León (Spanish pronunciation: [leˈon]), officially León de Los Aldama, is the most populous city and municipal seat of the municipality of León in the Mexican state of Guanajuato. In the 2020 Intercensal Survey, INEGI reported 1,721,626 people living in the municipality of León,[1] making it the fourth-most populous municipality in Mexico.[5] The metropolitan area of León recorded a population of 2,140,094 in the 2020 state Census, making it the seventh most populous metropolitan area in Mexico.[2] León is part of the macroregion of Bajío within the Central Mexican Plateau.[6]

León de los Aldama
From top to bottom from left to right: Arco de la Calzada, Metropolitan Cathedral of León, Municipal House, Manuel Doblado Theater, Monument to Footwear, Expiatory Temple and View of only the Wealthy Neighborhoods of León
From top to bottom from left to right: Arco de la Calzada, Metropolitan Cathedral of León, Municipal House, Manuel Doblado Theater, Monument to Footwear, Expiatory Temple and View of only the Wealthy Neighborhoods of León
Flag of León
Coat of arms of León
The Pearl of the Bajío, Emerald City, World Capital of Footwear
Spanish: El trabajo todo lo vence
(English: Work overcomes everything)
Location of León
León is located in Guanajuato
Location in Mexico
León is located in Mexico
León (Mexico)
Coordinates: 21°07′N 101°41′W / 21.117°N 101.683°W / 21.117; -101.683
Country Mexico
State Guanajuato
FoundedJanuary 20, 1576
Founded asVilla de León
Founded byMartín Enríquez de Almanza
 • MayorAlejandra Gutiérrez Campos (PAN)
 • Land1,219.67 km2 (470.92 sq mi)
1,815 m (5,955 ft)
 (2020 Census)
 • City1,721,199
 • Estimate 
 • Rank17th in North America
4th in Mexico
 • Metro2,140,354
 • Demonym
GDP (PPP, constant 2015 values)
 • Year2023
 • Total (Metro)$39.4 billion[3]
 • Per capita$20,800
Time zoneUTC−6 (CST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
Area code+52
Telephone exchange477 / 479
National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Data Processing[4]

León has a large leather industry, making shoes, boots, belts, jackets, and other leather accessories for national and international markets. The leather industry earned its inhabitants the nickname of "green belly" (panzaverde in Spanish) because of the green tainting in the workers' bodies resulting from treating leather. Its first-class services and hotel industry make it an important commercial center in Mexico with numerous options for entertainment, gastronomy, leisure activities, arts, and recreation.[7] It is also considered one of the most environmentally friendly cities in Mexico and has a high number of cyclists, in part because of integrating a network of bike lanes into the SIT system.[8] In March 2012, it received an award as "City Water Champion", mainly due to great progress in the areas of sanitation, wastewater reuse, and energy cogeneration from biogas.[9]

History edit

Madero street

Mesoamerica edit

In the León area there are ten distinct archeological zones, dating from the pre-classic Mesoamerican period.[10] Most of these are identified with the Chupícuaro culture.[11] By the Classic period, the area was under Teotihuacan and Toltec influence. In the 13th century, the Chichimecas, mostly of the Guamare and Guachichil subgroups, overran the area, migrating from an area of what is now San Luis Potosí. They remained through the Colonial period.[10][11]

Colonial period edit

In 1530, Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán arrived with allied Tarasco Indians to the area, naming it Nuestra Señora.[10] Homesteads were granted by the governor of Nueva Galicia Francisco Vásquez de Coronado to Spaniards Rodrigo de Vázquez and Juan de Jasso.[11] Farming and cattle-raising were introduced here around 1546 by the Spaniards, but these settlers were under constant threat by the Chichimecas, who recognized the Spanish as invaders. These settlers requested assistance from the viceregal authorities in Mexico City.[10][11]

