Partido Demokratiko Pilipino–Lakas ng Bayan[6][7] (lit.'Philippine Democratic Party–People's Power'), abbreviated as PDP–Laban, is a democratic socialist[8] political party in the Philippines founded in 1982. It was the country's ruling party from 2016 until 2022 under the administration of Rodrigo Duterte.

PresidentJose C. Alvarez
ChairpersonRodrigo R. Duterte
Secretary-GeneralMelvin A. Matibag
FounderAquilino Q. Pimentel Jr. (PDP)
Benigno S. Aquino Jr. (LABAN)
  • February 6, 1983; 39 years ago (1983-02-06) (merger)[1]
Merger ofPDP and LABAN
Headquarters115-A Palm Court Street corner F.B. Harrison Street, Barangay 69, Pasay City 1300, Metro Manila
Think tankPDP–Laban Federalism Institute[3]
Membership (2021)100,000[4]
IdeologyDemocratic socialism
Social democracy
Political positionCentre-left to left-wing
National affiliationUniTeam Alliance (2022–present)
Colors  Yellow,   dark blue, and   red
AnthemPambansang Martsa ng PDP–Laban[5] (National March of the PDP–Laban)
Seats in the Senate
5 / 24
Seats in the House of Representatives
41 / 316
Provincial governorships
23 / 81
Provincial vice governorships
31 / 81
Provincial board members
263 / 1,023


First major era (1983–1988)Edit

The party now known as PDP–Laban is the result of a merger between the Partido Demokratiko Pilipino and Lakas ng Bayan.[9][10]

Partido Demokratiko Pilipino (PDP)Edit

Partido Demokratiko Pilipino (PDP) was founded on February 6, 1982, in Cebu City by Aquilino "Nene" Pimentel Jr. and a group of protesters against the authoritarian government of Ferdinand Marcos, the 10th president of the Philippines, and his ruling party, the Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (KBL).[9] These protesters included the leaders of Cebu City, Davao City and Cagayan de Oro, such as former Cebu 2nd district congressman Antonio Cuenco as the convention's first chairman, Ribomapil Holganza, as the convention's first secretary-general, Zafiro L. Respicio, Rey Magno Teves, Cesar R. Ledesma, Samuel Occeña, Crispin Lanorias and Mords Cua.[11]

Ribomapil Holganza, then the party's Secretary-General, with the support of the other Visayas delegates, proposed the name Katipunan, in honor of the historic Filipino nationalist movement. The convention, however, decided against name proposed by Holganza and decided to retain the name Pilipino Democratic Party. The delegates also created the party's official logo which included the image of Lapu-Lapu as a symbol of the party's adherence to Filipino individualism. The Lapu-Lapu image continues to be a prominent figure in PDP–Laban's logo to this day. The delegates also decided that the Filipino version Partido Demokratiko Pilipino may be used alongside the English version Pilipino Democratic Party.[12]

PDP appealed to the non-communist Left.[13] Political scientist Alex Magno described PDP as "more advanced… in its analysis of Philippine society and the ills that beset it" compared with the mainstream anti-Marcos groups. PDP was also unique at its time for operating "on the basis of organizational initiative rather than, merely on the basis of personal loyalty to politician-personalities"; and for requiring prospective members to attend a seminar to learn the party's ideology.[14]

Merger into PDP–Laban and 1986 snap electionEdit

In February 1983, PDP formally merged with Lakas ng Bayan (LABAN; Tagalog for "People's Power"), the party founded by former senator Benigno Aquino Jr. in 1978. The merger was complementary, as PDP was mass-based and had its bailiwick in Visayas and Mindanao, while LABAN was composed of traditional politicians and had its bailiwick in Luzon and Metro Manila.[15][16] In August 1983, Aquino was assassinated. This, along with an economic crisis, plunged Marcos' popularity and sparked protests.[15] In the parliamentary election of 1984, PDP–Laban and the United Nationalist Democratic Organization (UNIDO) were the major opposition groups. PDP–Laban won six seats.[17] That same year, in anticipation of a snap election, influential opposition figures convened to select a common presidential candidate. Pimentel was included in their shortlist of eleven possible standard bearers. However, UNIDO nominated Salvador Laurel as their presidential candidate. In October 1985, Chino Roces launched the Cory Aquino for President Movement (CAPM), which aimed to nominate Aquino's widow, Corazon, as the opposition's presidential candidate. PDP–Laban was a strong supporter of the movement. In November 1985, Marcos called for a snap presidential election. Later that month, the opposition parties including PDP–Laban formed a new coalition called Laban ng Bayan. Laurel eventually gave way and became Corazon Aquino's running mate under the UNIDO-Laban ng Bayan coalition.[15]

