President of El Salvador

The president of El Salvador (Spanish: Presidente de El Salvador), officially known as the president of the Republic of El Salvador (Spanish: Presidente de la República de El Salvador), is the head of state and head of government of El Salvador. He is also, by Constitutional Law, the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of El Salvador. The office was created in the Constitution of 1841. From 1821 until 1841, the head of state of El Salvador was styled simply as Head of State (Jefe de Estado).

President of the
Republic of El Salvador
Presidente de la República de El Salvador
Seal of the President of El Salvador.svg
Presidential Seal
Nayib Bukele - 2019 (48342383356) (cropped).jpg
Incumbent
Nayib Bukele

since 1 June 2019
ResidenceCasa Presidencial, San Salvador
Term lengthFive years, not eligible for re-election immediately
Inaugural holderJuan José Guzmán
Formation22 February 1841
DeputyVice President of El Salvador
Salary5,181 USD per month[1]
WebsitePresident of El Salvador

The president of the Republic of El Salvador begins his duties on June 1 of the year of his election and is accompanied by a vice president.

According to the Electoral Code, for a person to be declared President-Elect of the Republic, he must obtain 50% plus one of the votes obtained in the election in the presidential elections. If none of the candidates gets to obtain that result, a second voting round will be held where the two candidates who have obtained the most electoral votes in the first round will participate.

The duration of the presidential term is five years. He is ineligible for immediate reelection, but may run again after sitting out one election period.

Each June 1, the president is accountable to the Legislative Assembly for the contributions and Government Development that the president, the vice president and the Council of Ministers developed from the beginning of the presidential term.

HistoryEdit

In 1824, the Mayor's Office of Sonsonate and the Intendancy of San Salvador joined to form the State of El Salvador, united first to the United Provinces of Central America and then to the Federal Republic of Central America. According to the federal law, the governor received the title of Supreme Chief until 1841, when El Salvador declared itself independent, with its governor being called President. From then on, four stages with particular characteristics are recognized: the post-federal period, the Coffee Republic, the military governments, and civil governments.

In 1841, El Salvador was constituted as an independent and sovereign nation after the rupture of the Federal Republic of Central America in 1838. At that time, the legislative body created a constitution to legitimize the nation of El Salvador and also named Juan Lindo Provisional President of the Republic of El Salvador on 2 February 1841. It was not until 26 September 1842 Juan José Guzmán was elected by the people as President of El Salvador. From that moment, the republic suffered a constant series of provisional governments that brought many leaders to power.

In 1858, Captain General Gerardo Barrios became President of the Republic in which his government gave entrance to the "French Bread". He resigned from power in 1863 and Francisco Dueñas became President.

It was not until the Constitution of the Republic of El Salvador of 1886 was ratified when the presidential term is increased from two to four years, beginning and ending the presidential terms on 1 March. In 1913, before the death of Manuel Enrique Araujo, a family 'dynasty' would begin. The Meléndez-Quiñonez Dynasty lasted 18 years until Arturo Araujo became President.

In 1931, a coup d'état led by Vice President General Maximiliano Hernández Martínez overthrew President Araujo. This dictatorial government would establish the foundations of a rigid and totally militarized nation. It was not until 1939 when General Martínez called for a Constituent Assembly to draft a new constitution which established that the presidential term would be increased from 4 to 6 years and would begin and end on 1 January. During his presidency, Martínez initiated the 1932 Salvadoran Peasant Massacre which killed 25,000 indigenous peoples. Martínez would be overthrown in 1944 and General Andrés Ignacio Menéndez became Provisional President.

From that moment, the presidency of the Republic once again showed dictatorial instability and military governments began to be established to the point of creating a republic with 'Military Authoritarianism' which would end in 1982. In 1950, Lieutenant Colonel Óscar Osorio constitutionally became the president of the Republic and a new constitution was drafted where the presidential term would be 6 years and begin and end on 14 September. Osorio was known as the president of the social programs since he implemented and founded programs such as the Urban Housing Institute (IVU), the Autonomous Port Executive Commission (CEPA) among others that benefited the nation.

In 1960, a coup d'état overthrew President José María Lemus which led to the formation of a Junta of Government which would later be overthrown by the Civic-Military Directory in 1961. This was the case until the constitutional order was reestablished and another constitution was created in 1962 which would bring with it significant presidential reforms. From that moment, the presidential term would last 5 years and begin and end on 1 July.

