1985)
Camarines Norte Film and Broadcast Arts posthumous conferment
Lázaro Ángeles Francisco
(1898–1980)
Bataan Literature
Federico Aguilar Alcuaz
(1932–2011)
Manila Visual Arts – Painting, Sculpture and Mixed Media
 
Benigno Aquino III
2014[6] Alice García Reyes van Doorn
(b. 1942)
Manila Dance
  Francisco Vicente Coching
(1919–1998)
Manila Visual Arts posthumous conferment
  Cirilo Francisco Bautista
(1941–2018)
Manila Literature
Francisco Espíritu Feliciano
(1941–2014)
Rizal Music posthumous conferment
  Ramón Pagayon Santos
(b. 1941)
Manila Music
José María Vélez Zaragoza
(1912–1994)
Manila Architecture posthumous conferment
 
Rodrigo Duterte
2018   Raymundo Cipriano "Ryan" Pujante Cayabyab
(b. 1954)
Manila Music
  Franciso "Bobby" Tronqued Mañosa
(1931–2019)
Manila Architecture and Allied Arts
Ramón Larupay Muzones
(1913–1992)
Iloilo Literature posthumous conferment
Resil Barretto Mojares
(b. 1943)
Zamboanga del Norte/Cebu Literature
Lauro "Larry" Zarate Alcala
(1926–2002)
Albay Visual Arts posthumous conferment
Amelia Ramolete Lapeña-Bonifacio
(1930–2020)
Manila Theater
Erik Oteyza de Guia (Kidlat Tahimik)
(b. 1942)
Benguet Film and Broadcast Arts

^1 Aguilar Alcuaz, Francisco, and Conde were all proclaimed in 2009 but the conferment of the order was delayed due to a controversy. The order was finally bestowed in a ceremony at Malacañang Palace in November 2013.[7]

ControversiesEdit

Over the years there have been several controversies involving the awarding of National Artist or involving awardees.

2009 National Artist of the Philippines controversyEdit

In August 2009, the conferment of the Order of National Artists on seven individuals by President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo[8] became controversial when it was revealed that musician Ramon Santos had been dropped from the list of nominees short-listed in May that year by the selection committee, and that four other individuals had been nominated via "President’s prerogative": Cecilla Guidote-Alvarez (Theater), Carlo J. Caparas (Visual Arts and Film), Francisco Mañosa (Architecture), and Pitoy Moreno (Fashion Design).[4][9]

Members of the Philippine art community–including a number of living members of the Order–protested that the proclamation politicised the title of National Artist, and made it "a way for President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo to accommodate her allies." Specific protests were raised regarding the nomination of Guidote-Alvarez, who was also Executive Director of the National Commission for Culture and the Arts, because it was purportedly a breach of protocol and delicadeza (propriety), and of Caparas, on the grounds that he was unqualified for nomination under both the Visual Arts and the Film categories.[9][10] On July 16, 2013, the controversy finally ended after the Supreme Court of the Philippines voted 12-1-2 that voided the four proclamations.[11]

On June 20, 2014, five years after he was originally shortlisted in 2009, Ramon Santos was finally conferred National Artist for Music by President Benigno S. Aquino III.[6]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Executive Order No. 236, s. 2003 Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved October 24, 2018.
  2. ^ a b "The National Artists of the Philippines Guidelines". ncca.gov.ph. National Commission for Culture and the Arts. 2007. Archived from the original on August 28, 2009. Retrieved August 20, 2009.
  3. ^ mlq3. "Proclaimed a National Artist, not awarded » Manuel L. Quezon III". quezon.ph.
  4. ^ a b Annie Ruth C. Sabangan (August 1, 2009). "Fury over Arroyo's choice of national artists". GMANews.tv: The Official Website of GMA News and Public Affairs.
  5. ^ "Aguilar Alcuaz, Francisco, Conde– deceased all–to be finally conferred National Artist awards in November". Retrieved October 20, 2013.
  6. ^ a b Palace Declares New National Artists. Philippine Daily Inquirer (June 21, 2014)
  7. ^ "Aguilar Alcuaz, Francisco, Conde– deceased all–to be finally conferred National Artist awards in November". Retrieved October 20, 2013.
  8. ^ TJ Burgonio (July 29, 2009). "Arroyo names 7 National Artists for '09". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on August 6, 2009.
  9. ^ a b Kristine L. Alave, Bayani San Diego Jr. (August 1, 2009). "Palace choices of 4 nat'l artists protested". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on August 6, 2009.
  10. ^ Gerry Alanguilan (2009). "Bottom Line: Carlo J. Caparas is NOT Qualified". Komikero Comics Journal. Komikero Comics Journal. Archived from the original on August 6, 2009. Retrieved August 4, 2009.
  11. ^ Mark Merueñas (July 16, 2013). "SC voids National Artist Award on Carlo Caparas, 3 others". GMA News and Public Affairs.

External linksEdit