PDP–Laban then aligned itself with UNIDO, which became the main group and leader of the coalition that opposed Marcos. After the People Power Revolution of 1986, which saw Aquino and Laurel proclaimed president and vice president respectively, PDP–Laban continued its alliance with UNIDO until the latter's dissolution in 1987.

Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino splitEdit

Before the 1988 local elections, some senators including Aquilino Pimentel Jr. criticized the party along with Lakas ng Bansa for their loosening policy towards accepting members of the Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (KBL), a party which is largely composed of Marcos loyalists and sympathizers.[18] In 1988, PDP–Laban was split into two factions: the Pimentel Wing led by Pimentel and the Cojuangco Wing led by Jose Cojuangco Jr. The Cojuangco Wing and the Lakas ng Bansa party of House Speaker Ramon Mitra, Jr. merged in 1988 to form the Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino party.

After the merger, the prominence of PDP–Laban greatly fell, and the party was not a major party until the 2016 presidential election with the campaign of eventual winner Rodrigo Duterte.


In the Senate, Aquilino Pimentel Jr. had been the person most associated with the party, with him serving multiple terms in the Senate. After he retired, his son Koko Pimentel won an electoral protest to enter the Senate in 2011.

PDP–Laban has become associated with the Binay dynasty of Makati, with Jejomar Binay as its mayor and his allies holding the two districts of Makati in the House of Representatives. Other strongholds of the party include Davao City, where Rodrigo Duterte won multiple terms as mayor.

On July 1, 2015, as part of his bid for the 2016 presidential election, then-Vice President Binay resigned as party chairman and formed the United Nationalist Alliance (UNA). Since then, Senator Aquilino "Koko" Pimentel III headed the party as its national president.

Second major era (2016–2021)Edit

The party is currently re-grouping, and there are some movements of expansion especially in Mindanao, where it originated, particularly in the Davao region. Two of the party's founders, Crispin Lanorias and Cesar Ledesma, are again active in recent party activities. After the 2016 elections, PDP–Laban signed a coalition agreement with the Nacionalista Party, Lakas–CMD, National Unity Party and the Nationalist People's Coalition, witnessed by then president-elect Rodrigo Duterte.

Immediately after the May 2016 elections, several representatives from other parties moved to PDP–Laban, notably: Geraldine Roman (Bataan), Alfred Vargas (Quezon City), and Ansaruddin Adiong (Lanao del Sur).[19] The party's presence in the House of Representatives eventually grew from three members in the 16th Congress, to 123 members in the current 17th Congress.[20][21] By April 2018, 300,000 politicians had joined the party, according to Koko Pimentel.[22]

Reacting to the influx of new members, party founder Nene Pimentel urged members to question the motivations of new incoming politicians and ensure they are interested in the party's ideals. He stated that these new members might only be interested in identifying with the current administration, in order to boost their chances of winning in the upcoming 2019 elections.[23]

PDP–Laban plans to learn from the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). It is set to send some of its members to the CCP's school in Fujian for "policy training" to learn more on how the party is organized.[24] The Filipino party also established ties with United Russia, Russia's ruling party, in October 2017.[25] PDP–Laban has also expressed interest in sending a delegation to the Workers' Party of Korea, which is the ruling party of North Korea. A four-member delegation is set to meet with the North Korean party in July 2018.[26][27]

2018 leadership crisisEdit

On July 23, 2018, the same day as Duterte's third State of the Nation Address, an internal leadership dispute within the House of Representatives' majority resulted in former president and current Pampanga representative Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo becoming Speaker of the lower house, replacing Pantaleon Alvarez.[28][29][30] The resolution was adopted that same night with 184 voting in favor and 12 abstaining.[31] Arroyo was previously a member of Lakas–CMD, before switching to PDP–Laban in 2017.[32]

