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2019 European Parliament election in Spain

The 2019 European Parliament election in Spain was held on Sunday, 26 May 2019, as part of the EU-wide election to elect the 9th European Parliament. All 54 seats allocated to Spain as per the Treaty of Lisbon were up for election.[2] Once the United Kingdom is effectively out of the European Union in a legal basis as a result of Brexit, 5 additional seats would be allocated to Spain.[3] The election was held simultaneously with regional elections in twelve autonomous communities and local elections all throughout Spain.

2019 European Parliament election in Spain

← 2014 26 May 2019

All 54[a] Spanish seats in the European Parliament
Opinion polls
Registered37,248,888 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg2.0%[1]
Turnout22,619,984 (60.7%)
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg16.9 pp
  First party Second party Third party
  (Josep Borrell) 2019-04-01 Secretary Pompeo Meets With Spanish Foreign Minister Borrell (40551356093) (cropped).jpg (Dolors Montserrat) 20190401 (Presentación PP Europeas) SAM9166 (46609879015) (cropped).jpg (Luis Garicano) 20190410 El cambio del modelo productivo (cropped).jpg
Leader Josep Borrell Dolors Montserrat Luis Garicano
Party PSOE PP Cs
Alliance S&D EPP ALDE
Leader since 26 February 2019 1 April 2019 29 December 2018
Leader's seat Spain Spain Spain
Last election 14 seats, 23.0% 16 seats, 26.1% 6 seats, 9.7%[b]
Seats won 20 12 7
Seat change Green Arrow Up Darker.svg6 Red Arrow Down.svg4 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg1
Popular vote 7,369,789 4,519,205 2,731,825
Percentage 32.9% 20.2% 12.2%
Swing Green Arrow Up Darker.svg9.9 pp Red Arrow Down.svg5.9 pp Green Arrow Up Darker.svg2.5 pp

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  (M.ª Eugenia R. Palop & Sira Rego) Spot 2019. Unidas Podemos Cambiar Europa (cropped) (cropped).jpg Jorge Buxadé (cropped).jpg Oriol Junqueras 2016b (cropped).jpg
Leader María Eugenia Rodríguez Palop Jorge Buxadé Oriol Junqueras[c]
Party Podemos–IU Vox Ahora Repúblicas
Alliance GUE/NGL ECR Greens/EFA
Leader since 21 March 2019 21 April 2019 29 September 2018
Leader's seat Spain Spain Spain
Last election 11 seats, 18.0%[e] 0 seats, 1.6% 3 seats, 6.1%[d]
Seats won 6 3 3
Seat change Red Arrow Down.svg5 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg3 Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
Popular vote 2,258,857 1,393,684 1,252,139
Percentage 10.1% 6.2% 5.6%
Swing Red Arrow Down.svg7.9 pp Green Arrow Up Darker.svg4.6 pp Red Arrow Down.svg0.5 pp

2019 European election in Spain - Vote Strength.svg
Provincial results map for the European Parliament in Spain

Held one month after the 2019 Spanish general election, the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) of Prime Minister Pedro Sánchez scored a landslide victory—as well as the first win for the party in a European Parliament election in 15 years, also with Josep Borrell as its main candidate—by achieving 32.8% of the share and 20 seats, a result which allowed it to become the largest national delegation within the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats. Concurrently, the opposition People's Party suffered a severe setback and scored its worst result ever in a European Parliament election, but slightly improved on its general election results by achieving 20.1% of the vote and 12 seats. Citizens (Cs), which had integrated UPyD within its lists ahead of the election, became the third most-voted party of the country, but at 12.2% and 7 seats it only slightly improved on the combined Cs–UPyD results in 2014. Unidas Podemos cambiar Europa, the alliance of Podemos and United Left (IU) suffered a considerable drop from both parties' past results, being reduced to 10.1% and 6 seats. Far-right Vox performed well below expectations after disappointing results for the party in the 2019 general election, scoring 6.2% of the share and 3 seats.[4]

Contents

Electoral systemEdit

The 54 members of the European Parliament allocated to Spain as per the Treaty of Lisbon are elected using the D'Hondt method and a closed list proportional representation, with no threshold being applied in order to be entitled to enter seat distribution. However, the use of the D'Hondt method may result in an effective threshold depending on the district magnitude.[5] Seats are allocated to a single multi-member constituency comprising the entire national territory. Voting is on the basis of universal suffrage, which comprises all nationals and resident non-national European citizens over eighteen and in full enjoyment of their political rights.[6][7][8] Amendments to the electoral law in 2011 required for Spaniards abroad to apply for voting before being permitted to vote, a system known as "begged" or expat vote (Spanish: Voto rogado).[9]