On 15 October 1979, the last coup d'état in Salvadoran history took place where a group of young soldiers and officers overthrew General Carlos Humberto Romero. The coup marked the beginning of the Salvadoran Civil War which would rage on from 1979 to 1992. The Revolutionary Government Junta was established and ruled over El Salvador while fighting against the communist guerrilla group Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN). The Junta was abolished in 1982 and Álvaro Magaña became President of the Republic. The 1983 Constituent Assembly decided to create the current Constitution of El Salvador which set presidential terms to 5 years and would begin and end on June 1. The civil war greatly affected the political stability of the country.

President José Napoleón Duarte would lead the government against the FMLN from 1984 to 1989. In 1989, the Nationalist Republican Alliance (ARENA) won the 1989 presidential election. Alfredo Cristiani became the first president of ARENA. ARENA won the presidential elections in 1989, 1994, 1999, and 2004. Its presidents were Alfredo Cristiani, Armando Calderón Sol, Francisco Flores, and Elías Antonio Saca.

The Civil War ended in 1992 and the FMLN became a legal political party in accordance to the Chapultepec Peace Accords.

In 20 years of government, El Salvador was characterized by the privatization of national services such as coffee, telecommunications, the pension system, the National Bank, the Electric Power Service, among others. In 2001, the Economic Dollarization System was carried out in the country, a measure adopted by then President Francisco Flores which would have great long-term consequences for the Salvadoran economy and adopted the US dollar as legal currency.

Mauricio Funes won the 2009 presidential election ending 20 years of ARENA rule and marked the first FMLN presidency. Salvador Sánchez Cerén became the second FMLN president in 2015 after narrowly defeating Norman Quijano.

In 2019, Nayib Bukele, from the Grand Alliance for National Unity (GANA), won the 2019 presidential election ending 10 years of FMLN rule. He was the first president since Duarte to not be a member of either ARENA or FMLN. He was the second president from Palestinian descent, after Elías Antonio Saca. He was inaugurated on 1 June 2019.

Heads of state of El Salvador within the Federal Republic of Central America (1821–1841)Edit

Intendants political leaders of the Province of San SalvadorEdit

  Independent (4)       Liberal (1)
No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political Affiliation
Took office Left office Time in office
1   Pedro Barriere
(?–1827)
21 September 1821 28 November 1821 68 days Independent
2   José Matías Delgado
(1767–1832)
28 November 1821 9 February 1823 1 year, 73 days Independent
3   Vicente Filísola
(1789–1850)
9 February 1823 7 May 1823 87 days Independent
4   Felipe Codallos
(1790–?)
7 May 1823 25 May 1823 18 days Independent
  Consultive Junta 25 May 1823 17 June 1823 23 days Consultive Junta
5   Mariano Prado
(1776–1837)
17 June 1823 22 April 1824 310 days Liberal