Some representatives, including Deputy Speaker Rolando Andaya (Camarines Sur), had been eyeing to shift towards other political parties after Arroyo's ascendance to the House's leadership.[33] Andaya also had said that some lawmakers might join Lakas–CMD, Arroyo's former party, and merge with Sara Duterte-Carpio's Hugpong ng Pagbabago (HNP).[34] Duterte-Carpio denied rumors that members of PDP–Laban were seeking to move into HNP, which is a regional party based in Davao Region.[35]

Succeeding these events, a faction sought to unseat PDP–Laban's high-ranking officials.[36] Willy Talag, president of the party's Makati city council and chair of the membership committee of the NCR Chapter, said during an assembly of the party on July 27 that PDP–Laban's current leaders have committed violations, including holding mass oath-taking of members “without proper basic seminar” and swearing-in officials that are “involved in illegal drugs."[37] The faction elected Rogelio Garcia and Talag as party president and chairman, respectively, removing Senator Aquilino "Koko" Pimentel III and Rep. Pantaleon Alvarez from their respective positions.[38][39]

Koko Pimentel dismissed the election of new leaders, disowning the group and assembly,[40] and called the event an "unofficial, unauthorized, rogue assembly using the name of PDP–Laban".[41] Sen. Pimentel, who has personally dismissed the election,[42] together with PDP–Laban vice chairman and Department of Energy Sec. Alfonso Cusi, and Rep. Alvarez have notified members that the supposed national assembly was not officially sanctioned by the party.[36] Special Assistant to the President Bong Go said in an interview with CNN Philippines that Duterte is set to meet the two factions, in an effort to unite the party.[43]

2019 general electionEdit

Months later, on November 30, the Commission on Elections (COMELEC) released a statement recognizing Pimentel's group as the legitimate leadership of PDP–Laban.[44][45][46] Following this, Pimentel has said that his faction will not recognize candidates from the Garcia wing.[47][48]

The party secured three new seats in the Senate after winning the 2019 general election, with Bato dela Rosa, Francis Tolentino, and Bong Go joining the upper house, increasing the number of PDP–Laban senators to five. Meanwhile, the party kept its majority in the House of Representatives, forming a coalition with the Nacionalista Party, Nationalist People's Coalition, Lakas–CMD, some members of the Liberal Party, and several party-lists.

In 2020, amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, Manny Pacquiao was installed as party president, replacing Pimentel.[49][50]

2021 party faction dispute and 2022 electionEdit

The party logo being used by both factions during the 2021 leadership dispute.
The former official logo of the party until 2016, which contains an illustration of Lapu-Lapu. The current logo included the figure on top of a clenched fist. The Pacquiao-Pimentel wing of the party reused this version of the logo during the 2021 leadership dispute.

Manny Pacquiao was elected to the position of PDP–Laban president in December 2020 under an acting capacity. An internal rift in within the party started in early 2021, when Pacquiao criticized Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte's policy regarding the South China Sea dispute, finding Duterte's response against China's assertions of its claim in the area as lacking. Duterte, also the PDP–Laban chairman, rebuked Pacquiao's criticisms and took offense to a statement attributed to Pacquiao that his administration was more corrupt than his predecessors. Pacquiao also came into conflict with PDP–Laban vice chairman Alfonso Cusi.[51][52][53]

On July 17, 2021, amidst the split between Pacquiao and Cusi, Alfonso Cusi was elected as the party's president in a meeting attended by President Duterte.[54][55][56][57][58]

On September 9, 2021, the Cusi-led faction of PDP–Laban would nominate Duterte as their vice presidential nominee for the 2022 election but without a standard bearer for the presidency. However, during the filing of candidacies, Duterte backed down from running as vice president. On September 19, 2021, the Pacquiao-led faction of PDP–Laban formally nominated Pacquiao as their presidential candidate for 2022.[59] During the filing of the candidacy, Pacquiao announced that Lito Atienza will be his running mate.[60][61]

On October 8, 2021, senators Bato dela Rosa and Bong Go filed their candidacy for president and vice president, respectively, as standard bearers for the Duterte-Cusi faction.[62][63] On November 13, 2021, dela Rosa withdrew his candidacy with Go taking his place as the faction's presidential nominee.[64][65] One month after, Go also withdrew his candidacy, leaving the Duterte-Cusi faction without a nominee in the 2022 election.[66]