The electoral law provides that parties, federations, coalitions and groupings of electors are allowed to present lists of candidates. However, they are required to secure the signature of at least 15,000 registered electors. Electors are barred from signing for more than one list of candidates. Parties, federations and coalitions are allowed to replace this requirement with the signature of at least 50 elected officials—deputies, senators, MEPs or members from the legislative assemblies of autonomous communities or from local city councils—. Concurrently, parties and federations intending to enter in coalition to take part jointly at an election are required to inform the relevant Electoral Commission within ten days from the election call.[6][7]

Outgoing delegationEdit

Parties and alliancesEdit

Below is a list of the main parties and electoral alliances which contested the election:

Party or alliance Candidate Ideology Refs
People's Party (PP)   Dolors Montserrat Conservatism
Christian democracy
[10]
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE)
  Josep Borrell Social democracy [11]
  María Eugenia
Rodríguez Palop
Left-wing populism
Democratic socialism
[12]
[13]
[14]
Citizens–Party of the Citizenry (Cs)
  Luis Garicano Liberalism [15]
[16]
[17]
  Oriol Junqueras[c] Secessionism
Left-wing nationalism
[18]
Free for Europe (Junts)
  Carles Puigdemont Catalan independence
Liberalism
[19]
[20]
  Izaskun Bilbao Peripheral nationalism [21]
  Jordi Sebastià Left-wing nationalism
Eco-socialism
[22]
[23]
Vox (Vox)   Jorge Buxadé Right-wing populism
Ultranationalism
Neoliberalism
[24]

CampaignEdit

Leaders' debatesEdit

2019 European Parliament election debates in Spain
Date Organisers Moderator(s)     P  Present    S  Surrogate    NI  Non-invitee 
PP PSOE UP Cs Vox AR Junts CEUS CpE Audience Refs
12 May laSexta
(El Objetivo)
Ana Pastor P
Montserrat
P
Borrell
P
Palop
P
Garicano
P
Buxadé
NI NI NI NI 6.9%
(1,147,000)
[25]
[26]
22 May TVE
Xabier Fortes P
Montserrat
P
Borrell
P
Palop
P
Garicano
P
Buxadé
S
Solé
S
Knörr
P
Bilbao
P
Sebastià
5.2%
(817,000)
[27]
[28]

Opinion pollsEdit

The table below lists voting intention estimates in reverse chronological order, showing the most recent first and using the dates when the survey fieldwork was done, as opposed to the date of publication. Where the fieldwork dates are unknown, the date of publication is given instead. The highest percentage figure in each polling survey is displayed with its background shaded in the leading party's colour. If a tie ensues, this is applied to the figures with the highest percentages. The "Lead" column on the right shows the percentage-point difference between the parties with the highest percentages in a given poll. When available, seat projections are also displayed below the voting estimates in a smaller font.

Color key:

  Poll conducted after legal ban on opinion polls

ResultsEdit

OverallEdit

Summary of the 26 May 2019 European Parliament election results in Spain
Parties and coalitions Popular vote Seats
Votes % ±pp Total +/−
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE)1 7,369,789 32.86 +9.85 20 +6
People's Party (PP)1 4,519,205 20.15 –5.94 12 –4
Citizens–Party of the Citizenry (Cs)1 2 2,731,825 12.18 +2.51 7 +1
United We Can change Europe (PodemosIU)3 2,258,857 10.07 –7.94 6 –5
Vox (Vox)1 1,393,684 6.21 +4.64 3 +3
Republics Now (Ahora Repúblicas)4 1,252,139 5.58 –0.51 3 ±0
Free for Europe (Junts)1 5 1,018,435 4.54 +1.04 2 ±0
Coalition for a Solidary Europe (CEUS)6 633,090 2.82 +0.89 1 ±0
Commitment to Europe (CpE)7 296,491 1.32 –0.60 0 –1
Animalist Party Against Mistreatment of Animals (PACMA) 295,546 1.32 +0.19 0 ±0
Green Coalition–Citizen Europe (CV–EC) 65,504 0.29 New 0 ±0
Zero CutsThe GreensEuropean Green Group (Recortes Cero–LV–GVE) 50,002 0.22 +0.02 0 ±0
Volt Europa (Volt) 32,432 0.14 New 0 ±0
Feminist Initiative (IFem) 29,276 0.13 –0.02 0 ±0
Communists (PCPE–PCPC–PCPA) 28,508 0.13 –0.06 0 ±0
Act (PACT) 25,528 0.11 New 0 ±0
Andalusia by Itself (AxSí) 23,995 0.11 New 0 ±0
For a Fairer World (PUM+J) 21,584 0.10 New 0 ±0
Communist Party of the Workers of Spain (PCTE) 19,080 0.09 New 0 ±0
Pirates of Catalonia–European Pirates (pirates.cat/ep) 16,755 0.07 –0.18 0 ±0
Centrists for Europe (CCD–Lliures–UIJ–centrados) 15,615 0.07 New 0 ±0
Forum of Citizens (FAC) 14,175 0.06 –0.15 0 ±0
Positive Left (IZQP) 12,939 0.06 New 0 ±0
With You, We Are Democracy (Contigo) 12,430 0.06 New 0 ±0
Extremadurans (CEx–CREx–PREx) 11,894 0.05 +0.01 0 ±0
FE de las JONS–Spanish Alternative–La Falange–National Democracy (ADÑ)8 11,699 0.05 –0.20 0 ±0
Republican Alternative (ALTER) 11,076 0.05 ±0.00 0 ±0
Actual Equality (IGRE) 9,076 0.04 New 0 ±0
Red Current Movement (MCR) 8,402 0.04 +0.01 0 ±0
Humanist Party (PH) 7,947 0.04 –0.05 0 ±0
Euro Latino Independent Movement (MIEL) 6,809 0.03 New 0 ±0
Internationalist Solidarity and Self-Management (SAIn) 5,543 0.02 –0.02 0 ±0
Blank ballots 216,736 0.97 –1.33
Total1 22,426,066 54 ±0
Valid votes 22,426,066 99.14 +0.94
Invalid votes 193,918 0.86 –0.94
Votes cast / turnout 22,619,984 60.73 +16.92
Abstentions 14,628,904 39.27 –16.92
Registered voters 37,248,888
Sources[29]
Popular vote
PSOE
32.86%
PP
20.15%
Cs
12.18%
Podemos–IU
10.07%
Vox
6.21%
Ahora Repúblicas
5.58%
Junts
4.54%
CEUS
2.82%
CpE
1.32%
PACMA
1.32%
Others
1.96%
Blank ballots
0.97%
Seats
PSOE
37.04%
PP
22.22%
Cs
12.96%
Podemos–IU
11.11%
Vox
5.56%
Ahora Repúblicas
5.56%
Junts
3.70%
CEUS
1.85%

Elected legislatorsEdit

The following table lists the elected legislators:

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Up to 59 seats, pending Brexit. Should the United Kingdom be effectively out of the European Union in a legal basis, the 5 additional seats would be allocated to PSOE, PP, Cs, Vox and Junts.
  2. ^ Aggregated data for UPyD and C's in the 2014 election.
  3. ^ a b Currently in preventive detention in Soto del Real (Madrid).
  4. ^ Aggregated data for EPDD and LPD in the 2014 election.
  5. ^ Aggregated data for IP and Podemos in the 2014 election.
  6. ^ 16 PP, 1 independent (ex-UDC).
  7. ^ PSOE.
  8. ^ 5 Podemos, 4 IU, 1 Anova.
  9. ^ 4 Cs, 1 UPyD, 1 PDeCAT, 1 PNV, 1 independent (ex-UPyD).
  10. ^ 2 ERC, 1 ICV, 1 European Spring
  11. ^ PDeCAT will run in a coalition list with its predecessor party, CDC, in order to guarantee public funding for the campaign.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz Within Unidas Podemos cambiar Europa.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj Within Cs.
  14. ^ a b c d e PNV only.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h Within CEU.

