2010 Philippine general election

Elections for all positions in the Philippines above the barangay (except for Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao regional level) were held on May 10, 2010. The elected president is Benigno Aquino III, the 15th President of the Philippines, succeeding President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo who was barred from seeking re-election due to term restrictions. The successor of Vice-President Noli de Castro is Jejomar Binay, the 13th Vice President of the Philippines. The legislators elected in the 2010 elections joined the senators of the 2007 elections and comprised the 15th Congress of the Philippines.

2010 Philippine general election

← 2007
2013 →
Registered51,317,073
Turnout38,149,371
2010 Philippine presidential election

← 2004 May 10, 2010 2016 →
  Noynoy Aquino.jpg JosephEstradajf1486.JPG Manny Villar T'nalak Festival 2009.jpg
Nominee Benigno Aquino III Joseph Estrada Manuel Villar
Party Liberal PMP Nacionalista
Running mate Mar Roxas Jejomar Binay Loren Legarda
Popular vote 15,208,678 9,487,837 5,573,835
Percentage 42.08% 26.25% 15.42%

President before election

Gloria Macapagal Arroyo
Lakas–Kampi

Elected President

Benigno Aquino III
Liberal

2010 Philippine vice presidential election

← 2004 May 10, 2010 2016 →
  Jejomar Binay (cropped).jpg Benigno S. Aquino III greets Corazon Malanyaon (cropped 2).jpg Loren Legarda - 2013 (cropped).jpg
Candidate Jejomar Binay Mar Roxas Loren Legarda
Party PDP–Laban Liberal NPC
Popular vote 14,645,574 13,918,490 4,294,664
Percentage 41.65% 39.58% 12.21%

Vice President before election

Noli de Castro
Independent

Elected Vice President

Jejomar Binay
UNA

2010 Philippine Senate election

← 2007 May 10, 2010 2013 →

12 (of the 24) seats to the Senate
13 seats needed for a majority
  First party Second party Third party
  Senkikopangilinan.jpg Manny Villar T'nalak Festival 2009.jpg Miguel Zubiri Senate 2018 (cropped).jpg
Leader Francis Pangilinan Manny Villar Juan Miguel Zubiri
Party Liberal Nacionalista Lakas–Kampi
Last election 2 seats, 10.7% 2 seats, 10.1% Lakas: 1 seat, 22.3%
KAMPI: 1 seat, 4.4%
Seats before 4 (2 up) 3 (1 up) 4 (2 up)
Seats won 3 2 2
Seats after 4 4 4
Seat change  Steady  Increase 1  Steady 
Popular vote 78,227,817 49,585,503 38,123,091
Percentage 26.34% 16.69% 12.83%
Swing Increase 15.62% Increase 6.61% Decrease 13.84%

Senate President before election

Juan Ponce Enrile
PMP

Elected Senate President

Juan Ponce Enrile
PMP

2010 Philippine House of Representatives elections

← 2007 May 10, 2010 2013 →

All 286 seats in the House of Representatives
144 seats needed for a majority
  First party Second party Third party
  Gloria Macapagal Arroyo WEF 2009-crop.jpg Representative Sonny Belmonte.jpg Fuentebella-f.jpg
Leader Gloria Macapagal Arroyo Feliciano Belmonte Jr. Arnulfo Fuentebella
Party Lakas–Kampi Liberal NPC
Last election Lakas: 89 seats
KAMPI: 44 seats
23 seats 28 seats
Seats before 123 33 22
Seats won 107* 47** 29
Seat change Decrease 16 Increase 14 Increase 7
Popular vote 13,042,643* 6,901,005** 5,479,413
Percentage 37.84% 20.02% 15.90%

Speaker before election

Prospero Nograles
Lakas–Kampi

Elected Speaker

Feliciano Belmonte Jr.
Liberal

The 2010 elections were administered by the Commission on Elections (COMELEC) in compliance with the Republic Act No. 9369,[1] also known as the Amended Computerization Act of 2007. It was the first national, and second overall computerized election after the 2008 Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao regional election in the history of the Philippines. Although there were cases of precinct count optical scan (PCOS) machine failures, there was no postponement of elections since most technical issues were resolved by election day.[2] Despite the fact that some provinces have reported failure of elections, these have not surpassed the 0.50% of the total number of PCOS machines, and most were replaced on time.[3]

Local elections were held in all provinces, cities and municipalities for provincial governors, vice governors and board members, and city/municipal mayors, vice mayors and councilors.

There were more than 85,000 candidates for 17,000 national and local positions and it is believed that the youth had the swing vote in this election as 40% of voters are 18–35 and there are a potential 3 million first-time voters.[4]

BackgroundEdit

The current Philippine constitution allows a president to serve for only one six-year term; however, former president Gloria Macapagal Arroyo served for a total of nine years because she took over the last three years of Joseph Estrada's administration when Estrada was ousted as the result of the 2001 EDSA Revolution. In 2004, Arroyo won the election and finished her 6-year term in 2010.