As a response, viceroy Martín Enríquez de Almanza ordered the founding of a city here, with the name of León in 1575. To carry out the order, Juan Bautista de Orozco founded the village of León on 20 January 1576, creating its first town council and laying out its initial streets. In 1580, it attained the rank of "alcadía mayor" meaning it has governing authority of much of the land and smaller towns surrounding it from the Sierra de Comanja to the Lerma River.[10][11] For example, two other towns founded in the area were San Miguel and Coecillo. In San Miguel, the Spaniards settled the Otomi peoples and in Coecillo were settled the Purépechas, Mexicas and the Chichimecas that did not oppose Spanish rule. As the population of the area grew, a number of municipalities would eventually break off, such as San Francisco del Rincón, Purísima del Rincón (Purísima Concepción), Cd. Manuel Doblado (San Pedro Piedra Gorda), Huanímaro, Abasolo, Cuerámaro and Pénjamo.[11]

Jesuit reformer edit

In 1582, the first hospital of San Cosme y San Damián was established by Father Espino.[11] The Jesuits arrived to León in 1731, founding the "Compañía Vieja" which is now the site of the Temple of the Immaculate. They also constructed the Temple of the New Company, which would become the cathedral, however they never finished it as they were expelled from Mexico in 1767. On 2 July 1732 arrived an image of Our Most Holy Mother of Light. She would later be declared the patron saint of the city, in 1849.[11]

Main plaza

The population of the area suffered epidemics in 1643, droughts in 1630 and 1712–1714, famines in 1714 and 1786, and flooding in 1637, 1749, 1762, and 1803.[11]

Mexican civil war edit

Independence forces under José Rafael de Iriarte arrived to the town on 4 October 1810. However, two months later royalist forces under Felix Calleja retook the locality, with insurrectionist sympathizers facing reprisals.[10] About 2,000 insurgents on horses attacked the town but were repulsed by Count Pérez Gálvez.[11] Royalist forces were attacked here in 1817 by Francisco Javier Mina without success. The town remained in royalist hands until the end of the Mexican War of Independence, when Agustín de Iturbide arrived.[10] The town did not celebrate its first Grito de Dolores to mark independence until 1825. In 1827 it became one of the four "departments" of the newly created state of Guanajuato, and in 1830, it gained city status.[11] In 1840, Father Ignacio Aguado founded the College of San Francisco de Sales and the College of La Madre Santísima was founded in 1844.[11]

La Reforma edit

During La Reforma war, the city changed hands various times between Liberal and Conservative forces between 1858 and 1860. The most notable battle of that war here was when General José Iniesta attacked the town on 18 February 1859. In that same year, León even separated for a time from the rest of the state of Guanajuato.[11]

In 1862, the bishopric of León was founded, separating the city of León and nine other municipalities such as Irapuato, Guanajuato and Dolores Hidalgo from the bishopric of Michoacán. Bishop Diez de Sollano opened the Conciliar Seminary in 1864. This bishop consecrated the Basilica Cathedral in 1866, even though it was not completed, giving the image of the Virgin of the Light a permanent home.[11]

French occupation edit

From 1863 to 1866, the French occupied León during the French Intervention, with Emperor Maximillian visiting the city in 1864. His arrival was much celebrated here, with fireworks and a hot air balloon exhibition put on by the Alemán brothers. However, when Liberal forces finally had permanent control over the town, two incidents occurred. On 30 September 1867, Coronel Cecilio Delgado Estrada ordered his men to shoot over the heads of people who prayed in the streets, causing some to be wounded. Another incident of this type occurred in 1877. The second was more permanent. The Liberals decommissioned the convent and college of Saints Peter and Paul, converting it into offices for city government. It remains such to this day.[11]

Contested elections edit

On 2 January 1946, a mob gathered in the plaza in front of the municipal palace to protest elections seen as illegitimate. These protesters were fired upon, killing many. This plaza has been named the "Plaza of the Martyrs" in their honor.[10]