On January 21, 2022, the Duterte-Cusi faction announced Sara Duterte as their adopted candidate for vice president;[67] the Cusi wing later supported her running mate, Bongbong Marcos, a son of a former President Ferdinand Marcos, on March 22, 2022.[68] The endorsement of Marcos by the Cusi wing is criticized by both Pimentel and the original members of the party as PDP–Laban was established to oppose the Marcos dictatorship.[68][69][70]

The Pimentel-Pacquiao faction meanwhile maintained that Pacquiao and Atienza are the "genuine" standard bearers of PDP–Laban.[71]

On May 5, 2022, PDP–Laban has been declared by the Commission on Elections as the "dominant majority party" for the 2022 elections. The Comelec en banc made the decision despite the pending leadership dispute within the ruling party.[72][73][74]

The party's two factions have both applied for accreditation as the dominant majority party, thus, PDP–Laban “shall be treated as one single political party for purposes of determining the dominant majority party," as stated in the COMELEC's Resolution No. 10787 which was promulgated on May 4. In the same issuance, COMELEC also declared the Nacionalista Party (NP) as the "dominant minority party." As the dominant majority, PDP–Laban will be entitled to 5th copy of the election returns and 7th copy of the certificates of canvass, as well as getting preference in the deployment of election watchers.[72][74]

On May 6, 2022, days before the 2022 elections, the COMELEC recognized the Duterte-Cusi faction as the legitimate and official PDP–Laban.[75]

Ideology and platformEdit

PDP–Laban is a "centre-left"[76] or "left-wing"[77] party generally described as a social democratic,[78][79][80] democratic socialist,[81][82][83][84][85] and populist party.[86][87] They also have federalist tendencies.[88] The party advocates a transition to a federal,[89] presidential form of government from the current unitary presidential system[90][91][92] through a revision of the present 1987 Constitution of the Philippines. According to self-published materials, the party seeks a peaceful and democratic way of life characterized by "freedom, solidarity, justice, equity, social responsibility, self-reliance, efficiency and enlightened nationalism".[93] It has touted as its five guiding principles the following: theism, authentic humanism, enlightened nationalism, democratic socialism, and consultative and participatory democracy.[94]


From the 1980s, the 'Laban' or 'L' sign was a hand gesture used by the party, along with other members of the UNIDO coalition, which originally supported Corazon Aquino. This was done by raising the thumb and index finger over the forehead, forming a letter "L' shape.[95] This was popularized during the People Power Revolution.[96] During the campaign and presidency of Rodrigo Duterte, the Laban sign fell into disuse within PDP–Laban and was replaced with a clenched fist, a gesture popularized by Duterte. The clenched fist was later included in the party's current logo.[97]

Current party officialsEdit

Candidates for Philippine general electionsEdit


Presidential ticketEdit

  • Rodrigo Duterte for president (formally announced candidacy on November 21, 2015 and officially filed Certificate of Candidacy on November 27 and December 8)WON
  • Martin Diño[98][note 1] (filed his candidacy on October 16, 2015, withdrawn on October 29)


Senatorial candidatesEdit


The party endorsed and supported the candidacies of Bongbong Marcos for president and Sara Duterte for vice president. Senator Ronald dela Rosa filed the candidacy as the party’s official candidate for the presidential race but later withdrawn.

Senatorial candidatesEdit

Cusi factionEdit
Pacquiao factionEdit
  • Lutgardo "Lutz" Barbo

Electoral performanceEdit

Presidential electionsEdit

Year Candidate Votes % Result Outcome
1986 Corazon Aquino (UNIDO) 9,291,716 46.10 Disputed Corazon Aquino (UNIDO) assumed presidency
1992 None; Pimentel's running mate was Jovito Salonga (Liberal Party) 2,302,123 10.16 Lost Fidel V. Ramos (Lakas–NUCD) won
1998 None Joseph Estrada (LAMMP) won
2004 None Gloria Macapagal Arroyo (Lakas–CMD) won
2010 None; Binay's running mate was Joseph Estrada (PMP) 9,487,837 26.25 Lost Benigno Aquino III (Liberal) won
2016 Rodrigo Duterte 16,601,997 39.01 Won Rodrigo Duterte (PDP–Laban) won
2022 None; endorsed Bongbong Marcos (PFP)[a] Bongbong Marcos (PFP) won
Manny Pacquiao (PROMDI)[a] 3,663,113 6.81 Lost