ReferencesEdit

Opinion poll sources
  1. ^ "El PSOE ganaría las elecciones europeas con más de 11 puntos de distancia sobre el PP, según el sondeo de Celeste-Tel". eldiario.es (in Spanish). 26 May 2019.
  2. ^ "Encuesta elecciones europeas: El PSOE ganaría con 18 escaños y el PP (11-12) mejoraría respecto al 28-A". ABC (in Spanish). 26 May 2019.
  3. ^ "#emojiPanel Europa (24M)". electomania.es (in Spanish). 24 May 2019.
  4. ^ "#emojiPanel Europa (23M)". electomania.es (in Spanish). 23 May 2019.
  5. ^ "#emojiPanel Europa (22M)". electomania.es (in Spanish). 22 May 2019.
  6. ^ "#emojiPanel Europa (21M)". electomania.es (in Spanish). 21 May 2019.
  7. ^ "El PSOE arrasa en las elecciones europeas y se consolida la división del centroderecha". El Mundo (in Spanish). 20 May 2019.
  8. ^ "El PSOE crece en los últimos días (+2,6) y el PP consolida el segundo puesto (+1,2)". ABC (in Spanish). 20 May 2019.
  9. ^ "Encuesta GIPEyOP: Europeas y Locales 2019". GIPEyOP (in Spanish). 20 May 2019.
  10. ^ "El PSOE gana en Bruselas y Puigdemont logra un escaño". La Razón (in Spanish). 20 May 2019.
  11. ^ "Elecciones europeas. Encuesta 19 de mayo de 2019" (PDF). La Razón (in Spanish). 20 May 2019.
  12. ^ "#emojiPanel europeas (20M)". electomania.es (in Spanish). 20 May 2019.
  13. ^ "#electoPanel europeas (19M): Puigdemont alcanza el 4% y se acerca a Ahora Repúblicas". electomania.es (in Spanish). 19 May 2019.
  14. ^ "Sánchez revalidaría en las europeas su primer puesto a mucha distancia de Casado y Rivera". Público (in Spanish). 16 May 2019.
  15. ^ "#electoPanel europeas (17M): Puigdemont mantiene sus dos eurodiputados con el 3,5% y subiendo". electomania.es (in Spanish). 17 May 2019.
  16. ^ "El PSOE ganará las elecciones europeas con más de 10 puntos de distancia sobre el PP, según Celeste-Tel". eldiario.es (in Spanish). 20 May 2019.
  17. ^ "La fortaleza de Ciudadanos puede dar la victoria a la derecha en las europeas". El Independiente (in Spanish). 16 May 2019.
  18. ^ "El PSOE ganaría las elecciones europeas de forma holgada". 20minutos (in Spanish). 17 May 2019.
  19. ^ "El PSOE arrasa en las europeas y el PP logra remontar tras el 28A a costa de Vox". La Información (in Spanish). 17 May 2019.
  20. ^ "#electoPanel europeas (15M): se mantienen las tendencias". electomania.es (in Spanish). 15 May 2019.
  21. ^ "#electoPanel europeas (13M): subida del PSOE, que roza el 25%". electomania.es (in Spanish). 13 May 2019.
  22. ^ "El PSOE desbanca al PP como fuerza más votada en las europeas". El País (in Spanish). 18 May 2019.
  23. ^ "#electoPanel europeas (11M): Puigdemont sube y roza el 4%, Compromis pierde su escaño". electomania.es (in Spanish). 11 May 2019.
  24. ^ "#electoPanel europeas (9M): Puigdemont sigue subiendo y apuntala el segundo escaño". electomania.es (in Spanish). 9 May 2019.
  25. ^ "El PSOE se impondrá el 26-M y el PP superará por 5 puntos a Ciudadanos". ABC (in Spanish). 13 May 2019.
  26. ^ "#electoPanel europeas (7M): desplome del PP". electomania.es (in Spanish). 7 May 2019.
  27. ^ "ElectoPanel Europeas (5M): caída del PP y Vox, suben UP y los nacionalistas". electomania.es (in Spanish). 5 May 2019.
  28. ^ "Macrobarómetro de abril 2019. Preelectoral elecciones al Parlamento Europeo, autonómicas y municipales 2019. Bloque elecciones al Parlamento Europeo (Estudio nº 3245. Marzo-abril 2019)" (PDF). CIS (in Spanish). 9 May 2019.
  29. ^ "ElectoPanel europeas (9A): recuperación del PP". electomania.es (in Spanish). 8 April 2019.
  30. ^ "electoPanel europeas (2A): la separación de PNV y JxCat hace peligrar sus escaños". electomania.es (in Spanish). 2 April 2019.
  31. ^ "Elecciones Europeas: El Mundo y Sigma Dos presentan en Madrid la segunda oleada de la macro encuesta para las europeas en seis países". Sigma Dos (in Spanish). 11 April 2019.
  32. ^ "PSOE, PP y Vox crecen mientras Unidas Podemos y Ciudadanos caen, según las proyecciones de la Eurocámara". eldiario.es (in Spanish). 18 April 2019.
