Abra (province)

Abra, officially the Province of Abra (Ilocano: Probinsia ti Abra; Tagalog: Lalawigan ng Abra), is a 3rd class province in the Cordillera Administrative Region of the Philippines. Its capital is the municipality of Bangued. It is bordered by Ilocos Norte on the northwest, Apayao on the northeast, Kalinga on the mid-east, Mountain Province on the southeast, and Ilocos Sur on the southwest.

Abra
Province of Abra
Abra Provincial Capitol
Abra Provincial Capitol
Flag of Abra
Official seal of Abra
Location in the Philippines
Location in the Philippines
OpenStreetMap
Coordinates: 17°35′N 120°45′E / 17.58°N 120.75°E / 17.58; 120.75Coordinates: 17°35′N 120°45′E / 17.58°N 120.75°E / 17.58; 120.75
RegionCordillera Administrative Region
Founded10 March 1917
Capital and Largest MunicipalityBangued
Government
 • GovernorMaria Jocelyn Acosta Valera-Bernos (NUP/HNP)
 • Vice GovernorRonald Stimson Balao-as (NUP)
 • LegislatureAbra Provincial Board
Area
 • Total4,165.25 km2 (1,608.21 sq mi)
 • Rank29th out of 81
Highest elevation2,467 m (8,094 ft)
Population
 (2020 census) [2]
 • Total250,985
 • Rank68th out of 81
 • Density60/km2 (160/sq mi)
  • Rank80th out of 81
Divisions
 • Independent cities0
 • Component cities0
 • Municipalities
 • Barangays303
 • DistrictsLegislative districts of Abra
Time zoneUTC+8 (PHT)
ZIP code
2800–2826
IDD:area code+63 (0)74
ISO 3166 codePH-ABR
Spoken languages
Websitewww.abra.gov.ph

EtymologyEdit

Abra is from the Spanish word abre meaning gorge, pass, breach or opening. It was first used by the Spaniards to denote the region above the Banaoang Gap where the Abra River exits into the West Philippine Sea, thus the Rio Grande de Abra.[3]

Official Seal of AbraEdit

Meaning of the Official Seal:[3]

  • Twin peaks on both sides of a river
  • Paddled fields: Signifies that the main occupation of and mean of livelihood of the people of Abra is farming.
  • Prancing stallion: Means that Abra was once famous for its horses - noted for their strength, speed and endurance.

HistoryEdit

Pre-colonial periodEdit

The first inhabitants of Abra were the ancestors of the Bontocs and the Ifugaos. These inhabitants eventually left to settle in the old Mountain Province. Other early inhabitants were the Tingguians or Itnegs as they are also known.

Spanish eraEdit

In 1585 the Tingguians were mentioned for the first time in a letter from Father Domingo de Salazar to the King of Spain.

In 1598 Bangued was occupied by Spanish-Iloko forces. The Spanish established a garrison to protect their missionaries from head hunters so that they could Christianize the Tingguians and locate gold mines.

Bangued was under the care of the Spanish missions in Vigan and Bantay. Fr. Esteban Marin and Fr. Agustin Minon established a mission in Bangued as early as 1598. On April 5, 1612 Fr. Pedro Columbo became the first minister. It would seem that this actuation of the Augustinians was precipitated by the Dominican take-over of the ministry of Narvacan. The Dominicans wanted to convert Narvacan as a mission center to evangelize the other parts of Abra. To check this Dominican move, the Augustinians elevated Bangued as a ministry.

Fr. Juan Pareja OSA, a former parish priest in Bantay, led the conversion of the province. Fr. Pareja came to Abra in 1626. He is reported to have converted as many as 3,000 inhabitants including the chieftain Miguel Dumaual. Fr. Pareja founded the mission of San Diego and later the ministry of Bangued. He established the following towns as visitas of Bangued: Tayum, Sabangan and Bukao (now Dolores). Inspired by Fr. Juan Pareja these towns battled almost daily against the rancherias of Palang, Talamuy, Bataan, Kabulao, Kalauag, and Langiden.

Fr. Jose Polanco OP contributed to the conversion Abra. A man of austere mortification, died in Abra in 1679. He was considered a saint by the locals.