Local government edit

Geography edit

Climate edit

Leon generally has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cwa) with summer rainfall (according to Köppen climate classification, Cwa) that closely borders on a semi-arid climate. The average annual temperature is 19.9 °C (67.8 °F), the warmest month is May with a maximum average of 31.7 °C (89.1 °F), and the coolest month is January with a minimum average temperature of 7.7 °C (45.9 °F). Outside the city microclimate island, the ranges tend to be higher, with maximum averages reaching 2 °C higher than in the city, and minimum averages lowered by 3 °C or more. In the villages located in between the northern mountains the climate changes; it is considered subtropical highland climate (Cwb according to Köppen climate classification), the average annual temperature is around 16 °C (61 °F).

Leon averages 681 mm (26.8 in) of precipitation annually, which mainly occurs during the summer and early autumn (from late May through October) generally with thunderstorms in the evening. There is usually a discrepancy about whether Leon's valley is either sub-humid or semi-arid. Depending on the methodology, it can be considered as being either one or the other. With Köppen's methodology, there needs to be more than 678 millimetres (27 in) of annual precipitation for Leon to be considered as humid subtropical; according to several weather stations it may have both (humid subtropical and semiarid) terminologies applied to it. The years considered in the study may also be a determinant factor (more frequently used for international purposes is a 30-year data compilation). Years of average rainfall are rare; the usual pattern is bi-modal, with some large string of dry years usually related to La Niña phenomenon (slightly higher than 300 millimetres (12 in)) followed by other years (around 5) related to El Niño that make up the average (with higher than 39 inches or 990 millimetres). Snowfall is extremely rare. The latest snowfall recorded in Leon was in 1997, although there have been other years of registered slushy snow since 1997.

Climate data for Downtown Leon
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 30.0
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 23.6
Daily mean °C (°F) 15.7
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 7.7
Record low °C (°F) 0.0
Average rainfall mm (inches) 15.1
Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 2.7 1.6 1.3 2.0 4.9 11.6 16.2 13.3 10.3 5.0 1.3 1.4 71.6
Source: SMN (normals 1981-2010, extremes 1947-2011)[12][13]

Cityscape edit

Panorama of wealthy neighborhoods of León at night

Economy edit

Industrial parks edit

About 70 percent of all shoes made in Mexico come from León and the surrounding area.[14] In addition to the Leather crafting, there are also industrial chemical, plastic, polymer, transportation, and container companies. The presence of the automotive industry includes a General Motors plant in the nearby municipality of Silao. In the financial sector, León is home to the national headquarters of Banco del Bajío, owned by Salvador Oñate, and to the regional headquarters of Banamex, and HSBC, among other banks.

Santa Fe Industrial Parks

Customs facility edit

A newly built facility within GTO Inland Port's premises speeds up the logistics process. Clearing customs in a border city or seaport is no longer a requirement for companies located in GTO Inland Port. Now they use this very convenient facility.

Customs within GTO Inland Port

Rail container facility edit

A rail container yard is now offering inter-modal services for rail transportation. The facility is operated by the largest rail company in Mexico and has one of the longest rail spurs in the country.

GPI Railyard
Del Bajío International Airport

Expositions edit

In the Poliforum there are trade fairs throughout the year. The principal two are Sapica (Shoe Fair), and ANPIC (suppliers of the shoe industry).

Retailing edit

León has several regional shopping malls:

  • Altacia, anchored by Liverpool, Cinépolis multicinemas and the Sealand aquarium,[15]
  • City Center León (under construction), a 29,500 m2 (318,000 sq ft) mixed-use development with offices, 2 hotels, retail, apartments and a Cinépolis[16]
  • Factory Shops León, a (63,000 m2 (680,000 sq ft) 740-million-peso (38-million-USD) outlet mall)[17]
  • Plaza Galerías Las Torres, anchored by Walmart, Coppel and Cinépolis
  • Plaza Mayor, the largest mall in León, 117,000 m2 gross leasable area, of which 70,000 m2 retail floor space, and parking for 2,500 cars.[18] Anchored by sears, Liverpool (planned to expand to 27,000 m2, West Elm, Innovasport, Sanborns, and with a Best Buy under that company stopped operations in Mexico. It will add a ca. 30,000-m2 Palacio de Hierro under construction, to open in 2024. León is one of only eight metropolitan areas in Mexico to boast a full-line Palacio store, a reflection on that company's hopes for the high-end retail potential of León and other nearby cities in El Bajío such a[19]s San Miguel de Allende and Guanajuato city.[20][21]

Historic sites edit

Cathedral edit

Church of St. Sebastian at Mártires del 2 de Enero Square

The main church is called the Cathedral Basilica of Our Lady of the Light and is the seat of the Archdiocese of Leon. Construction of the church was begun in 1746 by the Jesuits and is a combination of Baroque and Neo Classic architectural styles. Construction was halted only eight months after it began when the Jesuit order was expelled from Mexico by the Spanish Crown. The Obregon family, however, took over its construction, continuing into the 19th century. The Archdiocese of Leon was created in 1864, with its first bishop, José María de Jesús Diez de Sollano y Dávalos helping to get the towers and cupola completed as he chose the church as the seat. It was finally completed and consecrated on 16 March 1866. Pope Benedict XVI officiated a mass here in 2012.[22][23]

Expiatorio edit

Detail of the façade of the Templo Expiatorio

Its full name is the Santuario Expiatorio del Sagrado Corazón de Jesús (Expiatory Sanctuary of the Sacred Heart of Jesus). Construction of this shrine was begun in 1920 by Bernardo Chavez with the support of Bishop Emeterio Valverde y Téllez. It is neo-Gothic in design, based on the old European medieval cathedrals but much of the outside wallspace is without decoration. Its work was halted by the Cristero Wars. Since then construction has continued off and on and it is considered 90% complete. An important source of income for the shrine's construction is the sale of crypts. This practice was begun in 1924. A chapel dedicated to the Virgin of Lourdes was begun in 1935 and later a chapel dedicated to the Virgin of Guadalupe, which is separate from the main building, built between 1935 and 1939. A shrine with stained glass windows includes local allegories.

Municipal Palace edit

Municipal Palace

The current Municipal Palace is of the Ionic order and occupies part of the site of the old "Colegio Grande del Seminario de los Padres Paulinos" (Grand Seminary College for Pauline Priests) who had to abandon the city in 1860.[24]

From 1861 to 1867 it was a military barracks. After the French Intervention, it was remodeled to conserve its original architecture by Coronel Octaviano Rosado to become the seat of government on 21 March 1869. The patio of the building contains (in 1972) a bronze statue of Benito Juárez to commemorate the centennial of his death. Since then, the building has had a number of additions such as the dome that now covers this patio, and a number of murals. These murals were painted in 1972 and 1973 by Jesus Gallardo covering the walls of the main stairwell and the hallway of the upper floor around the patio.[24]

Millennium's Gate edit

The monument was built to celebrate the arrival of the new millennium and has become a landmark. The 45-meter tall tower on five plinths was completed on time for New Year's Day 2000. The 5,400 square meter plaza is planted with trees. The project cost 4.5 million pesos.[25]

Arch of the Causeway of the Heroes (Arco de la Calzada de los Héroes) edit

Causeway Arch's Heroes

This arch (Arco de la Calzada de los Héroes, in Spanish), topped by a bronze lion, began construction in 1896 and has been modified a number of times since then. The first lion was added in 1943 by Francisco Lozornio Castillo made of bricks and mortar. This was replaced by the bronze one in 1958. The idea for a bronze lion was that of the matador Antonio Velázquez, a native of Leon, whose bravery in the ring earned him the nickname of the "Heart of Leon" ("Corazón de León", in Spanish).[26] Not long before his death in 1959, he complained that the brick lion should be replaced with a better work of art, causing something of a commotion in the Leon community. This caught the attention of sculptor Humberto Peraza Ojeda who made the one that sits atop the arch today.[26]

