Congress of the Philippines

The Congress of the Philippines (Filipino: Kongreso ng Pilipinas) is the legislature of the national government of the Philippines. It is bicameral, composed of a lower body, the House of Representatives,[3] although colloquially the term "Congress" commonly refers to just the latter,[b] and an upper body, the Senate. The House of Representatives meets in the Batasang Pambansa in Quezon City while the Senate meets in the GSIS Building in Pasay.

Congress of the Philippines

Kongreso ng Pilipinas
19th Congress of the Philippines
Seal of the Philippine Senate.svg Seal of the Philippine House of Representatives.svg
Seals of the Senate (left) and of the House of Representatives (right)
Type
Type
HousesSenate
House of Representatives
History
FoundedJune 9, 1945 (1945-06-09)
(77 years ago)
Preceded byNational Assembly of the Philippines
New session started
July 25, 2022 (2022-07-25)
Leadership
Juan Miguel Zubiri, Independent
since July 25, 2022[1]
Martin Romualdez, Lakas
since July 25, 2022[2]
Structure
Seats340 (see list)
24 senators
316 representatives
Philippine Senate composition.svg
Senate political groups
  •   NPC (5)
  •   PDP–Laban (5)
  •   Nacionalista (4)
  •   Akbayan (1)
  •   Lakas (1)
  •   LDP (1)
  •   PMP (1)
  •   UNA (1)
  •   Independent (5)
Philippine House of Representatives composition.svg
House of Representatives political groups
Joint committees
Joint committees are chaired by senators
AuthorityArticle VI of the Constitution of the Philippines
Elections
Multiple non-transferable vote
Parallel voting (Party-list proportional representation and first-past-the-post)
Senate last election
May 9, 2022
May 9, 2022
Senate next election
May 12, 2025
May 12, 2025
Meeting place
Plenary Hall, Batasang Pambansa Complex
Joint sessions are usually held at the Batasang Pambansa Complex, Quezon City
Website
Senate of the Philippines
House of Representatives of the Philippines

The Senate is composed of 24 senators[4] half of which are elected every three years. Each senator, therefore, serves a total of six years. The senators are elected at-large and do not represent any geographical district.

In the current 19th Congress, there are 316 seats in the House of Representatives. The Constitution states that the House "shall be composed of not more than 250 members, unless otherwise fixed by law," and that at least 20% of it shall be sectoral representatives. There are two types of congressmen: the district and party-list representatives. At the time of the ratification of the constitution, there were 200 districts, leaving 50 seats for party-list representatives.

The district congressmen represent a particular congressional district of the country. All provinces in the country are composed of at least one congressional district. Several cities also have their own congressional districts, with some having two or more representatives.[3] From 200 districts in 1987, the number of districts have increased to 243. Every new Congress has seen an increase in the number of districts.

The party-list congressmen represent the minority sectors of the population. This enables these minority groups to be represented in the Congress, when they would otherwise not be represented properly through district representation. Party-list representatives represent labor unions, rights groups, and other organizations.[3] With the increase of districts also means that the seats for party-list representatives increase as well, as the 1:4 ratio has to be respected.

The Constitution provides that Congress shall convene for its regular session every year beginning on the 4th Monday of July. A regular session can last until thirty days before the opening of its next regular session in the succeeding year. The president may, however, call special sessions which are usually held between regular legislative sessions to handle emergencies or urgent matters.[3]

HistoryEdit

Spanish eraEdit

During the Spanish colonization of the Philippines, municipal governments, or Cabildos were established. One such example was the Cabildo in Manila, established in 1571.[5]

When the Philippines was under colonial rule as part of the Spanish East Indies, the colony was not given representation to the Spanish Cortes. It was only in 1809 where the colony was made an integral part of Spain and was given representation in the Cortes. While colonies such as the Philippines were selecting its delegates, substitutes were named so that the Cortes can convene. The substitutes, and first delegates for the Philippines were Pedro Pérez de Tagle and José Manuel Couto. Both had no connections to the colony.[6]

By July 1810, Governor General Manuel González de Aguilar received the instruction to hold an election. As only the Manila Municipal Council qualified to elect a representative, it was tasked to select a delegate. Three of its representatives, the governor-general and the Archbishop of Manila selected Ventura de los Reyes as Manila's delegate to the Cortes. De los Reyes arrived in Cadiz in December 1811.[6]

However, with Napoleon I's defeat at the Battle of Waterloo, his brother Joseph Bonaparte was removed from the Spanish throne, and the Cádiz Constitution was replaced by the Cortes on May 24, 1816, with a more conservative constitution that removed Philippine representation on the Cortes, among other things. Restoration of Philippine representation to the Cortes was one of the grievances by the Ilustrados, the educated class during the late 19th century.[4]

Revolutionary eraEdit

The Illustrados' campaign transformed into the Philippine Revolution that aimed to overthrow Spanish rule. Proclaiming independence on June 12, 1898, President Emilio Aguinaldo then ordered the convening of a revolutionary congress at Malolos. The Malolos Congress, among other things, approved the Malolos Constitution. With the approval of the Treaty of Paris, the Spanish ceded the Philippines to the United States. The revolutionaries, attempting to prevent American conquest, launched the Philippine–American War, but were defeated when Aguinaldo was captured in 1901.[4]

American eraEdit

When the Philippines was under American colonial rule, the legislative body was the Philippine Commission which existed from 1900 to 1907. The President of the United States appointed the members of the Philippine Commission. Furthermore, two Filipinos served as Resident Commissioners to the House of Representatives of the United States from 1907 to 1935, then only one from 1935 to 1946. The Resident Commissioners had a voice in the House, but did not have voting rights.[4]

The Philippine Bill of 1902 mandated the creation of a bicameral or a two-chamber Philippine Legislature with the Philippine Commission as the Upper House and the Philippine Assembly as the Lower House. This bicameral legislature was inaugurated in 1907. Through the leadership of then Speaker Sergio Osmeña and then-Floor Leader Manuel L. Quezon, the Rules of the 59th United States Congress were substantially adopted as the Rules of the Philippine Legislature.[4]

In 1916, the Jones Law changed the legislative system. The Philippine Commission was abolished, and a new bicameral Philippine Legislature consisting of a House of Representatives and a Senate was established.[4]