Vice presidential electionsEdit

Year Candidate Votes % Result Outcome
1986 None; Aquino's running mate was Salvador Laurel (UNIDO) 9,173,105 45.85 Disputed Salvador Laurel (UNIDO) assumed vice presidency
1992 Aquilino Pimentel Jr. 2,023,289 9.91 Lost Joseph Estrada (NPC) won
1998 None Lost Gloria Macapagal Arroyo (Lakas–NUCD–UMDP) won
2004 None Noli de Castro (Independent) won
2010 Jejomar Binay 14,645,574 41.65 Lost Jejomar Binay (PDP–Laban) won
2016 None; Duterte's running mate was Alan Peter Cayetano (Independent) 5,903,379 14.38 Lost Leni Robredo won
2022 None; endorsed Sara Duterte (Lakas–CMD)[a] Sara Duterte (Lakas–CMD) won
None; Pacquiao's running mate was Lito Atienza (PROMDI)[a] 270,381 0.52 Lost

Legislative electionsEdit


  1. ^ a b c d Marcos and Duterte were endorsed by the Duterte-Cusi wing, while Pacquiao and Atienza ran under the Pimentel wing.


  1. ^ "THE PARTY – PDP-Laban". PDP-Laban. Retrieved June 21, 2016.
  2. ^ BINAY INDUCTS NEW PDP-LABAN MEMBERS IN GMA, CAVITE – "...the PDP, established in 1982... Archived July 23, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ Ilas, Joyce (February 2, 2018). "PDP-Laban launches book on federalism". CNN Philippines. Retrieved November 29, 2018.
  4. ^
  5. ^ E. Malaya, Jonathan (2017). The Quest for a Federal Republic: The PDP Laban Model of Philippines Federalism 1.0. Pasay: PDP Laban Federalism Institute. p. 329. ISBN 9786218047082.
  6. ^ Elemia, Camille (July 15, 2021). "Will PDP-Laban survive Duterte?". Rappler. Archived from the original on December 24, 2021. Retrieved February 7, 2022.
  7. ^ Santillan, Noe M. (December 2018). "Duterte's Presidency: New Politics, Same Politicians" (PDF). Social Ethics Society Journal of Applied Philosophy (Special Issue): 161–180. ISSN 2546-1885. Retrieved February 7, 2022.
  8. ^ "Ideology and Platform – PDP LABAN". Retrieved February 8, 2022.
  9. ^ a b "How PDP-Laban began |". Retrieved July 6, 2018.
  10. ^ Wenceslao, Bong O. (November 16, 2017). "Wenceslao: Old PDP-Laban". Sunstar. Retrieved July 5, 2018.
  11. ^ "Aquilino 'Nene' Pimentel Jr. and PDP-Laban: A Mindanao story". The Manila Times. Retrieved 2021-01-02.
  12. ^ "Aquilino 'Nene' Pimentel Jr. and PDP-Laban: A Mindanao story". The Manila Times. Archived from the original on 2 October 2021. Retrieved 2021-01-02.
  13. ^ Nemenzo 1985, p. 52
  14. ^ Lallana, Emmanuel C. (December 1989). "Political Parties, Political Clans and the Prospects for Philippine Democracy". Philippine Political Science Journal. 15 (1–2): 43–62. doi:10.1163/2165025X-0150102004.
  15. ^ a b c Kimura, Masataka (September 1991). "Martial Law and the Realignment of Political Parties in the Philippines (September 1972 – February 1986): With a Case in the Province of Batangas". Southeast Asian Studies. 29 (2): 205–226. doi:10.20495/tak.29.2_205.
  16. ^ Teehankee, Julio C. (2020). "Factional Dynamics in Philippine Party Politics, 1900–2019". Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs. 39 (1): 98–123. doi:10.1177/1868103420913404. S2CID 219436839.
  17. ^ Teehankee 2002, pp. 161–162
  18. ^ Maragay, Feliciano V. (December 26, 1987). "Senators assail entry of KBLs into coalition". Manila Standard. Standard Publications, Inc. p. 1. Retrieved June 28, 2021.
  19. ^ "More LP lawmakers, local officials jump ship to admin party". CNN Philippines. May 11, 2017. Archived from the original on July 17, 2017. Retrieved January 21, 2018.
  20. ^ Cabacungan, Gil. "From 3 to 300, PDP-Laban forms 'supermajority' in House". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on January 9, 2018. Retrieved January 21, 2018.