Wigberto Jiménez Moreno State Library

Arts and culture edit

Forum Cultural Guanajuato edit

It is a cultural complex, entertainment and artistic formation space that promotes the professionalization of regional artists, the formation of audiences, as well as cultural tourism. It has several spaces:

  • Wigberto Jiménez Moreno State Library: With more than 170 thousand volumes, the State Institute of Culture offers the services of this library with a capacity to attend up to 2 thousand 400 users per day, through: General reading room, Children's Library and Baby's Library, Specialized Collections and Braille Room.
  • Guanajuato's Art and History Museum: The cultural identity, the historical roots, the evolution and the artistic production of Guanajuato, from prehistory to the present day, are the collection and vocation of this Museum that has: Regional history and art room, Sculpture room, Temporary Exhibition Hall, Mateo Herrera Auditorium and Bookstore.
  • Bicentennial Theater: Being considered as the best opera theater in Latin America, it is an avant-garde venue with the capacity to accommodate 1,500 people and where you can enjoy various artistic expressions such as: Opera, Music, Theater and Dance.
  • Academic Unit for Culture and Art: Attached to the University of Guanajuato, it offers the following programs: Degree in Culture and Art, Diploma, Workshops and Courses.

Explora Park edit

This recreational park is tailored towards families. The Explora park has walking paths and areas of green grass. There is a body of water in the park with a bridge. There is also a zip line, life-size aircraft, and a science building.

Transportation edit


Del Bajío International Airport edit

The Del Bajío International Airport (Guanajuato International Airport) serves the city, although it is located in the neighboring city of Silao.

Cycling edit

The city's bicycle paths are extensive. Leon is one of the most bicycle-friendly large cities in Latin America and has an extraordinary track record in active transport, keeping the biking and walking share above 39% of the total trips, one of the highest values in Latin American cities.[27]

Integrated Transportation System edit

Transport's Integrated System

Integrated Transportation System (ITS) (Sistema Integrado de Transporte in Spanish) refers to the development and implementation of a Bus rapid transit system named "Optibús". Since 28 September 2003, the Integrated Transport Optibús has operated despite an existing need for a subway system "Metro", which originally was planned construction with two lines.

The system was the first of its kind in Mexico. Leon was the first city in the country with a BRT system, before it was implemented in Mexico City as Metrobús and Guadalajara as Macrobús.

Optibús System The current route system is divided into four categories. These are:

  • Trunk routes: They consist of eight main lines that cross the city from end to end. The buses are also known as Orugas (caterpillars in Spanish) due to its articulated midsection. They have capacity for 175 passengers. The Optibús transit system consists of 52 stations located in the central area of the main avenues of the city.
  • Feeder and auxiliary routes: These are urban bus routes that were integrated into the regular system, as a stop as they have one or more transfer stations, and are identified by the letter A (feeder route / yellow decals) or X (auxiliary route / blue decals).
  • Conventional routes: These routes circulate through most of the city and are distinguished by having the corporative colors from its owners: orange, red, pink, purple, and green.
  • Suburban roads: Roads circulate outside or on the city edge communities as Comanjilla, Duarte, Loza de los Padres, La Hacienda, etc.

There are currently three permanent transfer stations (San Jeronimo, Delta de Jerez and San Juan Bosco), two micro-stations (Santa Rita - Parque Juarez), which are the endpoints for trunk routes, feeder routes and auxiliary routes. Passengers at these stations are allowed to transfer without cost from any of these lines.

In addition, as a control measure, the "PagoBús" system has been instituted; this is an electronic card system that allows users to streamline their access to stations and bus and thus save money. There are 2 types of cards: Preferential and General, cost rates with 50 and 15% lower total cost.