Fr. Bernardino Lago OSA arrived in the early 19th century. In 1823 Fr. Lago began work in Pidigan. After 25 years the Christians there numbered about a thousand "baptized, living in community, with schools, church and municipal house, tilling the earth to support themselves and their children." Fr. Lago also founded the town of La Paz. Fr. Galende enumerates the foundation of the other towns of Abra:

Originally the area was called El Abra de Vigan ("The Opening of Vigan"). During the British Occupation of the Philippines Gabriela Silang and her army fled to Abra from Ilocos and continued the revolt begun by her slain husband Diego Silang. She was captured and hanged by the Spanish in 1763.

In 1818 the Ilocos region was divided into Ilocos Norte and Ilocos Sur. On October 9, 1846 Abra became an independent province with the capital and residence of the provincial governor located in Bucay. In 1863 the capital was transferred to Bangued, the province's oldest town. It remained so until the arrival of the Americans in 1899.

American periodEdit

In 1908 the Philippine Commission annexed Abra into Ilocos Sur in an attempt to resolve Abra's financial difficulties. On March 9, 1917 the Philippine Assembly re-established Abra as a province under Act 2683.[4]

World War IIEdit

In 1942 Japanese forces occupied the Philippines and seized Abra.[further explanation needed]

Abra was liberated by the Philippine Commonwealth forces and local Cordilleran guerrillas during the Battle of Abra in 1945 at the end of the Second World War.[further explanation needed]

Modern historyEdit

The revolutionary Marxist priest Conrado Balweg, who fought for the rights of the Cordillera tribes, began his crusade in Abra. After successfully negotiating a peace accord with Balweg's group in 1987 the Philippine government created the Cordillera Administrative Region, which includes Abra.[5]

GeographyEdit

Abra is situated in the mid-western section of the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. It is bordered by the provinces of Ilocos Norte on the northwest, Apayao on the northeast, Kalinga on the mid-east, Mountain Province on the southeast and Ilocos Sur on the southwest. Abra has a total land area of 4,165.25 square kilometres or 1,608.21 square miles[6].

The province is bordered by the towering mountain ranges of the Ilocos in the west and the Cordillera Central in the east. The Abra River runs from the south in Benguet to the west and central areas bisecting the Abra Valley. It is joined by the Tineg River originating in the eastern uplands at a point near the municipality of Dolores.

Administrative divisionsEdit

Abra is composed of 27 municipalities, all encompassed by Abra's lone congressional district.[6]