Heads of state of El SalvadorEdit

Head of State of El Salvador
  Independent (6)       Conservative (3)       Liberal (6)
No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political Affiliation
Took office Left office Time in office
1   Juan Manuel Rodríguez
(1771–1847)
22 April 1824 1 October 1824 162 days Independent
  Mariano Prado
(1776–1837)
Acting Head of State
1 October 1824 13 December 1824 73 days Liberal
2   Juan Vicente Villacorta Díaz
(1764–1828)
13 December 1824 1 November 1826 1 year, 323 days Liberal
  Mariano Prado
(1776–1837)
Acting Head of State
1 November 1826 30 January 1829 2 years, 90 days Liberal
3   José María Cornejo
(1788–1864)
30 January 1829 16 February 1830 1 year, 17 days Conservative
4   José Damián Villacorta
(1796–1860)
16 February 1830 4 December 1830 291 days Independent
5   José María Cornejo
(1788–1864)
4 December 1830 3 April 1832 1 year, 121 days Conservative
  Francisco Morazán
(1792–1842)
Provisional Head of State
3 April 1832 13 May 1832 40 days Liberal
  Joaquín de San Martín
(1770–1854)
Acting Head of State
13 May 1832 25 July 1832 73 days Conservative
6   Mariano Prado
(1776–1837)
25 July 1832 1 July 1833 341 days Liberal
7   Joaquín de San Martín
(1770–1854)
1 July 1833 23 June 1834 357 days Conservative
  Carlos Salazar Castro
(1800–1867)
Provisional Head of State
23 June 1834 13 July 1834 20 days Independent
  José Gregorio Salazar
(1773–1838)
Provisional Head of State
13 July 1834 30 September 1834 79 days Independent
8   Joaquín Escolán y Balibrera
(?–?)
30 September 1834 13 October 1834 13 days Independent
  José María Silva
(1804–1876)
Acting Head of State
13 October 1834 2 March 1835 140 days Independent
9   Joaquín Escolán y Balibrera
(?–?)
2 March 1835 10 April 1835 39 days Independent
10   Nicolás Espinoza
(1795–1845)
10 April 1835 15 November 1835 219 days Liberal
  Francisco Gómez
(1796–1838)
Acting Head of State
15 November 1835 1 February 1836 78 days Independent
11   Diego Vigil Cocaña
(1799–1845)
1 February 1836 23 May 1837 1 year, 111 days Liberal
12   Timoteo Menéndez
(?–?)
23 May 1837 7 June 1837 15 days Independent
13   Diego Vigil Cocaña
(1799–1845)
7 June 1837 6 January 1838 213 days Liberal
14   Timoteo Menéndez
(?–?)
6 January 1838 23 May 1838 137 days Independent
  Antonio José Cañas
(1785–1844)
Acting Head of State
23 May 1838 11 July 1839 1 year, 49 days Independent
15   Francisco Morazán
(1792–1842)
11 July 1839 16 February 1840 220 days Liberal
  José María Silva
(1804–1876)
Acting Head of State
16 February 1840 5 April 1840 49 days Independent
  Municipal Council of San Salvador 5 April 1840 15 April 1840 10 days Municipal Council of San Salvador
  Antonio José Cañas
(1785–1844)
Provisional Head of State
15 April 1840 20 September 1840 158 days Independent
  Norberto Ramírez
(1802–1856)
Provisional Head of State
20 September 1840 7 January 1841 109 days Independent
  Juan Lindo
(1790–1857)
Provisional Head of State
7 January 1841 22 February 1841 46 days Conservative