The environmental benefits of the system are also high, not least because the system introduced articulated buses using Euro IV technology and ultra low sulfur, resulting in 5,600 tons of CO2 reduction annually.[8]

Public transportation statistics edit

The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in León, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 78 min. 21% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 20 min, while 40% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 5.1 km, while 2% travel for over 12 km in a single direction.[28]

Education and research edit

Universities edit

Sports edit

Team SPORTS League Venue
Club León Association football Liga MX Estadio León
Bravos de León Baseball Mexican Baseball League Estadio Domingo Santana
Abejas de León Basketball Liga Nacional de Baloncesto Profesional Domo de la Feria

Football edit

Nou Camp (León FC's Stadium)

The city's main professional Association football team is Club León, which is one of the foremost teams in Mexico, eight-time league champion, now playing in the Liga MX. The team's stadium, Estadio León, also bears a Catalan name: Nou Camp. FIFA World Cup games have been played there (1970 and 1986).

A new franchise with the name of Curtidores appeared in the Primera División A in the mid-1990s, but, after being champion in 1999 and earning the right to play in the Primera División, was sold and moved to Puebla to become Puebla, F.C. In 2007 a new franchise named Union de Curtidores began playing at Segunda división. Nowadays, there are several football teams in the city playing in the Tercera División: Atlético ECCA, Juventud Cuerera and Conmudaj, among some others. Club Leon also has a women's section that plays in Liga MX Femenil.

Rally Mexico (WRC) edit

Since 2004 the city has hosted the headquarters of Rally Mexico located at the Centro de Convenciones Poliforum Leon, which is one round of the World Rally Championship. Thousands of fans camp at the nearby Sierra de Lobos and Sierra de Guanajuato mountains to watch the rally; the service park is also located and visited by fans at the Poliforum Leon. The Rally takes place in three cities: Guanajuato, Silao and León.

Basketball edit

Since 2004, León has a basketball team, Lechugueros, which plays in the Liga Nacional de Baloncesto Profesional (LNBP). They play in the Domo de la Feria (formerly known as Auditorio Municipal). Before this team, the city had other professional basketball teams: Lechugueros (original franchise), Zapateros, Pony-León and Atléticos. These teams participated in the CIMEBA (Circuito Mexicano de Básquetbol), which was the main basketball league of Mexico in the 1970s and 1980s.

Baseball edit

León had two baseball teams in the Liga Mexicana de Beisbol: Cachorros de León, in the late 1970s, and Bravos de León, in the late 80's. Bravos, after becoming champions of the league in 1990, and due to financial problems, were sold and moved to Minatitlán, Veracruz. After many years of unsuccessful attempts to bring back baseball to Leon it was announced on November 1, 2016, by the assembly of presidents of the Mexican League, the approval the entry of Leon, Guanajuato, subject to certain conditions. The Bravos De Leon returned to play in 2017.

Tennis edit

León has been a host city for the yearly ATP Challenger Tour since 1992.

Golf edit

Leon hosts an annual event on the Web.com Tour. In 2015 the event was held from April 13–19.

Notable people edit

The Theatre Doblado, located in the historic center

Twin towns – sister cities edit

León is twinned with:[29]