Commonwealth and Second Republic eraEdit

The legislative system was changed again in 1935. The 1935 Constitution, aside from instituting the Commonwealth which gave the Filipinos more role in government, established a unicameral National Assembly. But in 1940, through an amendment to the 1935 Constitution, a bicameral Congress of the Philippines consisting of a House of Representatives and a Senate was created. Those elected in 1941 would not serve until 1945, as World War II erupted. The invading Japanese set up the Second Philippine Republic and convened its own National Assembly. With the Japanese defeat in 1945, the Commonwealth and its Congress was restored. The same setup continued until the Americans granted independence on July 4, 1946.[4]

Independent eraEdit

Upon the inauguration of the Republic of the Philippines on July 4, 1946, Republic Act No. 6 was enacted providing that on the date of the proclamation of the Republic of the Philippines, the existing Congress would be known as the First Congress of the Republic. Successive Congresses were elected until President Ferdinand Marcos declared martial law on September 23, 1972. Marcos then ruled by decree.[4]

As early as 1970, Marcos had convened a constitutional convention to revise the 1935 constitution; in 1973, the Constitution was approved. It abolished the bicameral Congress and created a unicameral National Assembly, which would ultimately be known as the Batasang Pambansa in a semi-presidential system of government. The batasan elected a prime minister. The Batasang Pambansa first convened in 1978. [4]

Marcos was overthrown after the 1986 People Power Revolution; President Corazon Aquino then ruled by decree. Later that year she appointed a constitutional commission that drafted a new constitution. The Constitution was approved in a plebiscite the next year; it restored the presidential system of government together with a bicameral Congress of the Philippines. It first convened in 1987.[4]

SeatEdit

 
 
Senate
 
House of Representatives
 
Congress Building
 
Japanese Schoolhouse
 
Ayuntamiento
Locations of the historical (blue) and current (red) seats of Congress in Metro Manila.

The two houses of Congress meet at different places in Metro Manila, the seat of government: the Senate meets at the GSIS Building, the main office of the Government Service Insurance System (GSIS) at Pasay, while the House of Representatives sits at the Batasang Pambansa Complex in Quezon City. The two are around 25 kilometers (16 mi) apart.

The Barasoain Church in Malolos, Bulacan served as a meeting place of unicameral congress of the First Philippine Republic.

After the Americans defeated the First Republic, the US-instituted Philippine Legislature convened at the Ayuntamiento in Intramuros, Manila from 1907 to 1926, when it transferred to the Legislative Building just outside Intramuros. In the Legislative Building, the Senate occupied the upper floors while the House of Representatives used the lower floors.

With the Legislative Building destroyed during the Battle of Manila of 1945, the Commonwealth Congress convened at the Old Japanese Schoolhouse at Sampaloc. Congress met at the school auditorium, with the Senate convening on evenings and the House of Representatives meeting every morning. The Senate subsequently moved to the Manila City Hall, with the House staying in the schoolhouse. The two chambers of Congress returned to the reconstructed Legislative Building, now the Congress Building in 1950. In 1973, when President Marcos ruled by decree, Congress was padlocked. Marcos built a new seat of a unicameral parliament at Quezon City, which would eventually be the Batasang Pambansa Complex. The parliament that will eventually be named as the Batasang Pambansa (National Legislature), first met at the Batasang Pambansa Complex in 1978.

With the overthrow of Marcos after the People Power Revolution, the bicameral Congress was restored. The House of Representatives inherited the Batasang Pambansa Complex, while the Senate returned to the Congress Building. In May 1997, the Senate moved to the newly constructed building owned by the GSIS on land reclaimed from Manila Bay at Pasay; the Congress Building was eventually transformed into the National Museum of Fine Arts. The Senate will eventually move into a new building that they would own in Fort Bonifacio, Taguig.

PowersEdit

 
Commission on Appointments
 
Bicameral Conference Committee

The powers of the Congress of the Philippines may be classified as:

General Legislative

It consists of the enactment of laws intended as a rule of conduct to govern the relation between individuals (i.e., civil laws, commercial laws, etc.) or between individuals and the state (i.e., criminal law, political law, etc.)[4]

Implied Powers

It is essential to the effective exercise of other powers expressly granted to the assembly.

Inherent Powers

These are the powers which although not expressly given are nevertheless exercised by the Congress as they are necessary for its existence such as:

  • to determine the rules of proceedings;
  • to compel attendance of absent members to obtain quorum to do business;
  • to keep journal of its proceedings; etc.
Specific Legislative

It has reference to powers which the Constitution expressly and specifically directs to perform or execute.

Powers enjoyed by the Congress classifiable under this category are:

  • Power to appropriate;
  • Power to act as constituent assembly; (for drafting an amendment to the constitution upon a vote of three-fourths of all its members)
  • Power to impeach; (to initiate all cases of impeachment is the power of the House of Representatives; To try all cases of impeachment is the power of the Senate.)
  • Power to confirm treaties;(Only the Senate is authorized to use this power.)
  • Power to declare the existence of war; (The Senate and the House of Representatives must convene in joint session to do this.)
  • Power to concur amnesty; and
  • Power to act as board of canvasser for presidential/vice-presidential votes. (by creating a joint congressional committee to do the canvassing.)
  • Power to contempt
  • Blending of power
  • Delegation of power
  • Budgetary power
  • Power to taxation
Executive

Powers of the Congress that are executive in nature are:

  • Appointment of its officers;
  • Affirming treaties;
  • Confirming presidential appointees through the Commission on Appointments;
  • Removal power; etc.
Supervisory

The Congress of the Philippines exercises considerable control and supervision over the administrative branch - e.g.:

  • To decide the creation of a department/agency/office;
  • To define powers and duties of officers;
  • To appropriate funds for governmental operations;
  • To prescribe rules and procedure to be followed; etc.
Electoral

Considered as electoral power of the Congress of the Philippines are the Congress' power to:

  • Elect its presiding officer/s and other officers of the House;
  • Act as board of canvassers for the canvass of presidential/vice-presidential votes; and
  • Elect the President in case of any electoral tie to the said post.
Judicial

Constitutionally, each house has judicial powers:

  • To punish its Members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds of all its Members, suspend or expel a Member
  • To concur and approve amnesty declared by the President of the Philippines;
  • To initiate, prosecute and thereafter decide cases of impeachment; and
  • To decide electoral protests of its members through the respective Electoral Tribunal.
Miscellaneous

The other powers of Congress mandated by the Constitution are as follows:

  • To authorize the Commission on Audit to audit fund and property;
  • To authorize the President of the Philippines to fix tariff rates, quotas, and dues;
  • To authorize the President of the Philippines to formulate rules and regulations in times of emergency;
  • To reapportion legislative districts based on established constitutional standards;
  • To implement laws on autonomy;
  • To establish a national language commission;
  • To implement free public secondary education;
  • To allow small scale utilization of natural resources;
  • To specify the limits of forest lands and national parks;
  • To determine the ownership and extent of ancestral domain; and
  • To establish independent economic and planning agency.