Presidents of independent El Salvador (1841–present)Edit

  Independent (2)       Conservative (9)       Liberal (13)       PDN (4)       Labor (1)       PPP (1)       Military (14)       PDSU (1)
  PRUD (2)       PCN (4)       DAP (1)       PDC (1)       ARENA (4)       FMLN (2)       GANA (1)       NI (1)
No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Elected Term of office Political Affiliation
Took office Left office Time in office
  Juan Lindo
(1790–1857)
Provisional President
22 February 1841 20 June 1841 118 days Conservative
  Pedro José Arce (es)
(1801–1871)
Provisional President
20 June 1841 28 June 1841 8 days Independent
  Juan Lindo
(1790–1857)
Provisional President
28 June 1841 1 February 1842 218 days Conservative
  José Escolástico Marín
(?–1846)
Acting President
1 February 1842 14 April 1842 72 days Independent
1   Juan José Guzmán
(1800–1847)
14 April 1842 10 December 1843 1 year, 240 days Conservative
  Cayetano Antonio Molina (es)
(1803–1873)
Provisional President
10 December 1843 20 December 1843 10 days Independent
  Pedro José Arce (es)
(1801–1871)
Provisional President
20 December 1843 29 December 1843 9 days Independent
  Cayetano Antonio Molina (es)
(1803–1873)
Provisional President
29 December 1843 1 January 1844 3 days Independent
  Pedro José Arce (es)
(1801–1871)
Provisional President
1 January 1844 1 February 1844 31 days Independent
  Fermín Palacios
(?–?)
Acting President
1 February 1844 7 February 1844 37 days Independent
2   Francisco Malespín
(1806–1846)
7 February 1844 15 February 1845 1 year, 8 days Conservative
3   Joaquín Eufrasio Guzmán
(1801–1875)
15 February 1845 1 February 1846 351 days Independent
  Fermín Palacios
(?–?)
Acting President
1 February 1846 21 February 1846 20 days Independent
4   Eugenio Aguilar
(1804–1879)
21 February 1846 1 February 1848 1 year, 345 days Liberal
  Tomás Medina
(1803–1884)
Acting President
1 February 1848 3 February 1848 2 days Independent
  José Félix Quirós
(1811–1883)
Acting President
3 February 1848 7 February 1848 4 days Independent
5   Doroteo Vasconcelos
(1803–1883)
7 February 1848 1 February 1850 1 year, 359 days Liberal
  Ramón Rodríguez
(?–?)
Acting President
1 February 1850 4 February 1850 3 days Independent
6   Doroteo Vasconcelos
(1803–1883)
4 February 1850 12 January 1851 342 days Liberal
  Francisco Dueñas
(1810–1884)
Provisional President
12 January 1851 1 March 1851 48 days Conservative
  José Félix Quirós
(1811–1883)
Acting President
1 March 1851 3 May 1851 63 days Independent
7   Francisco Dueñas
(1810–1884)
13 May 1851 30 January 1852 272 days Conservative
  José María San Martín
(1811–1857)
Acting President
30 January 1852 1 February 1852 2 days Conservative
8   Francisco Dueñas
(1810–1884)
1 February 1852 1 February 1854 2 years Conservative
  Vicente Gómez
(?–?)
Acting President
1 February 1854 15 February 1854 14 days Independent
9   José María San Martín
(1811–1857)
15 February 1854 1 February 1856 1 year, 351 days Conservative
  Francisco Dueñas
(1810–1884)
Acting President
1 February 1856 12 February 1856 11 days Conservative
10   Rafael Campo
(1813–1890)
12 February 1856 1 February 1858 1 year, 354 days Conservative
  Lorenzo Zepeda
(?–?)
Acting President
1 February 1858 7 February 1858 6 days Independent
11   Miguel Santín del Castillo
(1830–1880)
7 February 1858 24 January 1859 351 days Conservative
  Joaquín Eufrasio Guzmán
(1801–1875)
Acting President
24 January 1859 15 February 1859 22 days Independent
  José María Peralta
(1807–1883)
Acting President
15 February 1859 12 March 1859 25 days Independent
12   Gerardo Barrios
(1813–1865)
12 March 1859 26 October 1863 4 years, 228 days Liberal
13   Francisco Dueñas
(1810–1884)
26 October 1863 15 April 1871 7 years, 140 days Conservative
14   Santiago González
(1818–1887)
15 April 1871 1 February 1876 4 years, 323 days Liberal
15   Andrés del Valle
(1833–1888)
1 February 1876 1 May 1876 90 days Liberal
16   Rafael Zaldívar
(1834–1903)
1 May 1876 6 April 1884 7 years, 341 days Liberal
  Ángel Guirola (es)
(1826–1910)
Provisional President
6 April 1884 21 August 1884 137 days Independent
17   Rafael Zaldívar
(1834–1903)
21 August 1884 14 May 1885 266 days Liberal
  Fernando Figueroa
(1849–1919)
Provisional President
14 May 1885 18 June 1885 35 days Military /
Liberal
  José Rosales Herrador
(1827–1891)
Provisional President
18 June 1885 22 June 1885 4 days Independent
18   Francisco Menéndez
(1830–1890)
22 June 1885 22 June 1890 5 years Military /
Liberal
19   Carlos Ezeta
(1852–1903)
22 June 1890 9 June 1894 3 years, 352 days Military /
Liberal
20   Rafael Antonio Gutiérrez
(1845–1921)
10 June 1894 13 November 1898 4 years, 157 days Military /
Liberal
21   Tomás Regalado
(1861–1906)
14 November 1898 1 March 1903 4 years, 108 days Military /
Liberal
22   Pedro José Escalón
(1847–1923)
1903 1 March 1903 1 March 1907 4 years Military /
Conservative