Municipality[i][ii] Population ±% p.a. Area[6] Density(2015) Barangay
(2015)[7] (2010)[8] km2 sqmi /km2 /sqmi
17°35′47″N 120°37′04″E / 17.5965°N 120.6179°E / 17.5965; 120.6179 (Bangued) Bangued 20.0% 48,163 43,936 +1.76% 136.40 52.66 350 910 31
17°22′44″N 120°49′11″E / 17.3790°N 120.8198°E / 17.3790; 120.8198 (Boliney) Boliney 1.5% 3,573 4,063 −2.42% 210.00 81.08 17 44 8
17°32′20″N 120°43′00″E / 17.5388°N 120.7167°E / 17.5388; 120.7167 (Bucay) Bucay 7.1% 17,115 17,126 −0.01% 102.16 39.44 170 440 21
17°26′27″N 120°51′26″E / 17.4409°N 120.8572°E / 17.4409; 120.8572 (Bucloc) Bucloc 1.0% 2,501 2,176 +2.69% 63.77 24.62 39 100 4
17°27′30″N 120°55′31″E / 17.4584°N 120.9254°E / 17.4584; 120.9254 (Daguioman) Daguioman 0.9% 2,088 1,715 +3.82% 114.37 44.16 18 47 4
17°41′03″N 120°39′35″E / 17.6841°N 120.6597°E / 17.6841; 120.6597 (Danglas) Danglas 1.7% 4,192 4,734 −2.29% 156.02 60.24 27 70 7
17°38′56″N 120°42′37″E / 17.6490°N 120.7103°E / 17.6490; 120.7103 (Dolores) Dolores 4.7% 11,315 11,499 −0.31% 47.45 18.32 240 620 15
17°40′35″N 120°41′07″E / 17.6763°N 120.6853°E / 17.6763; 120.6853 (La Paz) La Paz 6.4% 15,437 14,882 +0.70% 51.41 19.85 300 780 12
17°39′48″N 120°56′51″E / 17.6634°N 120.9474°E / 17.6634; 120.9474 (Lacub) Lacub 1.4% 3,403 2,977 +2.58% 235.53 90.94 14 36 6
17°36′37″N 120°44′04″E / 17.6103°N 120.7344°E / 17.6103; 120.7344 (Lagangilang) Lagangilang 5.9% 14,255 13,824 +0.59% 124.20 47.95 110 280 17
17°43′15″N 120°42′21″E / 17.7207°N 120.7058°E / 17.7207; 120.7058 (Lagayan) Lagayan 1.9% 4,499 4,477 +0.09% 215.97 83.39 21 54 5
17°34′37″N 120°33′50″E / 17.5769°N 120.5638°E / 17.5769; 120.5638 (Langiden) Langiden 1.3% 3,198 3,170 +0.17% 116.29 44.90 28 73 6
17°36′22″N 120°53′36″E / 17.6061°N 120.8932°E / 17.6061; 120.8932 (Licuan-Baay) Licuan-Baay (Licuan) 1.9% 4,689 4,864 −0.70% 256.42 99.00 18 47 11
17°19′05″N 120°41′43″E / 17.3181°N 120.6952°E / 17.3181; 120.6952 (Luba) Luba 2.6% 6,339 6,391 −0.16% 148.27 57.25 43 110 8
17°33′49″N 120°59′24″E / 17.5636°N 120.9899°E / 17.5636; 120.9899 (Malibcong) Malibcong 1.4% 3,428 3,807 −1.98% 283.17 109.33 12 31 12
17°25′59″N 120°42′17″E / 17.4331°N 120.7048°E / 17.4331; 120.7048 (Manabo) Manabo 4.5% 10,761 10,756 +0.01% 81.08 31.31 130 340 11
17°33′51″N 120°39′08″E / 17.5642°N 120.6522°E / 17.5642; 120.6522 (Peñarrubia) Peñarrubia 2.8% 6,640 6,544 +0.28% 39.07 15.09 170 440 9
17°34′13″N 120°35′21″E / 17.5703°N 120.5893°E / 17.5703; 120.5893 (Pidigan) Pidigan 5.1% 12,185 11,528 +1.06% 49.15 18.98 250 650 15
17°25′00″N 120°35′43″E / 17.4168°N 120.5954°E / 17.4168; 120.5954 (Pilar) Pilar 4.2% 10,223 9,908 +0.60% 66.10 25.52 150 390 19
17°27′18″N 120°45′36″E / 17.4551°N 120.7599°E / 17.4551; 120.7599 (Sallapadan) Sallapadan 2.7% 6,622 5,985 +1.94% 128.62 49.66 51 130 9
17°27′56″N 120°36′06″E / 17.4656°N 120.6017°E / 17.4656; 120.6017 (San Isidro) San Isidro 1.9% 4,574 4,888 −1.26% 48.07 18.56 95 250 9
17°41′00″N 120°43′55″E / 17.6834°N 120.7320°E / 17.6834; 120.7320 (San Juan) San Juan 4.1% 9,867 10,546 −1.26% 64.08 24.74 150 390 19
17°32′34″N 120°31′13″E / 17.5427°N 120.5203°E / 17.5427; 120.5203 (San Quintin) San Quintin 2.3% 5,438 5,233 +0.73% 66.59 25.71 82 210 6
17°36′59″N 120°39′19″E / 17.6165°N 120.6553°E / 17.6165; 120.6553 (Tayum) Tayum 6.0% 14,467 13,940 +0.71% 55.68 21.50 260 670 11
17°46′58″N 120°56′38″E / 17.7828°N 120.9439°E / 17.7828; 120.9439 (Tineg) Tineg 2.1% 5,097 4,668 +1.69% 744.80 287.57 6.8 18 10
17°15′24″N 120°43′32″E / 17.2567°N 120.7256°E / 17.2567; 120.7256 (Tubo) Tubo 2.4% 5,699 5,719 −0.07% 492.12 190.01 12 31 10
17°26′16″N 120°37′31″E / 17.4379°N 120.6253°E / 17.4379; 120.6253 (Villaviciosa) Villaviciosa 2.2% 5,392 5,377 +0.05% 102.93 39.74 52 130 8
Total 241,160 234,733 +0.52% 4,199.72 1,608.21 56 150 303
 † Provincial capital  Municipality
  1. ^ Former names are italicized.
  2. ^ The globe   icon marks the town center.