LawmakingEdit

  • Preparation of the bill
The Member or the Bill Drafting Division of the Reference and Research Bureau prepares and drafts the bill upon the Member's request.
  • First reading
    1. The bill is filed with the Bills and Index Service and the same is numbered and reproduced.
    2. Three days after its filing, the same is included in the Order of Business for First Reading.
    3. On First Reading, the Secretary General reads the title and number of the bill. The Speaker refers the bill to the appropriate Committee/s.
  • Committee consideration / action
    1. The Committee where the bill was referred to evaluates it to determine the necessity of conducting public hearings.
    • If the Committee finds it necessary to conduct public hearings, it schedules the time thereof, issues public notices and invites resource persons from the public and private sectors, the academe, and experts on the proposed legislation.
    • If the Committee determines that public hearing is not needed, it schedules the bill for Committee discussion/s.
    1. Based on the result of the public hearings or Committee discussions, the Committee may introduce amendments, consolidate bills on the same subject matter, or propose a substitute bill. It then prepares the corresponding committee report.
    2. The Committee approves the Committee Report and formally transmits the same to the Plenary Affairs Bureau.
  • Second reading
    1. The Committee Report is registered and numbered by the Bills and Index Service. It is included in the Order of Business and referred to the Committee on Rules.
    2. The Committee on Rules schedules the bill for consideration on Second Reading.
    3. On Second Reading, the Secretary General reads the number, title and text of the bill and the following takes place:
    • Period of Sponsorship and Debate
    • Period of Amendments
    • Voting, which may be by
    1. viva voce
    2. count by tellers
    3. division of the House
    4. nominal voting
  • Third reading
    1. The amendments, if any, are engrossed and printed copies of the bill are reproduced for Third Reading.
    2. The engrossed bill is included in the Calendar of Bills for Third Reading and copies of the same are distributed to all the Members three days before its Third Reading.
    3. On Third Reading, the Secretary General reads only the number and title of the bill.
    4. A roll call or nominal voting is called and a Member, if he desires, is given three minutes to explain his vote. No amendment on the bill is allowed at this stage.
    • The bill is approved by an affirmative vote of a majority of the Members present.
    • If the bill is disapproved, the same is transmitted to the Archives.
  • Transmittal of the approved bill to the Senate
    The approved bill is transmitted to the Senate for its concurrence.
  • Senate action on approved bill of the House
    The bill undergoes the same legislative process in the Senate.
  • Conference committee
    1. A Conference Committee is constituted and is composed of Members from each House of Congress to settle, reconcile or thresh out differences or disagreements on any provision of the bill.
    2. The conferees are not limited to reconciling the differences in the bill but may introduce new provisions germane to the subject matter or may report out an entirely new bill on the subject.
    3. The Conference Committee prepares a report to be signed by all the conferees and the chairman.
    4. The Conference Committee Report is submitted for consideration/approval of both Houses. No amendment is allowed.
  • Transmittal of the bill to the President
    Copies of the bill, signed by the Senate President and the Speaker of the House of Representatives and certified by both the Secretary of the Senate and the Secretary General of the House, are transmitted to the President.
  • Presidential action on the bill
    If the bill is approved by the President, it is assigned an RA number and transmitted to the House where it originated.
  • Action on approved bill
    The bill is reproduced and copies are sent to the Official Gazette Office for publication and distribution to the implementing agencies. It is then included in the annual compilation of Acts and Resolutions.
  • Action on vetoed bill
    The message is included in the Order of Business. If the Congress decides to override the veto, the House and the Senate shall proceed separately to reconsider the bill or the vetoed items of the bill. If the bill or its vetoed items is passed by a vote of two-thirds of the Members of each House, such bill or items shall become a law.

CompositionEdit

In the diagrams below, Congress is divided in blocs, with the colors referring to the political party of the person leading that bloc. The blocs are determined by the vote of the member in speakership or Senate presidential elections.

The Senate is composed of the winners of the 2016 and 2019 Senate elections. The House of Representatives is composed of the winners of the 2019 House of Representatives elections. In both chambers, the majority bloc is composed of members generally supportive of the presidency of Rodrigo Duterte, while the minority blocs are those opposed. In the House of Representatives, there is an independent minority bloc, and 4 vacant seats.

In both chambers, membership in committees is determined by the size of the bloc; only members of the majority and minority blocs are given committee memberships. In the Philippines, political parties are liquid, and it is not uncommon to see partymates see themselves on different blocs.

LeadershipEdit

Each chamber is headed by a presiding officer, both elected from their respective membership; in the Senate, it is the Senate President, while in the House of Representatives, it is the Speaker. The Senate also has a Senate president pro tempore, and the House of Representatives has deputy speakers. Each chamber has its own floor leaders.

Voting requirementsEdit

The vote requirements in the Congress of the Philippines are as follows:

Requirement Senate House of Representatives Joint session All members
One-fifth N/A N/A
One-third N/A
  • Pass articles of impeachment
N/A N/A
Majority (50% +1 member)
  • Election of the Senate President
  • Election of the Speaker
  • Revocation of martial law
  • Revocation of the suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus
  • Submit to the electorate the question of calling a constitutional convention
  • Grant a tax exemption
  • Concurrence of a grant of amnesty
  • Passage of laws
  • Election of the president in case of a tie vote.
  • Confirmation of an appointment of the president to a vice president
Two-thirds
  • Suspend or expel a member
  • Designation of the vice president as acting president
  • Override a presidential veto
  • Declaration of a state of war (voting separately)
  • Call a constitutional convention
  • Conviction of impeached officials
  • Concurrence on a treaty
N/A
Three-fourths N/A N/A N/A
  • Passage of amendments to, or revision of the constitution

In most cases, such as the approval of bills, only a majority of members present is needed; on some cases such as the election of presiding officers, a majority of all members, including vacant seats, is needed.

SessionsEdit

A new session of Congress starts after every House of Representatives election. During the operation of the 1935 constitution as amended in 1940, mid-term elections in the Senate cause its membership to be changed mid-session. From 1945 to 1972, there were two commonwealth congresses and seven congresses of the republic, with the 2nd Commonwealth Congress becoming the 1st Congress of the Republic. During the usage of the 1973 constitution, the Batasang Pambansa was the legislature, with it having two elections. Starting in the 1987 constitution, each Senate election was synchronized with the House elections, with the first congress under that constitution being counted as the "8th Congress", picking up from the last congress of the 1935 constitution.