General issuesEdit

Number of registered voters as compared to the national total per province (left), and voter turnout per province (right).

In a decision dated December 2, 2009, the Supreme Court ruled that appointive officials seeking positions in the elections do not need to resign from their posts, striking down Section 4(a) of COMELEC Resolution 8678, Section 13 of Republic Act 9369, and Section 66 of the Omnibus Election Code as unconstitutional, "for violating the equal protection clause and being too broad."[5]

Party-switchingEdit

As election day approached, several politicians switched political parties in order to gain votes and funding for the campaign. Many switches were controversial, with the ruling party Lakas Kampi CMD having the most defections, most of which went either to the Liberal Party or to the Nacionalista Party.

The politicians who switched parties after the start of the local campaign period are:

Date Politician Running for Old party New party
March 24 Jose Maria Zubiri, Jr.[6] Vice Governor of Bukidnon Lakas–Kampi Nacionalista
April 11 Arturo Uy[7] Governor of Compostela Valley Lakas–Kampi Nacionalista
April 12 Neptali Gonzales II[8] Congressman of Mandaluyong Lakas–Kampi Liberal
April 12 Roilo Golez[9] Congressman of Parañaque's 2nd district Independent Liberal
April 14 Joey Salceda[10] Governor of Albay Lakas–Kampi Liberal
April 15 Benasing Macarambon[11] Congressman of Lanao del Sur's 2nd district Lakas–Kampi Nacionalista
April 20 Mary Ann Susano[12] Mayor of Quezon City Lakas–Kampi PMP

Furthermore, Luis "Chavit" Singson resigned from Lakas and endorsed a candidate aside from Gilberto Teodoro, but did not join another party. Singson endorsed Villar, then resigned from Lakas, but has not joined Villar's Nacionalista Party.[13]

ControversiesEdit

Five days before the elections, petitions were made to postpone the elections due to technical malfunctions with the electronic voting machines.[citation needed] On May 7, 2010, the Supreme Court rejected the petitions, affirming the vote would go ahead as planned.[14]

Several cities and provinces encountered several problems, postponing the election. In Caloocan, voting was delayed as the box of ballots delivered to clustered precinct 599 in the city's Pajo district contained ballots for a clustered precinct in Sampaloc, Manila.[15]

Election-related violenceEdit

 
Election hotspots in the Philippines.

Prior to the end of the filing of certificates of candidacy, the COMELEC had anticipated several areas to be named as "election hotspots".

On November 23, 2009, the entourage of the wife of Buluan, Maguindanao vice-mayor Esmael Mangudadatu who ran for provincial governor, including journalists, were abducted and killed in the province's town of Ampatuan.[16] Before she was killed, Mangudadatu's wife blamed provincial governor Andal Ampatuan Jr. as the culprit.[17] Ampatuan Jr. was later arrested.[18] After several arms and military vehicles were seized in Ampatuans' properties and government installations, President Arroyo declared martial law in parts of the province not controlled by the Moro Islamic Liberation Front on December 4.[19]

On December 28, 2009, a candidate for councilor died, and two incumbent officials were wounded in an ambush in Dingras, Ilocos Norte. The gunmen fired at the convoy including barangay chairwoman Joen Caniete, who was running for councilor under the Nacionalista Party; the wounded included a sitting councilor and a provincial board member.[20]

In Sorsogon, Julio Esquivias, a Nacionalista candidate for councilor in the town of Casiguran, died due to a gunshot wound after he was shot by an unidentified gunman.[21]

In a command conference by the Armed Forces of the Philippines, Philippine National Police and the COMELEC, 14 election "hotspots" were identified. They were Abra, Ilocos Norte, Masbate and Nueva Ecija in Luzon, Samar (Western Samar), Eastern Samar and Antique in the Visayas, and Basilan, Sulu, Maguindanao, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Sarangani, and Zamboanga Sibugay in Mindanao.[22]

Worsening private armed violence was a serious security concern which had the capacity to undermine the 2010 elections. Even though a commission was already formed to dismantle private armies, skeptics were unconvinced that the government could have succeeded in this task as it had a poor track record of dealing with the ongoing problem of internal violence.[23]

Before election day, a bomb exploded at 1:20 a.m. in Ampatuan, Maguindanao. No casualties were reported. In Conception, Iloilo, armed men fired at the Liberal Party headquarters. No casualties were reported.[24]

During election day, three bombs exploded at a polling precinct at Pakpak elementary school in Marawi City, Lanao del Sur. No casualties or injuries were reported. Another bomb exploded in Zamboanga Sibugay, killing three people. Two bombs exploded at Mindanao State University where several polling precinct were clustered. An NK2 grenade exploded at Shariff Aguak, Maguindanao. No casualties reported. On the same day, at 12:00nn (PST), a shooting incident happened in the same area between the rival candidates. Two innocent persons were killed.

As of 1:30pm (PST) fourteen casualties were reported due to election-related violence. at 2:25pm (PST), a shooting incident in a barangay in Maguindanao caused the local cancellation of the elections.