  21. ^ Romero, Paolo (August 27, 2017). "Pimentel denies Alvarez booted out of PDP-Laban". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on August 26, 2017. Retrieved January 21, 2018.
  22. ^ See, Aie Balagtas. "300,000 politicians have jumped ship to PDP-Laban, says Pimentel". Retrieved July 8, 2018.
  23. ^ "Question new members' motives, Nene Pimentel urges PDP-Laban". Rappler. Retrieved July 8, 2018.
  24. ^ "PDP-Laban 'very open' to learn ideology, policy from China's Communist Party". Rappler. July 19, 2017. Retrieved August 23, 2017.
  25. ^ Alvarez, Kathrina Charmaine (October 18, 2017). "Duterte's PDP-Laban inks memorandum with United Russia party". GMA News. Retrieved October 24, 2017.
  26. ^ News, ABS-CBN. "PDP-Laban reps off to North Korea this week". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved July 25, 2018. {{cite news}}: |last= has generic name (help)
  27. ^ Yap, DJ. "PDP-Laban to send 4-member delegation to North Korea". Retrieved July 25, 2018.
  28. ^ "Arroyo, Alvarez meet after House leadership change |". Retrieved July 25, 2018.
  29. ^ "House holds first full session under Speaker Arroyo". cnn. Retrieved July 25, 2018.
  30. ^ News, ABS-CBN. "Arroyo meets Alvarez following House coup". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved July 25, 2018. {{cite news}}: |last= has generic name (help)
  31. ^ News, RG Cruz, ABS-CBN. "Amid shouting, House adopts resolution recognizing Arroyo as Speaker". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved July 25, 2018. {{cite news}}: |last= has generic name (help)
  32. ^ "GMA leaves Lakas–CMD for PDP-Laban to 'consolidate support' for DU30". Interaksyon. October 11, 2017.
  33. ^ "Lawmakers 'left out in the cold' now eyeing to leave PDP-Laban". Rappler. Retrieved July 27, 2018.
  34. ^ "Deputy Speaker: Some solons plan to leave PDP-Laban to join Arroyo's former political party". cnn. Retrieved July 27, 2018.
  35. ^ "Exodus from PDP denied, laughed off". Manila Standard. July 28, 2018. Retrieved July 28, 2018.
  36. ^ a b "PDP-Laban faction elects new leaders; Pimentel shrugs off |". Retrieved July 27, 2018.
  37. ^ Roxas, Pathricia Ann V. "PDP-Laban mutiny: Faction seeks to unseat Pimentel, Alvarez, other party leaders". Retrieved July 27, 2018.
  38. ^ "Pimentel, Alvarez 'unseated' as PDP-Laban leaders". Rappler. Retrieved July 27, 2018.
  39. ^ "'Genuine' PDP-Laban replaces Pimentel, Alvarez as party leaders; Bong Go named auditor – The Manila Times Online". 27 July 2018. Retrieved July 27, 2018.
  40. ^ Roxas, Pathricia Ann V. "Koko pooh-poohs PDP-Laban revolt: Don't believe them, just enjoy their show". Retrieved July 27, 2018.
  41. ^ "PDP-Laban event, change of leadership 'unauthorized' – Pimentel". cnn. Retrieved July 27, 2018.
  42. ^ "PDP-Laban may be erased from political landscape amid party leadership squabble —Castro". GMA News Online. Retrieved July 28, 2018.
  43. ^ "Duterte to meet with two factions to unite PDP-Laban". cnn. Retrieved July 28, 2018.
  44. ^ "Comelec recognizes Pimentel group as legitimate official reps of pdp laban". GMA News Online. Retrieved November 30, 2018.
  45. ^ Marquez, Consuelo. "Comelec declares Pimentel's group as the 'legitimate' PDP Laban". Retrieved November 30, 2018.
  46. ^ "Pimentel lauds Comelec's recognition of his leadership in PDP-Laban". Manila Bulletin News. Retrieved November 30, 2018.
  47. ^ "Candidates under alleged 'bogus' PDP-Laban likely to face complaints – UNTV News". UNTV News. December 3, 2018. Retrieved December 5, 2018.