23   Fernando Figueroa
(1849–1919)
1907 1 March 1907 1 March 1911 4 years Military /
Liberal
24   Manuel Enrique Araujo
(1865–1913)
1911 1 March 1911 9 February 1913 1 year, 345 days Independent
  Carlos Meléndez Ramirez
(1861–1919)
Provisional President
9 February 1913 29 August 1914 1 year, 202 days National Democratic Party
  Alfonso Quiñónez Molina
(1874–1950)
Provisional President
29 August 1914 1 March 1915 184 days National Democratic Party
25   Carlos Meléndez Ramirez
(1861–1919)
1915 1 March 1915 21 December 1918 3 years, 295 days National Democratic Party
  Alfonso Quiñónez Molina
(1874–1950)
Acting President
21 December 1918 1 March 1919 70 days National Democratic Party
26   Jorge Meléndez
(1871–1953)
1919 1 March 1919 1 March 1923 4 years National Democratic Party
27   Alfonso Quiñónez Molina
(1874–1950)
1923 1 March 1923 1 March 1927 4 years National Democratic Party
28   Pío Romero Bosque
(1860–1935)
1927 1 March 1927 1 March 1931 4 years National Democratic Party
29   Arturo Araujo
(1878–1967)
1931 1 March 1931 2 December 1931 276 days Labor Party
  Civic Directory 2 December 1931 4 December 1931 2 days Civic Directory
  Maximiliano Hernández Martínez
(1882–1966)
Acting President
4 December 1931 28 August 1934 2 years, 267 days Military /
National Pro Patria Party
  Andrés Ignacio Menéndez
(1879–1962)
Provisional President
29 August 1934 1 March 1935 185 days Military /
National Pro Patria Party
30   Maximiliano Hernández Martínez
(1882–1966)
1935
1939
1944
1 March 1935 9 May 1944 9 years, 69 days Military /
National Pro Patria Party
  Andrés Ignacio Menéndez
(1879–1962)
Provisional President
9 May 1944 20 October 1944 164 days Military /
National Pro Patria Party
  Osmín Aguirre y Salinas
(1889–1977)
Provisional President
21 October 1944 1 March 1945 132 days Military
31   Salvador Castaneda Castro
(1888–1965)
1945 1 March 1945 14 December 1948 3 years, 288 days Military /
Unification Social Democratic Party
  Revolutionary Council of Government (es) 15 December 1948 14 September 1950 1 year, 274 days Revolutionary Council of Government
32   Óscar Osorio
(1910–1969)
1950 14 September 1950 14 September 1956 6 years Military /
Revolutionary Party of Democratic Unification
33   José María Lemus
(1911–1993)
1956 14 September 1956 26 October 1960 4 years, 42 days Military /
Revolutionary Party of Democratic Unification
  Junta of Government 26 October 1960 25 January 1961 91 days Junta of Government
  Civic-Military Directory 25 January 1961 25 January 1962 1 years Civic-Military Directory
  Eusebio Rodolfo Cordón Cea
(1899–1966)
Provisional President
25 January 1962 1 July 1962 157 days Independent
34   Julio Adalberto Rivera Carballo
(1921–1973)
1962 1 July 1962 1 July 1967 5 years Military /
National Conciliation Party
35   Fidel Sánchez Hernández
(1917–2003)
1967 1 July 1967 1 July 1972 5 years Military /
National Conciliation Party
36   Arturo Armando Molina
(born 1927)
1972 1 July 1972 1 July 1977 5 years Military /
National Conciliation Party
37   Carlos Humberto Romero
(1924–2017)
1977 1 July 1977 15 October 1979 2 years, 106 days Military /
National Conciliation Party
  Revolutionary Government Junta 15 October 1979 2 May 1982 2 years, 199 days Revolutionary Government Junta
38   Álvaro Magaña
(1925–2001)
1982 2 May 1982 1 June 1984 2 years, 30 days Democratic Action Party
39   José Napoleón Duarte
(1925–1990)
1984 1 June 1984 1 June 1989 5 years Christian Democratic Party
40   Alfredo Cristiani
(born 1947)
1989 1 June 1989 1 June 1994 5 years Nationalist Republican Alliance
41
Armando Calderón Sol
(1948–2017)
1994 1 June 1994 1 June 1999 5 years Nationalist Republican Alliance
42   Francisco Flores Pérez
(1959–2016)
1999 1 June 1999 1 June 2004 5 years Nationalist Republican Alliance
43   Antonio Saca
(born 1965)
2004 1 June 2004 1 June 2009 5 years Nationalist Republican Alliance
44   Mauricio Funes
(born 1959)
2009 1 June 2009 1 June 2014 5 years Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front
45   Salvador Sánchez Cerén
(born 1944)
2014 1 June 2014 1 June 2019 5 years Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front
46   Nayib Bukele
(born 1981)
2019 1 June 2019 Incumbent 1 year, 267 days Grand Alliance for National Unity

Latest electionEdit

Popular vote
GANA
53.10%
ARENA
31.72%
FMLN
14.41%
Vamos
0.77%
Candidate Party Votes %
Nayib Bukele Grand Alliance for National Unity 1,434,856 53.10
Carlos Calleja Nationalist Republican Alliance 857,084 31.72
Hugo Martínez Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front 389,289 14.41
Josué Alvarado Vamos 20,763 0.77
Invalid or blank votes 31,186
Total 2,733,178 100
Registered voters/turnout 5,268,411 51.88
Source: TSE

Living former presidentsEdit

TimelineEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Shocking Gap Between Latin America's Presidential Salaries And Workers Minimum Wage". Latin Post.

External linksEdit