BarangaysEdit

The 27 municipalities of the province comprise a total of 303 barangays, with Poblacion in La Paz as the most populous in 2010, and Pattaoig in San Juan as the least. [8][6]

DemographicsEdit

The population of Abra in the 2020 census was 250,985 people, [2] with a density of 60 inhabitants per square kilometre or 160 inhabitants per square mile.

Abra's inhabitants are mostly descendants of Ilocano settlers and members of the Tingguian tribe. Based on 2000 census data, Ilocanos comprised 71.94% (150,457) of the total provincial population of 209,146. Tingguians came in second at 18.7% (39,115), while other ethnic groups in the province were the Ibanag at 4.46% (9,334), Itneg at 3.17% (6,624), and Tagalog at 0.42% (869).[9]

The predominant languages are Ilocano[10] and Itneg.[11]

Population census of Abra
YearPop.±% p.a.
1903 51,860—    
1918 72,731+2.28%
1939 87,780+0.90%
1948 86,600−0.15%
1960 115,193+2.41%
1970 145,508+2.36%
1975 147,010+0.21%
1980 160,198+1.73%
1990 184,743+1.44%
1995 195,964+1.11%
2000 209,491+1.44%
2007 230,953+1.35%
2010 234,733+0.59%
2015 241,160+0.52%
2020 250,985+0.79%
Source: PSA[7][8][12]
Population by ethnicity (2000)[9]
Ethnicity Number
Ilocano
150,457 (71.94%)
Tingguian
39,115 (18.70%)
Ibanag
9,334 (4.46%)
Itneg
6,624 (3.17%)
Tagalog
869 (0.42%)

Others
2,175 (1.04%)
Other foreign ethnicity
16 (0.01%)
Not Reported
556 (0.27%)

EconomyEdit

As of 1990 there were 743 cottage industries in Abra of which 208 are registered with the Department of Trade and Industry. 59% are engaged in bamboo and rattan craft making, both leading industries in the area.

Abra's economy is agriculture-based. Its major crops are rice, vegetables and root crops. Commercial products include coffee, tobacco and coconut. Extensive grassland and pasture areas are used for livestock production.

InfrastructureEdit

Power distributionEdit

 

GovernmentEdit

List of former military and elected governors:[20]

  • Don Ramon Tajonera y Marzal (Military Governor): 1846-?
  • Don Esteban de Penarrubia (Military Governor): 1868-?
  • Col. William Bowen (Military Governor): 1901
  • Juan G. Villamor (Governor): 1902–1904
  • Joaquin J. Ortega (Governor): 1904–1914
  • Rosalio G. Eduarte (Governor): 1914–1916
  • Julio V. Borbon (Governor): 1916–1922
  • Virgilio V. Valera (Governor): 1922–1925
  • Eustaquio P. Purugganan (Governor): 1925–1930
  • Virgilio V. Valera (Governor): 1930–1936
  • Bienvenido N. Valera (Governor): 1936–1939
  • Eustaquio P. Purugganan (Governor): 1939–1941
  • Bernardo V. Bayquen (Governor): 1941–1944
  • Zacarias A. Crispin (Governor): 1944–1946
  • Juan C. Brillantes (Governor): 1946–1947
  • Luis F. Bersamin (Governor): 1947–1951
  • Lucas P. Paredes (Governor): 1951–1953
  • Vene B. Pe Benito was acting governor in 1953
  • Ernesto P. Parel (Governor): 1953–1954
  • Jose L. Valera 1954–1963
  • Carmelo Z. Barbero (Governor): 1963–1965
  • Petronilo V. Seares (Governor): 1965–1971
  • Gabino V. Balbin (Governor): 1971–1977
  • Arturo V. Barbero (Governor): 1977–1984
  • Andres B. Bernos (Governor): 1984–1986
  • Vicente P. Valera (Governor): 1986–1987
  • Buenaventura V. Buenafe was acting governor in 1987
  • Vicente Y. Valera (Governor): 1988–1998
  • Constante B. Culangen was acting governor in 1998
  • Maria Zita Claustro-Valera (Governor): 1998–2001
  • Vicente Y. Valera (Governor): 2001–2007
  • Eustaquio P. Bersamin (Governor): 2007–2016
  • Maria Jocelyn Valera Bernos (Governor): 2016-present