  33. ^ "ElectoPanel europeas (26M): el PSOE sigue ganando ventaja". electomania.es (in Spanish). 26 March 2019.
  34. ^ "ElectoPanel para europeas (19M): la bajada de Unidas Podemos daría un segundo escaño al PACMA". electomania.es (in Spanish). 19 March 2019.
  35. ^ "ElectoPanel europeo 12M: victoria para el PSOE". electomania.es (in Spanish). 12 March 2019.
  36. ^ "ElectoPanel Europeas (I): Ciudadanos y PSOE luchan por la victoria. Vox da el sorpasso a Podemos y se acerca al PP. PACMA logra representación". electomania.es (in Spanish). 5 March 2019.
  37. ^ "El bloque de la investidura de Pedro Sánchez ganaría las europeas". El Mundo (in Spanish). 7 March 2019.
  38. ^ "ElectoPanel Europeas (I): Ciudadanos y PSOE luchan por la victoria. Vox da el sorpasso a Podemos y se acerca al PP. PACMA logra representación". electomania.es (in Spanish). 3 February 2019.
  39. ^ "El PSOE ganará las europeas por primera vez en 15 años gracias a la división de la derecha". El Español (in Spanish). 13 January 2019.
  40. ^ "ElectoPanel elecciones europeas. Irrumpen los pequeños". electomania.es (in Spanish). 5 June 2018.
  41. ^ a b "El PSOE se marca el reto de "capitalizar la desafección por la lucha PP-Cs" en el centro". El Confidencial (in Spanish). 21 May 2018.
  42. ^ "Una encuesta de Moncloa para las europeas pronostica escaños para Vox, UPyD y PACMA". El Independiente (in Spanish). 10 April 2018.
  43. ^ "Un estudio del PSOE le sitúa como primera fuerza en municipales y europeas". Cadena SER (in Spanish). 9 April 2018.
  44. ^ "La primera fuerza en las europeas". PSOE (in Spanish). 9 April 2018.
Other
  1. ^ "Elecciones municipales, autonómicas y al Parlamento Europeo de 26 de mayo de 2019" (PDF). ine.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 12 April 2019.
  2. ^ Presidencia del Gobierno: "Real Decreto 206/2019, de 1 de abril, por el que se convocan elecciones de Diputados al Parlamento Europeo" (PDF). Boletín Oficial del Estado (79): 33948-33950. 2 April 2019. Artículo 2. Número de diputados que se eligen. El número de diputados al Parlamento Europeo será de 54, en aplicación de lo dispuesto en el artículo 215 de la Ley Orgánica 5/1985, de 19 de junio, del Régimen Electoral General, y del artículo 3.2 de la Decisión (UE) 2018/937 del Consejo Europeo, de 28 de junio de 2018, por la que se fija la composición del Parlamento Europeo. Ello sin perjuicio de lo previsto en la disposición adicional única del presente real decreto
  3. ^ Presidencia del Gobierno: "Real Decreto 206/2019, de 1 de abril, por el que se convocan elecciones de Diputados al Parlamento Europeo" (PDF). Boletín Oficial del Estado (79): 33948-33950. 2 April 2019. Disposición adicional única. Incremento del número de escaños asignados a España una vez sea jurídicamente efectiva la salida del Reino Unido de la Unión Europea. De conformidad con el artículo 3.2 de la Decisión (UE) 2018/937 del Consejo Europeo, una vez sea jurídicamente efectiva la salida del Reino Unido, los cinco nuevos escaños que corresponden a España serán asignados por la Junta Electoral Central a las candidaturas a las que puedan corresponder como consecuencia de la aplicación de las reglas establecidas en el artículo 216 de la Ley Orgánica 5/1985, de 19 de junio, a los resultados del proceso electoral celebrado el 26 de mayo de 2019, sin que sea necesario realizar nuevas elecciones.
  4. ^ "El PSOE arrasa en el Parlamento Europeo con una subida de seis escaños". El Mundo (in Spanish). 26 May 2019. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
  5. ^ Gallagher, Michael (30 July 2012). "Effective threshold in electoral systems". Trinity College, Dublin. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
  6. ^ a b "General Electoral System Organic Law of 1985". Organic Law No. 5 of 19 June 1985. Official State Gazette (in Spanish). Retrieved 6 March 2017.