Constitutionality of the electionsEdit

Many concerned civil society groups including the Center for People Empowerment in Governance (CenPEG), Philippine Computer Society (PCS), and Global Filipino Nation (GFN) protested the illegality and unconstitutionality of how the elections were conducted, particularly with implementing safety measures against fraud and cheating.

In an interim report by GFN 2010 Election Observers Team released on May 27 titled "Foreign Observers Challenge Election Legitimacy", they presented arguments questioning the May 10, 2010 elections summarized below:

  1. The election results transmitted from the precincts do not have digital signatures of the Board of Election Inspectors (BEI)
  2. The number of disenfranchised voters is sufficient to greatly affect the results of the elections.
  3. The Automated Election System (AES) was implemented without the appropriate field testing, and law-specified testing in actual elections.
  4. The source code review was not completed and initial findings were not addressed.
  5. No audit was done on the AES prior to the elections. There was only a mandated random manual audit which was not yet done at the time the report was written (May 27, 2010).
  6. Several voter and security features were disabled prior to elections.

Many different groups also echoed the same sentiments like Kaakbay Partylist in its critique of the May 10, 2010 polls.[25] They also questioned the removal of digital signatures

Removal of digital signaturesEdit

While Republic Act 9369 states that "The election returns transmitted electronically and digitally signed shall be considered as official election results and shall be used as the basis for the canvassing of votes and the proclamation of a candidate.",[26] the Commission on Elections (COMELEC) issued Resolution 8786 on March 4, 2010, which became the basis for the decision to remove digital signatures which the COMELEC ruled as no longer necessary. Three Board of Election Inspectors (BEIs) were originally required to put in their iButton Key for the results to be digitally signed before transmission and make it official. But because of the issuance of COMELEC Resolution 8786, BEIs were directed to press "No" when asked by the PCOS machines to digitally sign the files for transmission.[27]

In the joint committee meeting at Batasang Pambansa, Senator Enrile asked the COMELEC officials why they removed the use of the digital signatures. Cesar Flores, Smartmatic Asia Pacific president, said “The voting machine has a digital signature in itself which is also corroborated in the card and the password that is provided to the BEIs. The BEIs when they sign the password, they encrypt the result, and the result is digitally signed.” (Sic)[25][28]

Kaakbay Partylist released its critique of the election on June 6, 2010. The group cited complaints regarding the removal of main security features and verifiability of votes and also answered the arguments of those given by the COMELEC officials:

"On March 4, 2010, Comelec issued Resolution 8786 dated March 4, 2010, essentially disabling the use of digital signatures. Thus, the electronically transmitted votes from the precincts no longer bear digital signatures. Several excuses were given by Comelec ranging from PCOS machine signatures being equivalent to digital signature (which of course is not true); use of digital signature will require another P1 billion (as if digital feature is not included in the P7.1-billion contract); reducing transmission time (how less than one minute signing digitally will reduce much a transmission of about 30 to 60 minutes?); and the PCOS i-button and BEI Personal Identification Numbers (PINs) are equivalents (of course, not)".[25]

CandidatesEdit

Ang KarapatanEdit

Ang Kapatiran ticket
# Name Party
11. Rizalito David Ang Kapatiran
21. Jo Imbong Ang Kapatiran
50. Grace Riñoza-Plazo Ang Kapatiran
52. Adrian Sison Ang Kapatiran
55. Reginald Tamayo Ang Kapatiran
56. Hector Tarrazona Ang Kapatiran
59. Manny Valdahuesa Ang Kapatiran

Bangon PilipinasEdit

Bangon Pilipinas ticket
# Name Party
3. Zafrullah Alonto Bangon Pilipinas
22. Kata Inocencio Bangon Pilipinas
35. Adz Nikabulin Bangon Pilipinas
36. Ramoncito Ocampo Bangon Pilipinas
42. Imelda Papin Bangon Pilipinas
43. Zosimo Jesus Paredes II Bangon Pilipinas
46. Reynaldo Princesa Independent
58. Alex Tinsay Bangon Pilipinas
61. Israel Virgines Bangon Pilipinas

Kilusang Bagong LipunanEdit

Kilusang Bagong Lipunan ticket
# Name Party
2. Shariff Ibraim Albani KBL
16. Nanette Espinosa KBL
29. Alma Lood KBL
31. Regalado Maambong KBL
60. Hector Villanueva KBL

Gibo-EduEdit

Lakas-Kampi-CMD ticket
For President
8. Gibo Teodoro Lakas–Kampi
For Vice President
5. Edu Manzano Lakas–Kampi
For Senators
# Name Party
6. Silvestre Bello III Lakas–Kampi
8. Bong Revilla Lakas–Kampi
18. Ramon Guico Jr. Lakas–Kampi
24. Raul Lambino Lakas–Kampi
25. Rey Langit Lakas–Kampi
27. Lito Lapid Lakas–Kampi

Aquino-RoxasEdit