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "List of Provinces". PSGC Interactive. Makati, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Archived from the original on April 19, 2016. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
  2. ^ a b Census of Population (2020). "Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. PSA. Retrieved July 8, 2021.
  3. ^ a b "The Ilocos Review Volume 19 - 1987". The Ilocos Review. Arnoldus Press, Inc. ISSN 0019-2538.
  4. ^ "Act No. 2683; An Act to Authorize the Segregation of the Subprovince of Abra from the Province of Ilocos Sur and the Reestablishment of the Former Province of Abra, and for Other Purposes". Supreme Court E-Library. March 9, 1917. Retrieved March 18, 2016.
  5. ^ "Executive Order No. 220; Creating a Cordillera Administrative Region, Appropriating Funds Therefor and for Other Purposes". The LawPhil Project. Manila, Philippines. July 15, 1987. Retrieved July 29, 2016. Sec. 2. Territorial Coverage. For purposes of the CAR, the region shall consist of the provinces of Abra, Benguet, Ifugao, Kalinga-Apayao and Mt. Province and the chartered city of Baguio. Until otherwise provided by the Cordillera Executive Board (CEB), the seat of the CAR shall be Baguio City.
  6. ^ a b c d "Province: Abra (province)". PSGC Interactive. Quezon City, Philippines: Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved January 8, 2016.
  7. ^ a b Census of Population (2015). "Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. PSA. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
  8. ^ a b c Census of Population and Housing (2010). "Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. NSO. Retrieved June 29, 2016.
  9. ^ a b "Abra: Housing Unit Occupancy Rate Nears 100%; Table 5. Household Population by Ethnicity and Sex: Abra, 2000". Philippine Statistics Authority. April 3, 2002. Archived from the original on March 5, 2012. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
  10. ^ Dalby, Andrew (February 18, 2004). Dictionary of Languages: The Definitive Reference to More Than 400 Languages. Columbia University Press. p. 264. ISBN 978-0-231-11569-8.
  11. ^ Tryon, Darrell T. (1994). Comparative Austronesian Dictionary: An Introduction to Austronesian Studies. Ratzlow-Druck. p. 171. ISBN 3-11-012729-6.
  12. ^ Census of Population and Housing (2010). Population and Annual Growth Rates for The Philippines and Its Regions, Provinces, and Highly Urbanized Cities (PDF). NSO. Retrieved June 29, 2016.
  13. ^ "Poverty incidence (PI):". Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved December 28, 2020.
  14. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/NSCB_LocalPovertyPhilippines_0.pdf; publication date: 29 November 2005; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  15. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/2009%20Poverty%20Statistics.pdf; publication date: 8 February 2011; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  16. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/Table%202.%20%20Annual%20Per%20Capita%20Poverty%20Threshold%2C%20Poverty%20Incidence%20and%20Magnitude%20of%20Poor%20Population%2C%20by%20Region%20and%20Province%20%20-%202006%2C%202009%2C%202012%20and%202015.xlsx; publication date: 27 August 2016; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  17. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/Table%202.%20%20Annual%20Per%20Capita%20Poverty%20Threshold%2C%20Poverty%20Incidence%20and%20Magnitude%20of%20Poor%20Population%2C%20by%20Region%20and%20Province%20%20-%202006%2C%202009%2C%202012%20and%202015.xlsx; publication date: 27 August 2016; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  18. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/Table%202.%20%20Annual%20Per%20Capita%20Poverty%20Threshold%2C%20Poverty%20Incidence%20and%20Magnitude%20of%20Poor%20Population%2C%20by%20Region%20and%20Province%20%20-%202006%2C%202009%2C%202012%20and%202015.xlsx; publication date: 27 August 2016; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  19. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/Table%202.%20%20Updated%20Annual%20Per%20Capita%20Poverty%20Threshold%2C%20Poverty%20Incidence%20and%20Magnitude%20of%20Poor%20Population%20with%20Measures%20of%20Precision%2C%20by%20Region%20and%20Province_2015%20and%202018.xlsx; publication date: 4 June 2020; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  20. ^ Gaioni, SVD, Fr. Dominic T. "Historical Highlights of the Province of Abra From 1585 to 1920". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)

External linksEdit

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