References edit

  1. ^ a b "Panorama sociodemográfico de Guanajuato 2015". INEGI. Retrieved 2016-11-08.
  2. ^ a b "Delimitación de las zonas metropolitanas de México 2010". Consejo Nacional de Población. Archived from the original on 2014-01-12. Retrieved 2016-11-08.
  3. ^ "TelluBase—Mexico Fact Sheet (Tellusant Public Service Series)" (PDF). Tellusant. Retrieved 2024-01-11.
  4. ^ "INEGI". INEGI. Archived from the original on 2010-10-19. Retrieved 2015-12-16.
  5. ^ "Encuesta Intercensal 2015: Presentación de resultados" (PDF). INEGI. p. 15. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-12-10. Retrieved 2016-11-08.
  6. ^ Osiel Cruz. "Bajío, el nuevo milagro mexicano" (in Spanish). T21. Retrieved 2018-06-21.
  7. ^ "Leon Excitement City • Leon Guanajuato Mexico". Ocvleon.com. Retrieved 2012-01-08.
  8. ^ a b "Institute for Transportation and Development Policy : News : Sustainable Transport Award cities: León". ITDP. 2011-01-18. Archived from the original on 2011-06-11. Retrieved 2012-01-08.
  9. ^ Reconocen a León como una de las urbes con mayores avances en el tratamiento y reuso del agua residual y cogeneración de energías: 6º. Foro Mundial del Agua
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h "Enciclopedia de los municipios Guanajuato Leon" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2008-12-02. Retrieved 2008-10-18.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Leon Guanajuato Historia" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2008-10-18.
  12. ^ "NORMALES CLIMATOLÓGICAS 1981-2010" (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico National. Archived from the original on July 9, 2012. Retrieved August 30, 2012.
  13. ^ "Extreme Temperatures and Precipitation for Leon 1947-2011" (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico National. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved January 21, 2013.
  14. ^ Cave, Damien (2013-05-29). "Retired Pope's Endorsement of Mexican Shoes Tops All Others". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-04-19.
  15. ^ "Conoce nuestras marcas" [Get to know our brands]. Altacia Centro Comercial (in Spanish). León, Guanajuato. Retrieved 6 December 2023.
  16. ^ Flores, Pablo (3 June 2019). "Presentan proyecto City Center el más ambicioso en León" [City Center León project launched, the most ambitious in León]. Grupo Milenio (in Mexican Spanish). Retrieved 6 December 2023.
  17. ^ "Inauguran ampllación" [Addition launched]. AM (León, Guanajuato). 22 September 2019. Retrieved 7 December 2023 – via PressReader. El centro comercial Factory Shops Outlet León abrió su tercera etapa. En el desarrollo, de 63 mil metros cua-drados, se han invertido $740 millones.
  18. ^ "Aryba | Centro Comercial Altacia". www.aryba.com.mx. Retrieved 7 December 2023.
  19. ^ Juárez, Jonathan (13 September 2022). "Guerra comercial de gigantes en Plaza Mayor: tienda departamental se amplía" [War of retail giants at Plaza Mayor: department store expands]. La Silla Rota (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 December 2023.
  20. ^ Martínez Beltrán, Sayeni Paolly (4 April 2023). "Así construyen El Palacio de Hierro en Plaza Mayor de León" [Here's how they're building Palacio de Hierro in Plaza Mayor in León]. www.am.com.mx (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 December 2023.
  21. ^ "Palacio de Hierro llega a León después de 20 años que buscaban su inversión" [Palacio de Hierro Coming to Plaza Mayor in León after 20 years of Pursuit]. La Silla Rota (in Spanish). 6 May 2022. Retrieved 7 December 2023.
  22. ^ "Catedral Basicilia" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2008-10-16.
  23. ^ "Benedict XVI visits Leon, Mexico". Archived from the original on 2022-01-12.
  24. ^ a b "Palacio Municipal" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2006-05-18. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  25. ^ "Puerta del Milenio" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2006-05-18. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  26. ^ a b Rubén Rodríguez Molina. "Una historia diferente" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2008-10-25. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
  27. ^ "Institute for Transportation and Development Policy : Get Involved : Sustainable Transport Award". ITDP. 2011-01-24. Archived from the original on 2009-01-05. Retrieved 2012-01-08.
  28. ^ "León Public Transportation Statistics". Global Public Transit Index by Moovit. Retrieved June 19, 2017.   Material was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License Archived 2017-10-16 at the Wayback Machine.
  29. ^ "León". sandisca.org. San Diego International. Retrieved 2020-06-09.

Bibliography edit