Per historical eraEdit

In operation Authority Regime Legislature Type Upper house Lower house
1898–99 Malolos Constitution   First Philippine Republic controlled areas Malolos Congress Unicameral Malolos Congress
War powers authority of the President of the United States   United States Military Government controlled areas Martial law; military governor ruled by decree
1900–1902 Malolos Constitution   First Philippine Republic controlled areas Malolos Congress Unicameral Malolos Congress
Appointment by the President of the United States   United States Military Government controlled areas Taft Commission Unicameral Philippine Commission
1902–1907 Philippine Organic Act   Insular Government of the Philippine Islands Philippine Commission Unicameral
1907–1916 Philippine Legislature Bicameral Philippine Commission Philippine Assembly
1916–1935 Philippine Autonomy Act Bicameral Senate House of Representatives
1935–1941 1935 Constitution   Commonwealth of the Philippines National Assembly Unicameral National Assembly
1942–43 War powers authority of the Emperor of Japan   Empire of Japan Martial law; governor-general ruled by decree
1943–44 1943 Constitution   Second Philippine Republic National Assembly Unicameral National Assembly
1945–46 Amendments to the 1935 Constitution   Commonwealth of the Philippines Congress (Commonwealth) Bicameral Senate House of Representatives
1946–1973   Third Republic of the Philippines Congress Bicameral
1973–1976 1973 Constitution   Philippines under Martial Law Martial law; president ruled by decree
1976–1978
(never convened)
Batasang Bayan Unicameral National Assembly
1978–1986 Amendments to the 1973 Constitution   Fourth Republic of the Philippines Batasang Pambansa Unicameral Batasang Pambansa
1986–1987   Provisional Government President ruled by decree
1987–present 1987 Constitution   Republic of the Philippines Congress Bicameral Senate House of Representatives

List of CongressesEdit

Election Congress Senate election results House of Representatives elections results
Pre-1941 See Philippine Legislature and National Assembly of the Philippines
1941 1st Commonwealth Congress   24 Nacionalista   95 Nacionalista
3 independent
1946 2nd Commonwealth Congress   9 Nacionalista (Liberal wing)
6 Nacionalista
1 Popular Front
  49 Nacionalista (Liberal wing)
35 Nacionalista
6 Democratic Alliance
3 others
1st Congress
1947   6 Liberal
2 Nacionalista
1949 2nd Congress   8 Liberal   60 Liberal
33 Nacionalista
7 others
1951   8 Nacionalista
1953 3rd Congress   5 Nacionalista
2 Democratic
1 Citizens'
  59 Nacionalista
31 Liberal
11 Democratic
1 independent
1955   9 Nacionalista
1957 4th Congress   6 Nacionalista
2 Liberal
  82 Nacionalista
19 Liberal
1 NCP
1959   5 Nacionalista
2 Liberal
1 NCP
1961 5th Congress   4 Liberal
2 Nacionalista
2 Progressive
  74 Nacionalista
29 Liberal
1 independent
1963   4 Liberal
4 Nacionalista
1965 6th Congress   5 Nacionalista
2 Liberal
1 NCP
  61 Liberal
38 Nacionalista
5 others
1967   6 Nacionalista
1 Liberal
1 independent
1969 7th Congress   6 Nacionalista
2 Liberal
  88 Nacionalista
18 Liberal
4 others
1971   5 Liberal
3 Nacionalista
1978, 1984 See Batasang Pambansa
1987 8th Congress  
22 Majority–1 Minority




22 LABAN
2 GAD
  43 PDP–Laban
24 Lakas ng Bansa
19 UNIDO
16 Liberal
11 KBL
55 coalitions
32 others
14 appointed sectoral seats
1992 9th Congress  
23 Majority–1 Minority




16 LDP
5 NPC
2 Lakas
1 Liberal
  86 LDP
41 Lakas
30 NPC
11 LP-PDP
32 others
16 appointed sectoral seats
1995 10th Congress  
22 Majority–1 Minority




4 Lakas
4 LDP
1 Nacionalista
1 NPC
1 PRP
1 independent
 
160 Majority–22 Minority




157 pro-administration coalition
26 opposition coalition
12 hybrid coalitions
9 others
16 appointed sectoral seats
1998 11th Congress  
22 Majority–1 Minority




5 Lakas
4 LDP
1 NPC
1 PMP
1 PDP–Laban
  111 Lakas
55 LAMMP
15 Liberal
25 others
14 party-lists
2001 12th Congress  
13 Majority–11 Minority




3 Lakas
2 LDP
1 Liberal
1 PDP–Laban
6 independent
 
185 Majority–17 Minority




73 Lakas
40 NPC
21 LDP
19 Liberal
52 others
17 party-lists
2004 13th Congress  
13 Majority–10 Minority




5 KNP
4 Lakas
2 Liberal
1 PRP
 
193 Majority–28 Minority




92 Lakas
53 NPC
29 Liberal
15 LDP
20 others
28 party-lists
2007 14th Congress  
15 Majority–7 Minority



2 Liberal
2 Nacionalista
2 NPC
2 UNO
1 KAMPI
1 LDP
1 PDP–Laban
1 independent
 
193 Majority–1 Minority




89 Lakas
44 KAMPI
28 NPC
23 Liberal
11 Nacionalista
23 others
53 party-lists
2010 15th Congress  
17 Majority–3 Minority



3 Liberal
2 Lakas–Kampi
2 Nacionalista
2 PMP
1 NPC
1 PRP
1 independent
 
227 Majority–29 Minority




106 Lakas–Kampi
47 Liberal
29 NPC
25 Nacionalista
22 others
57 party-lists
2013 16th Congress  
17 Majority–6 Minority




3 Nacionalista
3 UNA
1 LDP
1 Liberal
1 NPC
1 PDP–Laban
 
244 Majority–35 Minority




109 Liberal
42 NPC
24 NUP
18 Nacionalista
14 Lakas
27 others
59 party-lists
2016 17th Congress  
20 Majority–3 Minority




5 Liberal
2 NPC
1 Akbayan
1 UNA
3 independent
 
252 Majority–36 Minority




115 Liberal
42 NPC
24 Nacionalista
23 NUP
11 UNA
23 others
59 party-lists
2019 18th Congress  
20 Majority–4 Minority




4 PDP–Laban
3 Nacionalista
1 Lakas
1 LDP
1 NPC
1 UNA
1 independent
 
266 Majority–28 Minority




82 PDP–Laban
42 Nacionalista
37 NPC
23 NUP
18 Liberal
12 Lakas
27 others
61 party-lists
2022 19th Congress  
20 Maj–2 Min–2 Ind




