The Nationalist Republican Alliance (Spanish: Alianza Republicana Nacionalista, ARENA) is a conservative, right-wing political party of El Salvador. It was founded on 30 September 1981 by retired Salvadoran Army Major Roberto D'Aubuisson. It defines itself as a political institution constituted to defend the democratic, republican, and representative system of government, the social market economy system and nationalism.
|Director of Legislative Affairs||TBA|
|Director of Municipal Affairs||Milagro Navas|
|Founded||30 September 1981|
|Registered||4 December 1981|
|Merger of||National Broad Front|
Salvadoran Nationalist Movement
|Split from||National Conciliation Party|
|Headquarters||Prolongación Calle Arce, entre 45 y 47 av N. #2429. Col. Flor Blanca, San Salvador, El Salvador|
|Youth wing||Nationalist Republican Youth|
|Paramilitary wing||Death squads (before 1989)|
|Regional affiliation||Union of Latin American Parties|
|International affiliation||International Democrat Union|
World League for Freedom and Democracy
|PARLACEN group||Democratic Alliance|
|Slogan||«Peace, progress and freedom»|
(Spanish: «Paz, progreso y libertad»)
|Seats in the Legislative Assembly|
14 / 84
41 / 262
|Seats in the PARLACEN|
3 / 20
ARENA controlled the National Assembly of El Salvador until 1985, and its party leader Alfredo Cristiani was elected to the presidency in 1989. ARENA controlled the presidency from 1989 until 2009. The party gained a plurality in the Legislative Assembly in 2012.
This section is missing information about suspicion in the murder of Oscar Romero. (December 2020)
ARENA was founded in 1981 and was composed of former members from PCN including Roberto D'Aubuisson, who ordered the murder of the martyr and saint, Archbishop Oscar Romero. The party arose in response to "the insurgency of the Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front, FMLN, a group that united peasant farmers, unionists and intellectuals, which tried, through arms, to overthrow the dictatorship and to install a state regime inspired by the governments of revolutionary Cuba and Sandinista Nicaragua".
The ideology the party claims to believe in is a system of democratic and representative government, emphasizing individual rights, the family as the nucleus of society and the respect for private property.
In February 2007, three ARENA politicians were murdered in Guatemala, including Eduardo D'Aubuisson, the son of party founder Roberto D'Aubuisson, in what was considered by the police as a crime related to drugs.
In 2009, ARENA took out a full-page ad in a Salvadorean newspaper calling on President Mauricio Funes to recognise the interim Honduran government of Roberto Micheletti installed after the military had expelled President Manuel Zelaya.
The highest authority of the party ARENA is the Comité Ejecutivo Nacionalista (COENA, "Nationalist Executive Committee"), which consists of 13 members. The members must be re-elected annually through the General Assembly of ARENA members.[original research?]
In addition to the COENA, there are 14 Directors-in-Chief, one for each department and departmental councils called "Juntas Directivas Conjuntas" to coordinate political work in their respective department. In each department, a director is chosen who works with a specific member of COENA. The director's role is to organize and co-ordinate electoral campaigns and help the councils form party structures in the municipalities of their departments.[original research?]
On 19 February 2013, Jorge Velado assumed the position as president of COENA, in a party leadership shake-up aimed at re-energizing a stale organization tainted by its association with the violent death squads of the 1980s, widespread corruption and the switch to the U.S. dollar as the national currency.
At the legislative elections held on 16 March 2003, the party won 32.0% of the popular vote and 27 out of 84 seats in the Legislative Assembly. ARENA's successful candidate in El Salvador's 2004 presidential election was Antonio Saca. On 21 March 2004, Saca defeated Schafik Handal, the candidate of the left-wing Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front, by a margin of 58% to 36% with 70% turnout. He was sworn in as president the following 1 June.
In the 12 March 2006 legislative election, the party won 39.4% of the popular vote and 32 out of 84 seats. At the 18 January 2009 legislative elections, the party received 38.55% of the vote, and again won 32 of the 84 seats.
|Election||Candidate||First round||Second round||Result|
|1984||Roberto D'Aubuisson||376,917||651,741||Lost N|
|1994||Armando Calderón Sol||641,108||818,264||Elected|
|2009||Rodrigo Ávila||1,284,588||Lost N|
|2014||Norman Quijano||1,047,592||1,489,451||Lost N|
|2019||Carlos Calleja||857,084||Lost N|
Legislative Assembly electionsEdit
|Election||Votes||%||Position||Seats||+/–||Status in legislature|
19 / 60
13 / 60
31 / 60
39 / 84
39 / 84
28 / 84
29 / 84
27 / 84
34 / 84
32 / 84
34 / 84
32 / 84
37 / 84
14 / 84
Presidents of El SalvadorEdit
|No.||President||Term start||Term end||Term length||Vice President|
|1 June 1989||1 June 1994||5 years||José Francisco Merino López|
|Armando Calderón Sol
|1 June 1994||1 June 1999||5 years||Enrique Borgo Bustamante|
|Francisco Flores Pérez
|1 June 1999||1 June 2004||5 years||Carlos Quintanilla Schmidt|
|1 June 2004||1 June 2009||5 years||Ana Vilma de Escobar|
- http://archivo.elsalvador.com/noticias/2006/09/29/nacional/nac11.asp La huella tricolor
- https://www.elsalvador.com/eldiariodehoy/padron-de-afiliados-de-arena-bajaria-de-127543-a-60000/635411/2019/ Padrón de afiliados de ARENA bajaría de 127,543 a 60,000
- Middlebrook, Kevin J. (2000), "Conclusion", Conservative Parties, the Right, and Democracy in Latin America, JHU Press, p. 286, ISBN 9780801863868
- Bounds, Andrew (2001), "El Salvador: History", South America, Central America and the Caribbean 2002, Routledge, p. 384, ISBN 9781857431216
- Van Der Lijn, Jair (2006), Walking the Tightrope: Do UN peacekeeping operations actually contribute to durable peace?, Rozenberg Publishers, p. 252, ISBN 9036100372
- Middlebrook, Kevin J. (2000), "Introduction", Conservative Parties, the Right, and Democracy in Latin America, JHU Press, p. 26, ISBN 9780801863868
- "El Salvador's presidential election: A nation divided", The Economist, 12 March 2009
- Beetham, David (2002), "El Salvador", The State of Democracy, Kluwer Law International, p. 27, ISBN 9789041119315
- Wood, Elisabeth J. (2000), "Civil War and the Transformation of Elite Representation in El Salvador", Conservative Parties, the Right, and Democracy in Latin America, JHU Press, p. 243, ISBN 9780801863868
- "El Salvador", The Europa World Year Book 2008, Taylor & Francis, p. 1649, 2008
- Atkins, Stephen E. (2004), "ARENA", Encyclopedia of Modern Worldwide Extremists and Extremist Groups, Greenwood Press, p. 24, ISBN 9780313324857
- "Partidos Miembros".
- Brockett, Charles D. (21 February 2005). Political Movements and Violence in Central America. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521600552. Retrieved 19 October 2016.
- "$5 Million Dollars and 20 Kilos of Cocaine". 18 November 2010. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- CounterPunch, 22 July 2009, Back to the Future? Return to El Salvador
- "Ex-rebel becomes el Salvador leader". BBC News. June 2014.