  48. ^ News, ABS-CBN. "Koko rejects poll bets from PDP-Laban faction". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved December 5, 2018. {{cite web}}: |last= has generic name (help)
  49. ^ "With Pacquiao as party president, PDP-Laban says 'too early to talk about 2022 elections'". Rappler. 3 December 2020. Retrieved 2020-12-28.
  50. ^ Galvez, Daphne (2020-12-03). "Pimentel: Pacquiao to bring more discipline to PDP-Laban". Retrieved 2020-12-28.
  51. ^ Baclig, Cristina Eloisa (16 July 2021). "PDP-Laban: From fighting dictatorship to fighting each other". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
  52. ^ Peña, Kurt Dela (29 June 2021). "As Duterte-Pacquiao rift widens, ruling party's future hangs in the balance". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
  53. ^ "Comelec may step in to resolve PDP-Laban squabble". Philippine News Agency. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
  54. ^ Gregorio, Xave (July 17, 2021). "Cusi faction knocks out Pacquiao as PDP-Laban president". Philippine Star. Retrieved July 17, 2021.
  55. ^ Terrazola, Vanne Elaine (July 17, 2021). "Pacquiao out, Cusi is new PDP-Laban president". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved July 17, 2021.
  56. ^ Mercado, Neil Arwin (July 17, 2021). "Pacquiao out, Cusi in as PDP-Laban president". Retrieved July 17, 2021.
  57. ^ Llanesca T. Panti, Hanna Bordey (July 17, 2021). "PDP-Laban ousts Pacquiao as president, installs Cusi". GMA News Online. Retrieved July 17, 2021.
  58. ^ "Alfonso Cusi elected as new PDP-Laban President". ABS-CBN News. July 17, 2021.
  59. ^ Gutierrez, Jason (2021-09-20). "Boxer Manny Pacquiao Joins Philippine Presidential Race". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-10-07.
  60. ^ "Boxing icon Pacquiao files candidacy for president with Atienza in his corner". Retrieved 2022-02-10.
  61. ^ Gonzales, Cathrine (2021-10-01). "Atienza as Pacquiao's VP, and other surprises during 1st day of COC filing". Retrieved 2022-02-10.
  62. ^ Galvez, Daphne (2021-10-08). "'Bato' dela Rosa is Cusi wing PDP-Laban's standard-bearer for 2022 polls". Retrieved 2022-02-10.
  63. ^ "PDP-Laban fields Bato-Bong tandem". Philippine News Agency.
  64. ^ "Bato Dela Rosa withdraws from 2022 presidential race". CNN Philippines.
  65. ^ "Bong Go backs out of VP race, runs for president instead". RAPPLER. 2021-11-13. Retrieved 2022-02-10.
  66. ^ "Go formally drops out of presidential race". Retrieved 2022-02-10.
  67. ^ Mercado, Neil A. (21 January 2022). "Cusi-led PDP-Laban wing adopts Sara Duterte as VP candidate". Retrieved 2022-01-21.
  68. ^ a b Tan, Lara (March 22, 2022). "Duterte's PDP-Laban faction endorses Marcos' presidential bid". CNN Philippines. Retrieved March 23, 2022.
  69. ^ Torregoza, Hannah (March 22, 2022). "Pimentel slams PDP-Laban Cusi wing's endorsement of BBM, says ruling party was established to oppose Marcos dictatorship". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved March 23, 2022.
  70. ^ Gomez, Herbie (March 22, 2022). "PDP's original members go ballistic over Cusi wing's endorsement of Marcos". Rappler. Retrieved March 23, 2022.
  71. ^ "Pacquiao faction blasts PDP-Laban's adoption of Sara Duterte". ABS-CBN News.
  72. ^ a b Medenilla, Samuel P. (2022-05-05). "Comelec declares PDP-Laban dominant majority party | Samuel P. Medenilla". BusinessMirror. Retrieved 2022-05-05.
  73. ^ Mendoza, John Eric (5 May 2022). "Comelec: PDP-Laban is dominant majority party, Nacionalista is dominant minority party". Retrieved 2022-05-05.