4 NPC
1 PDP-Laban
1 Nacionalista
1 Akbayan
1 PMP
4 independent
 
282 Majority–5 others




66 PDP–Laban
36 Nacionalista
35 NPC
33 NUP
26 Lakas
10 Liberal
47 others
62 party-lists

Latest electionsEdit

SenateEdit

In the Philippines, the most common way to illustrate the result in a Senate election is via a tally of candidates in descending order of votes. The twelve candidates with the highest number of votes are elected.


e • d Summary of the May 9, 2022 Philippine Senate election results
# Candidate Coalition Party Votes %
1. Robin Padilla Tuloy na Pagbabago, UniTeam[c] PDP–Laban 27,027,235 48.18%
2. Loren Legarda UniTeam[c], Lacson–Sotto slate[d], MP3[e], Tuloy na Pagbabago[f] NPC 24,367,564 43.44%
3. Raffy Tulfo MP3[e], Lacson–Sotto slate[d] Independent 23,488,450 41.87%
4. Win Gatchalian UniTeam NPC 20,678,804 36.86%
5. Francis Escudero Lacson–Sotto slate[d], MP3[e], TRoPa[g] NPC 20,320,069 36.22%
6. Mark Villar UniTeam, Tuloy na Pagbabago[f] Nacionalista 19,563,262 34.88%
7. Alan Peter Cayetano Independent 19,359,758 34.51%
8. Juan Miguel Zubiri UniTeam, MP3[e] Independent 18,931,207 33.75%
9. Joel Villanueva Lacson–Sotto slate[d], MP3[e], TRoPa[g] Independent 18,539,537 33.05%
10. JV Ejercito Lacson–Sotto slate, MP3[e] NPC 15,901,891 28.35%
11. Risa Hontiveros TRoPa, LEAD[h] Akbayan 15,470,005 27.58%
12. Jinggoy Estrada UniTeam PMP 15,174,288 27.05%
13. Jejomar Binay MP3[e], Lacson–Sotto slate[d], TRoPa[g] UNA 13,348,887 23.80%
14. Herbert Bautista UniTeam NPC 13,206,704 23.54%
15. Gilbert Teodoro UniTeam, Tuloy na Pagbabago[f] PRP 12,827,577 22.87%
16. Guillermo Eleazar Lacson–Sotto slate Reporma 11,360,526 20.27%
17. Harry Roque UniTeam, Tuloy na Pagbabago[f] PRP 11,285,713 20.14%
18. Gregorio Honasan Lacson–Sotto slate[d], UniTeam[c] Independent 10,668,886 19.04%
19. Chel Diokno TRoPa, LEAD[h] KANP 10,020,008 17.88%
20. Larry Gadon UniTeam KBL 9,712,118 17.33%
21. Antonio Trillanes TRoPa Liberal 8,653,717 15.44%
22. Richard Gordon Lacson–Sotto slate[d], MP3[e], TRoPa[g] Bagumbayan 8,427,820 15.04%
23. Leila de Lima TRoPa, LEAD[h] Liberal 7,305,153 13.04%
24. Neri Colmenares Makabayan, LEAD[h], MP3[e] Makabayan 6,108,365 10.90%
25. Alex Lacson TRoPa Ang Kapatiran 5,499,733 9.81%
26. Salvador Panelo Tuloy na Pagbabago PDP–Laban 4,916,875 8.77%
27. Francis Leo Marcos Independent 4,548,568 8.12%
28. Teddy Baguilat LEAD[h], TRoPa Liberal 4,284,752 7.65%
29. Monsour del Rosario Reporma Reporma 3,824,557 6.82%
30. Carl Balita Aksyon Aksyon 3,771,019 6.73%
31. Rodante Marcoleta[i] Tuloy na Pagbabago, UniTeam[c] PDP–Laban 3,599,053 6.42%
32. Emmanuel Piñol Lacson–Sotto slate NPC 3,570,287 6.37%
33. Minguita Padilla Lacson–Sotto slate Reporma 3,567,523 6.37%
34. Luke Espiritu LEAD PLM 3,480,211 6.21%
35. Astra Pimentel-Naik PDP–Laban PDP–Laban 3,002,907 5.36%
36. Sonny Matula TRoPa, LEAD[h] Independent 2,698,368 4.81%
37. Greco Belgica Tuloy na Pagbabago PDDS 2,362,101 4.21%
38. Jopet Sison Aksyon Aksyon 2,223,959 3.96%
39. Samira Gutoc Aksyon, LEAD[h] Aksyon 2,225,400 3.97%
40. Carmen Zubiaga Independent 1,771,078 3.16%
41. Silvestre Bello Jr. PDP–Laban PDP–Laban 1,744,355 3.11%
42. Elmer Labog Makabayan, LEAD[h], MP3[e] Makabayan 1,582,623 2.82%
43. Rey Langit Tuloy na Pagbabago PDP–Laban 1,369,680 2.44%
44. Melchor Chavez WPP WPP 957,559 1.71%
45. Abner Afuang Independent 906,672 1.62%
46. Roy Cabonegro LEAD PLM 885,416 1.58%
47. Ibrahim Albani WPP WPP 849,825 1.51%
48. Lutgardo Barbo MP3 PDP–Laban 754,129 1.34%
49. John Castriciones Aksyon[j], Tuloy na Pagbabago PDP–Laban 719,198 1.28%
50. David d'Angelo LEAD PLM 697,520 1.24%
51. Agnes Bailen Independent 675,592 1.20%
52. Nur-Mahal Kiram Independent 603,542 1.08%
53. Nur-Ana Sahidulla PDDS PDDS 599,063 1.07%
54. Leo Olarte Bigkis Pinoy Bigkis Pinoy 574,893 1.02%
55. Ariel Lim Independent 564,802 1.01%
56. Fernando Diaz PPP PPP 562,591 1.00%
57. Jesus Arranza Independent 530,391 0.95%
58. Willie Ricablanca Jr. PM PM 494,603 0.88%
59. RJ Javellana Independent 474,958 0.85%
60. Marieta Mindalano-Adam Katipunan Katipunan 452,455 0.81%
61. Ernie Ereño PM PM 451,051 0.80%
62. Baldomero Falcone DPP DPP 400,138 0.71%
63. Emily Mallillin PPM PPM 394,274 0.70%
64. Rey Valeros Independent 356,679 0.64%
Total turnout 56,095,234 83.07%
Total votes 434,695,944
Registered voters, including overseas voters 67,525,619
Source: COMELEC
  1. ^
  2. ^ The URL of the website of the House of Representatives is, for example, www.congress.gov.ph.
  3. ^ a b c d Guest candidate of UniTeam Alliance
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Guest candidate of the Lacson–Sotto slate
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Guest candidate of the MP3 Alliance
  6. ^ a b c d Guest candidate of Tuloy na Pagbabago
  7. ^ a b c d Guest candidate of Team Robredo–Pangilinan
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Guest candidate of Labor and Ecology Advocates for Democracy
  9. ^ Withdrew
  10. ^ Guest candidate of Aksyon Demokratiko