  7. ^ a b "Representation of the people Institutional Act". juntaelectoralcentral.es. Central Electoral Commission. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  8. ^ "Treaty of Lisbon amending the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty establishing the European Community". Act of 17 December 2007. Official Journal of the European Union. Retrieved 21 July 2017.
  9. ^ Reig Pellicer, Naiara (16 December 2015). "Spanish elections: Begging for the right to vote". cafebabel.co.uk. Retrieved 17 July 2017.
  10. ^ "Montserrat liderará al PP en la UE para rebatir a los soberanistas". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). 1 April 2019. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
  11. ^ "El PSOE confirma a Borrell como candidato a las europeas". El Mundo (in Spanish). 26 February 2019. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
  12. ^ "Unidas Podemos cambiar Europa, el nombre para las europeas de la candidatura del partido de Iglesias". El País (in Spanish). 26 May 2018. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  13. ^ "Pablo Bustinduy renuncia a encabezar la lista de Unidas Podemos en las europeas y será sustituido por Rodríguez Palop". eldiario.es (in Spanish). 21 March 2019. Retrieved 21 March 2019.
  14. ^ "La JEC revisa las coaliciones para las europeas y el caso de Equo, que figura en dos a la vez". Europa Press. 15 April 2019.
  15. ^ "Luis Garicano será el candidato de Ciudadanos a las elecciones europeas". El País (in Spanish). 29 December 2018. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  16. ^ "Pagaza confirma que irá en las listas de Cs a las europeas tras las negociaciones con UPyD". El Español (in Spanish). 17 February 2019. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  17. ^ "Ciudadanos firma un acuerdo electoral con UPyD y coloca a su líder en las listas europeas". RTVE (in Spanish). 4 April 2019. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
  18. ^ "Ahora Repúblicas, la marca de la candidatura de Junqueras con Bildu y BNG para las europeas". eldiario.es (in Spanish). 15 January 2019. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  19. ^ "Carles Puigdemont encabezará la lista de JxCat a las elecciones europeas". eldiario.es (in Spanish). 10 March 2019. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  20. ^ Vaqué, Irene (6 May 2019). "Puigdemont podrá presentarse a las europeas: el juez estima su recurso". ccma.cat.
  21. ^ "Punto final a 15 años de alianza: PNV y PDeCAT no irán juntos a las europeas". eldiario.es (in Spanish). 21 March 2019. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  22. ^ "Compromís lanza su nueva coalición europea liderando una "cooperativa" del autonomismo progresista español". eldiario.es (in Spanish). 9 April 2019. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
  23. ^ "En Marea concurrirá a las elecciones europeas junto a Compromís". Atlántico (in Spanish). 12 April 2019. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
  24. ^ Carvajal, Álvaro (21 April 2019). "Vox ficha a Hermann Tertsch para las elecciones europeas y sitúa como cabeza de lista a Jorge Buxadé". El Mundo.
  25. ^ "'El objetivo' organiza esta noche el primer debate con candidatos al Parlamento Europeo en laSexta". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). 12 May 2019. Retrieved 13 May 2019.
  26. ^ "'Supervivientes: Conexión Honduras' anota un magnífico 23,2% frente al cine de Antena 3 (14,2%)". FormulaTV (in Spanish). 13 May 2019. Retrieved 13 May 2019.
  27. ^ "Debate a nueve en RTVE: 2 horas, 3 bloques y minuto de oro para cada partido". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 20 May 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
  28. ^ "'La que se avecina' conquista a un estupendo 18,1% frente al buen 14,1% de 'La Voz Senior'". FormulaTV (in Spanish). 23 May 2019. Retrieved 13 May 2019.
  29. ^ "26 May 2019 European Parliament election results" (PDF). juntaelectoralcentral.es (in Spanish). Central Electoral Commission. Retrieved 22 July 2019.