  74. ^ a b "PDP-Laban named dominant majority party amid split in ranks". Retrieved 2022-05-05.
  75. ^ Ramos, Christia Marie (May 6, 2022). "Comelec recognizes Cusi wing as 'true, official' PDP-Laban". Retrieved May 6, 2022.
  76. ^ John Milo (May 12, 2019). "Philippines midterm elections lay groundwork for expansion of presidential powers". Foreign Brief. Mr Duterte's center-left PDP-Laban party-led bloc is expected to increase its 248-seat House majority on current polling while in the Senate, Duterte's allies are also expected to take 10 of 12 seats.
  77. ^ "Ex-dictator Marcos to be buried in heroes' cemetery in Manila". Deutsche Welle. November 8, 2016. Duterte – leader of the left-wing PDP–Laban – has since his May election victory praised among other things Adolf Hitler’s efficiency and said he would seek to emulate it in his war on crime. .
  78. ^ Raul P. De Guzman, Mila A. Reforma, ed. (1988). Government and Politics of the Philippines. Oxford University Press. p. 101.
  79. ^ Robert Dayley, ed. (2019). Southeast Asia in the New International Era. Routledge. the Philippine Democrat Party—People's Power (PDP-Laban), the current ruling party which claims social democracy as its ideology and advocates for federalism.
  80. ^ Jeffrey M. Riedinger, ed. (2020). Agrarian Reform in the Philippines: Democratic Transitions and Redistributive Reform. Stanford University Press. p. 28. Organized in February 1982, the Pilipino Democratic Party ( PDP ) was the principal political vehicle for social democrats in the later years of the Marcos regime.
  81. ^ "Philippines with Chinese characteristics? – The Manila Times Online". Retrieved August 12, 2018.
  82. ^ bondoc-likely-bet-guv-2019-574929 (November 15, 2017). "Bondoc likely bet for guv in 2019". Sunstar. Retrieved August 12, 2018.
  83. ^ "Question new members' motives, Nene Pimentel urges PDP-Laban". Rappler. Retrieved August 12, 2018.
  84. ^ "PDP-Laban accepting new members until February 2018 |". Retrieved August 12, 2018.
  85. ^ "PDP-Laban not out to 'learn communism' in CPC partnership". Retrieved August 12, 2018.
  86. ^ "Philippine vice president quits Cabinet in tiff with Duterte". PanAtlantic Journal. December 6, 2016.
  87. ^ "What Is Rodrigo Duterte Trying to Achieve?". The Atlantic. October 25, 2016.
  88. ^ "What is the PDP-Laban federalism model?". ABS CBN News. January 16, 2018.
  89. ^ Ager, Maila. "Duterte's ideology different from Marcos', Koko tells Kiko". Retrieved July 8, 2018.
  90. ^ "Over 4,000 support federalism in Misamis Occidental". Retrieved July 8, 2018.
  91. ^ "PDP-Laban launches book on federalism". cnn. Retrieved July 5, 2018.
  92. ^ News, Arianne Merez, ABS-CBN. "What is the PDP-Laban federalism model?". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved July 5, 2018. {{cite news}}: |last= has generic name (help)
  93. ^ "Press Release – Pimentel: PDP Laban at 36: Fulfilling the promise of Change". Retrieved November 18, 2018.
  94. ^ Avendaño, Christine O. "Pimentel allays concerns over PDP-Laban ties with China's reds". Retrieved July 5, 2018.
  95. ^ P. J., O'Rourke (1987). Republican Party Reptile. New York, NY, United States of America: Atlantic Monthly Press. ISBN 978-1-5558-4717-3.
  96. ^ "Story of LABAN". Retrieved 2018-07-25.
  97. ^ "Hand signs". Retrieved July 25, 2018.
  98. ^ "PDP-Laban decision final: Duterte to substitute if Diño withdraws presidential bid". CNN Philippines. Retrieved October 27, 2015.


External linksEdit

Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).