House of RepresentativesEdit

A voter has two votes in the House of Representatives: one vote for a representative elected in the voter's congressional district (first-past-the-post), and one vote for a party in the party-list system (closed list), the so-called party-list representatives; party-list representatives shall comprise not more than 20% of the House of Representatives.

To determine the winning parties in the party-list election, a party must surpass the 2% election threshold of the national vote; usually, the party with the largest number of votes wins the maximum three seats, the rest two seats. If the number of seats of the parties that surpassed the 2% threshold is less than 20% of the total seats, the parties that won less than 2% of the vote gets one seat each until the 20% requirement is met.

District electionsEdit

 
PartyVotes%+/–Seats+/–
PDP–Laban10,950,69622.73−8.4966−16
Nacionalista Party6,610,87613.72−2.3836−6
National Unity Party6,087,28812.63+3.1233+8
Nationalist People's Coalition5,637,21111.70−2.6135−2
Lakas–CMD4,523,9729.39+4.2826+14
Liberal Party1,823,4263.78−1.9510−8
Hugpong ng Pagbabago1,223,8152.54+0.936+3
People's Reform Party942,7191.96+1.623+2
Aksyon Demokratiko868,6681.80+0.8200
Partido Pilipino sa Pagbabago503,8271.05New00
Partido para sa Demokratikong Reporma478,0310.99New2New
Partido Federal ng Pilipinas458,0380.95−1.432−3
Pederalismo ng Dugong Dakilang Samahan426,4510.89+0.252New
National Unity Party/One Cebu423,8180.88New2New
Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino373,9880.78+0.161−1
Bukidnon Paglaum336,2660.70−0.1320
Unang Sigaw ng Nueva Ecija313,5210.65+0.3500
United Bangsamoro Justice Party292,1100.61New00
PROMDI288,0490.60New00
National Unity Party/United Negros Alliance254,3550.53New2New
Padayon Pilipino245,2060.51+0.272New
Aksyon Demokratiko/Asenso Manileño240,5590.50New3New
Kilusang Bagong Lipunan213,9500.44+0.3600
People's Champ Movement204,0760.42New1New
Nacionalista Party/Bileg Ti Ilokano201,4180.42New1New
National Unity Party/Asenso Manileño165,5770.34New2New
Sulong Zambales Party144,0600.30New1New
Mindoro bago Sarili142,0950.29New1New
Basilan Unity Party137,9760.29New1New
Centrist Democratic Party of the Philippines128,1340.27+0.0710
United Benguet Party123,8010.26New1New
Partido Pederal ng Maharlika104,5880.22New00
Bigkis Pinoy94,5710.20New00
Nationalist People's Coalition/Asenso Manileño90,0750.19New1New
Partido Navoteño79,5050.17−0.0310
Partido Demokratiko Sosyalista ng Pilipinas78,0290.16+0.0200
Lakas–CMD/United Negros Alliance76,1150.16New0New
Hugpong sa Tawong Lungsod73,7960.15−0.340−1
Adelante Zamboanga Party73,7850.15+0.081New
Samahang Kaagapay ng Agilang Pilipino73,3460.15New00
Partidong Pagbabago ng Palawan71,9860.15−0.310−2
Reform PH - People's Party70,1160.15New00
United Nationalist Alliance68,5720.14−0.431New
Partido Prosperidad y Amor para na Zamboanga67,1330.14New00
Lingkod ng Mamamayan ng Valenzuela City50,5990.11New00
Labor Party Philippines50,1500.10+0.0800
Achievers with Integrity Movement48,4620.10New00
PDP–Laban/Partido Siquijodnon33,9890.07New1New
Ummah Party29,0430.06New00
Ang Kapatiran17,4840.04New00
Pwersa ng Masang Pilipino10,6420.02−0.960−1
Partido Lakas ng Masa5,2230.01New00
Philippine Green Republican Party4,8560.01+0.0100
Katipunan ng Nagkakaisang Pilipino4,3700.01−0.2800
Katipunan ng Kamalayang Kayumanggi2,2950.00New00
Bagumbayan–VNP1,6070.00−0.0800
Independent2,137,0934.44−0.536+4
Party-list seats63+2
Total48,181,407100.00316+12
Valid votes48,181,40787.14+0.80
Invalid/blank votes7,109,41412.86−0.80
Total votes55,290,821100.00
Registered voters/turnout65,745,52684.10+8.20
Source: COMELEC (Results per individual province/city, election day turnout, absentee turnout

Party-list electionEdit

PartyVotes%+/–Seats+/–
Anti-Crime and Terrorism Community Involvement and Support2,111,0915.74−3.7730
Ang Buklod ng mga Motorista ng Pilipinas1,001,2432.72New2New
Tingog Sinirangan886,9592.41+1.012+1
Pagtibayin at Palaguin ang Pangkabuhayang Pilipino848,2372.30New2New
Ako Bicol Political Party816,4452.22−1.5420
Social Amelioration and Genuine Intervention on Poverty780,4562.12+1.202+1
Alyansa ng mga Mamamayang Probinsyano714,6341.94−0.821−1
Uswag Ilonggo Party689,6071.87New1New
Tutok To Win685,5781.86New1New
Citizens' Battle Against Corruption637,0441.73−1.601−1
Coalition of Associations of Senior Citizens in the Philippines614,6711.67−0.1810
Duterte Youth602,1961.64+0.3710
Agimat ng Masa586,9091.59New1New
Kabataan Partylist536,6901.46+0.7610
Agrikultura Ngayon Gawing Akma at Tama530,4851.44New1New
Marino Samahan ng mga Seaman530,3821.44−1.001−1
Ako Bisaya512,7951.39−0.0210
Probinsyano Ako471,9041.28−0.981−1
LPG Marketers Association453,8951.23+0.4810
Abante Pangasinan-Ilokano Party451,3721.23New1New
Gabriela Women's Party423,8911.15−0.4610
Construction Workers Solidarity412,3331.12+0.1210
Agri-Agra na Reporma para sa Magsasaka ng Pilipinas393,9871.07+0.591+1
Komunidad ng Pamilya Pasyente at Persons with Disabilities391,1741.06New1New
Ako Ilocano Ako387,0861.05New1New
Kusug Tausug385,7701.05+0.2310
An Waray385,4601.05−0.5410
Kalinga-Advocacy for Social Empowerment and Nation-Building Through Easing Poverty374,3081.02−0.2010
Agricultural Sector Alliance of the Philippines367,5331.00+0.2510
Cooperative NATCCO Party346,3410.94−0.5610
Malasakit at Bayanihan Foundation345,1990.94New1New
Barangay Health Wellness335,5980.91−0.0610
Galing sa Puso Party333,8170.91+0.0210
Bagong Henerasyon330,9370.90−0.1410
ACT Teachers Partylist330,5290.90−0.5210
Talino at Galing ng Pinoy327,9120.89+0.1110
Bicol Saro325,3710.88New1New
United Senior Citizens Koalition ng Pilipinas[a]320,6270.87New0New
Dumper Philippines Taxi Drivers Association314,6180.85+0.0510
Pinatatag na Ugnayan para sa mga Oportunidad sa Pabahay ng Masa299,9900.82New1New
Abang Lingkod296,8000.81−0.1810
Puwersa ng Bayaning Atleta294,6190.80−0.3710
One Filipinos Worldwide Coalition Partylist293,3010.80New1New
Abono288,7520.78−0.5810
Alagaan Natin Ating Kalusugan281,5120.76−0.0910
Kabalikat ng Mamamayan280,0660.76+0.0510
Magkakasama sa Sakahan Kaunlaran276,8890.75−1.0310
One Patriotic Coalition of Marginalized Nationals273,1950.74−1.821−1
Association of Philippine Electric Cooperatives271,3800.74−0.9810
Pusong Pinoy262,0440.71New1New
Trade Union Congress Party260,7790.71−0.2110
Public Safety Alliance for Transformation and Rule of Law Inc.252,5710.69−0.0910
Manila Teacher's Savings and Loan Association249,5250.68−0.2110
Ang Asosasyon Sang Mangunguma Nga Bisaya-Owa Mangunguma246,0530.67−0.1710
Philippine Rural Electric Cooperatives Association243,4870.66−0.7610
Alliance of Organizations, Networks and Associations of the Philippines238,7040.65−0.5010
Akbayan Citizens' Action Party236,2260.64+0.0200
Democratic Independent Workers Association234,9960.64−0.060−1
Asenso Pinoy232,2290.63New00
Mindanao Indigenous Conference for Peace and Development[b]230,3150.63New00
Ang Pamilya Muna225,0410.61New00
Advocacy for Teacher Empowerment through Action, Cooperation and Harmony Toward Educational Reforms, Inc.221,3270.60−0.380−1
Bayan Muna219,8480.60−3.410−3
1st Consumers Alliance for Rural Energy218,2150.59+0.1300
You Against Corruption and Poverty214,6940.58−0.0200
Kasama Regional Political Party213,5390.58New00
Ako Bisdak - Bisayang Dako204,1110.55+0.3700
Abante Sambayanan[b]201,9610.55New00
Alliance of Public Transport Organization183,8690.50New00
Nagkakaisang Pilipino para sa Pag-Angat ng Maralitang Manileño174,4520.47New00
Towards Development and Action174,3960.47New00
Advocates and Keepers Organization of OFWs169,1770.46New00
Philippine National Police Retirees Association160,4180.44+0.1500
Samahan ng Manggagawa sa Industriya ng Live Events158,2450.43New00
Pamilyang Magsasaka158,0340.43New00
Philippine Educators Alliance for Community Empowerment157,6170.430.0000
Bayaning Tsuper157,2780.43New00
Acts Overseas Filipino Workers Coalition of Organizations155,0720.42−0.0500
Pinagbuklod na Filipino para sa Bayan151,5020.41+0.3400
Tulungan Tayo147,0500.40New00
Filipino Rights Protection Advocates of Manila Movement144,9690.39New00
Bahay para sa Pamilyang Pilipino142,6760.39−0.620−1
Tagapagtaguyod ng mga Reporma at Adhikaing Babalikat at Hahango sa mga Oportunidad para sa mga Pilipino138,9730.38New00
Anak Mindanao134,6470.37−0.390−1
Ako Padayon Pilipino Party List132,2220.36−0.480−1
Cancer Alleviation Network on Care, Education and Rehabilitation128,2840.35New00
Kalipunan ng Maralita at Malayang Mamamayan126,3930.34New00
Magdalo para sa Pilipino119,1890.32−0.590−1
PDP Cares Foundation117,1390.32New00
Rural Electric Consumers and Beneficiaries of Development and Advancement117,1260.32−0.820−1
Act as One Philippines116,1730.32New00
Kooperatiba-Kapisanan ng Magsasaka ng Pilipinas114,5870.31+0.1300
Walang Iwanan sa Free Internet Inc.113,9710.31New00
Bisaya Gyud Party-List113,3880.31New00
Hugpong Federal Movement of the Philippines112,6540.31New00
Moro Ako - Ok Party-List110,1710.30New00
Angkla: ang Partido ng mga Pilipinong Marino109,3430.30−0.3500
Ang National Coalition of Indigenous People Action Na!108,8070.30New00
Passengers and Riders Organization108,6470.30New00
Ang Kabuhayan Partylist108,5350.29+0.0200
Ang Tinig ng Seniors Citizens sa Filipinas, Inc.[b]104,9570.29New00
Lungsod Aasenso103,1490.28New00
Buhay Hayaan Yumabong103,0770.28−1.020−1
Una ang Edukasyon102,6870.28−0.1500
Igorot Warriors International, Inc.[b]95,2170.26New00
OFW Family Club93,0590.25−0.470−1
Health, Education, Livelihood Program of the Philippines93,0070.25New00
Wow Pilipinas Movement90,6980.25−0.3700
Kapamilya ng Manggagawang Pilipino89,6950.24New00
Ating Agapay Sentrong Samahan ng mga Obrero88,6110.24−0.0300
Friends of the Poor and Jobless Party-List[b]88,5640.24New00
Butil Farmers Party87,3050.24−0.3500
Avid Builders of Active Nation's Citizenry Towards Empowered Philippines87,2110.24−0.1100
Subanen Party-List86,5330.24New00
Turismo Isulong Mo86,1190.23New00
Abe Kapampangan85,2260.23−0.0700
Barkadahan para sa Bansa83,8600.23New00
Anakpawis81,4360.22−0.3100
Ugyon Mangunguma, Mangingisda kag Mamumugon nga Ilonggo[b]73,4540.20New00
Ang Kabuhayang Kayang Kaya72,5470.20New00
National Association of Electricity Consumers for Reforms71,8220.20−0.0900
Rebolusyonaryong Alyansang Makabansa69,7400.19−0.660−1
Ayuda sa May Kapansanan[b]66,4570.18New00
Ang Bumbero ng Pilipinas65,9290.18New00
Kilusang Maypagasa65,1330.18−0.1000
Mothers for Change64,7850.18New00
One Coop64,6270.18New00
Ang Komadrona64,0870.17New00
Samahan ng Totoong Larong may Puso Foundation60,3840.16New00
Malabung Workers Party59,4990.16New00
Ang Laban ng Indiginong Filipino58,6580.16−0.0900
Kabalikat ng Bayan sa Kaunlaran57,6920.16New00
Bunyog Pagkakaisa57,0300.15New00
Computer Literacy, Innovation Connectivity and Knowledge55,8420.15New00
Kabalikat Patungo sa Umuunlad na Sistematiko at Organisadong Pangkabuhayan Movement53,6350.15New00
Home Owners, and Marginalized Empowerment Through Opportunities with Neighborhood Economic Reliability53,5600.15New00
Kilos Mamamayan Ngayon Na52,2050.14New00
United Frontliners of the Philippines50,8490.14New00
Alsa Bisaya47,4150.13New00
Bangon Philippine Outsourcing47,3820.13New00
Lingkud Bayanihan Party[b]43,8960.12New00
Maharlikang Pilipino Party43,2600.12New00
Advocates for Retail & Fashion, Textile & Tradition, Events, Entertainment & Creative Sector42,0860.11New00
Ipatupad for Workers Inc.41,7970.11New00
Kabalikat ng Hustisiya ng Nagkakaisang Manileno39,3440.11+0.0100
Babae Ako para sa Bayan39,2540.11New00
Damayan para sa Reporma Tungo sa Inklusibo at Laganap na mga Oportunidad Ngayon36,3940.10New00
Partido Cocoman35,5830.10New00
Aktibong Kaagapay ng mga Manggagawa34,3380.09New00
Ako Breeder Party-List[b]32,6300.09New00
Ako Musikero Association28,2970.08New00
Philippine Society for Industrial Security27,8510.08New00
Ang Koalisyon ng Indigenous People27,5830.07New00
Aksyon Magsasaka-Partido Tinig ng Masa27,3640.07−0.6200
Mindoro Sandugo para sa Kaunlaran26,8000.07New00
Samahang Ilaw at Bisig25,8710.07New00
One Unified Transport Alliance of the Philippines Bicol Region23,0210.06−0.0200
Alagaan ang Sambayanang Pilipino22,5430.06New00
Parents Teachers Alliance22,3190.06−0.0400
Ang Programang Aasenso Taumbayan - Dream, Act, Participate and Advocate for Sustainable Transformation[b]20,9490.06New00
Arts Business and Science Professionals20,1490.05−0.0600
Alliance for Resilience, Sustainability and Empowerment[b]20,1310.05New00
Movement of Active Apostolic Guardians Association of the Philippines19,6450.05New00
Solid Movement Towards Comprehensive Change18,9540.05New00
Noble Advancement of Marvelous People of the Philippines Inc.18,1720.05+0.0100
Alternatiba ng Masa18,0480.05New00
Partido Lakas ng Masa17,7830.05−0.0500
Pilipino Society and Development Advocates Commuter-Consumer17,4060.05New00
United Filipino Consumers and Commuters16,7330.05New00
Aksyon Tungo sa Asenso at Pagsulong ng Pilipino16,1160.04New00
People's Volunteer Against Illegal Drugs14,3300.04New00
National Firemen's Confederation of the Philippines11,6920.03New00
Laban ng Isang Bayan Para sa Reporma at Oportunidad[b]11,0670.03New00
1 Tahanan10,3830.03New00
Pilipinas para sa Pinoy8,7740.02−0.0300
Aangat Kusinerong Pinoy8,2610.02New00
Kusog Bikolandia7,8400.02New00
Total36,802,064100.0062+1
Valid votes36,802,06465.61+6.65
Invalid/blank votes19,293,17034.39−6.65
Total votes56,095,234
Registered voters/turnout67,525,61983.07+8.76
Source: COMELEC
  1. ^ United Senior Citizens is entitled to a seat in Congress based on the results. However, as of May 25th, they have not been proclaimed as they have a pending case in the COMELEC regarding their accreditation.[7]
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l This partylist was rejected by COMELEC from joining the 2022 elections, but has secured a Temporary Restraining Order from the Supreme Court. Because of this, they have been included in the ballot and their votes are counted for calculation purposes.[8]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Ager, Maila (July 25, 2022). "Zubiri is new Senate President". INQUIRER.net. Retrieved July 27, 2022.
  2. ^ Panti, Llanesca T. "House elects Romualdez as speaker". GMA News Online. Retrieved July 27, 2022.
  3. ^ a b c d "Article VI: THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT". Philippines Official Gazette. Retrieved May 31, 2013.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "The Legislative Branch". Philippines Official Gazette. Philippines Official Gazette. Retrieved May 31, 2013.
  5. ^ "The City Council of Manila". Manila Standard. June 24, 2002. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
  6. ^ a b Elizalde, María Dolores (September 2013). "The Philippines at the Cortes de Cádiz". Philippine Studies: Historical and Ethnographic Viewpoints. 61 (3): 331–361. doi:10.1353/phs.2013.0014. hdl:10261/165907. S2CID 145232653.
  7. ^ Fernandez, Daniza (May 26, 2022). "Comelec proclaims winning party-list groups". INQUIRER.net. Retrieved May 26, 2022.
  8. ^ "More rejected party-list groups get SC relief before printing of ballots". Rappler. January 7, 2022. Retrieved May 26, 2022.

SourcesEdit

External linksEdit