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European Conservatives and Reformists

The European Conservatives and Reformists (ECR)[1] is a Eurosceptic,[6][7][8][9][10] anti-federalist[5][6][11] political group in the European Parliament. The ECR is the parliamentary group of the Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists in Europe (ACRE) European political party (formerly known as the Alliance of European Conservatives and Reformists), but also includes MEPs from four other European parties and thirteen MEPs without European party affiliation. The group focuses on reforming the European Union (EU) on the basis of Eurorealism[12] as opposed to total rejection of the EU (anti-EU-ism).[13][14]

Conservatives and Reformists
European Parliament group
NameEuropean Conservatives and Reformists
English abbr.ECR[1]
French abbr.ECR
Formal nameEuropean Conservatives and Reformists Group
Ideology Right-wing populism (minority)
Political positionCentre-right to right-wing
European partiesAlliance of Conservatives and Reformists in Europe[4]
Associated organisationsNew Direction
From22 June 2009[5]
Chaired byRaffaele Fitto,
Ryszard Legutko
61 / 751

The ECR was founded around the Movement for European Reform after the 2009 European elections at the behest of British Conservative Party leader David Cameron. During the Seventh European Parliament (2009–14), the ECR had 55 MEPs, making it the joint fourth-largest group. After the 2014 European elections, the party accepted thirteen new member parties, increasing the group membership to 75 MEPs (by May 2017) and making it the current third-largest group in the European Parliament.

The group is considered centre-right[15] to right-wing.[16] The largest party in the group by number of MEPs is the Law and Justice (PiS) of Poland.


Founding principlesEdit

The Prague Declaration was first proposed in 2003.

The genesis of the ECR dates back to 2005, and possibly[when?] earlier.[citation needed] A political group in the European Parliament cannot be officially recognised if it contains MEPs from only a single member state. Instead, it must meet the minimum threshold required by the European Parliament's Rules of Procedure.[17][18] Any party seeking to create a group must therefore seek partners. The last mixed group in the European Parliament was forcibly dissolved. Since then, groups have been required to demonstrate ideological coherence. This is usually done by publishing a document (sometimes called a constituent declaration) stating the principles to which each group member is expected to adhere. The constituent declaration of the ECR has become known as the Prague Declaration. That document outlines the following principles:[19]

  1. Free enterprise, free and fair trade and competition, minimal regulation, lower taxation, and small government as the ultimate catalysts for individual freedom and personal and national prosperity.
  2. Freedom of the individual, more personal responsibility and greater democratic accountability.
  3. Sustainable, clean energy supply with an emphasis on energy security.
  4. The importance of the family as the bedrock of society.
  5. The sovereign integrity of the nation state, opposition to EU federalism and a renewed respect for true subsidiarity.
  6. The overriding value of the transatlantic security relationship in a revitalised NATO, and support for young democracies across Europe.
  7. Effectively controlled immigration and an end to abuse of asylum procedures
  8. Efficient and modern public services and sensitivity to the needs of both rural and urban communities.
  9. An end to waste and excessive bureaucracy and a commitment to greater transparency and probity in the EU institutions and use of EU funds.
  10. Respect and equitable treatment for all EU countries, new and old, large and small.


Origins: 2005–06Edit

In 2005, the British Conservative Party held a leadership contest. During the sixth term of the European Parliament, Conservative Party MEPs sat in the European Democrats (ED), a subgroup of the European People's Party–European Democrats (EPP-ED) group, which is dominated by the European People's Party (EPP). Leadership contender David Cameron argued for withdrawal of the Conservatives from EPP-ED and the formation of a new group. Upon taking office as Conservative leader in December 2005, Cameron indicated that the launch of a new group would be undertaken immediately.[20] The motives for forming this group was the EPP-ED was too federalist, while the Tories opposed stronger European integration.[21]

In June 2006, Cameron ordered Shadow Foreign Secretary William Hague to ensure the new group was created by 13 July 2006.[20] However, when that date arrived, it was announced that the launch of the new European Parliament group was delayed until after the 2009 elections.[22]

Movement for European ReformEdit

In the interim, a pan-European alliance, called the Movement for European Reform (MER), was founded and functioned outside of the European Parliament.[23] The same day, the Law and Justice and Civic Platform parties of Poland were identified as potential members of the new group: However, Civic Platform stated that it would not leave the EPP, and the Law and Justice stated that it planned to stay aligned to UEN.[24] The next day, Sir Reg Empey, the leader of the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP), suggested that the UUP could join the new group after the 2009 election.[25] In the event of the election, the UUP ran under the banner of the Ulster Conservatives and Unionists, an electoral alliance between the Conservative Party and the Ulster Unionists.

The Czech Civic Democratic Party (ODS) was part of MER but its leader, Mirek Topolánek, did not rule out staying in EPP-ED.[26] Topolánek then attended the EPP Summit (a meeting of heads of state and government of the European People's Party) of 21 June 2007, adding speculation about the fragility of the new group.[27]

Later in 2007, the relations between the EPP and the Conservative Party further deteriorated when the EPP voiced its opposition to the UK holding a referendum of the Treaty of Lisbon, something the Tories had campaigned for.[21]

In July 2008, the European Parliament raised the 2009 threshold for forming a group to 25 members and representing 7 member states.[28] Topolánek, after being re-elected Leader of the ODS on 7 December 2008, attended yet another EPP Summit, on 11 December 2008.[29]

2009 European Parliament electionsEdit

As the 2009 European elections approached, Cameron, Topolánek, and Conservative MEP Geoffrey Van Orden (a 'point-man' for the new group)[30] were looking for partners. The list of possible partners was kept secret.[31]

People or parties that were rumoured to be possible partners in the new group included Law and Justice;[32][33][34] Lega Nord;[32][35] the Danish People's Party;[32][35] For Fatherland and Freedom,[31][32] Order and Justice,[32] the Pensioners' Party;[36] Order, Law and Justice;[30][37][38] Libertas;[39] Civic Union;[40] Electoral Action of Poles in Lithuania,[40] ChristianUnion-SGP;[41] the independent Indrek Tarand;[40] and Lijst Dedecker's Derk Jan Eppink;[32][33] from member states such as the Czech Republic,[42][43] Poland,[42][43] Italy,[42] Sweden,[42] the Baltic and Balkan states,[42] Belgium,[43] and the Netherlands.[43] Speculation also considered the remnants of the Union for Europe of the Nations (UEN) group, which was thought to be on the verge of collapse[according to whom?] after the decision of Fianna Fáil to join the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE)[44] and the Italian National Alliance merging with EPP member party Forza Italia. Lajos Bokros, elected on the list of the Hungarian Democratic Forum (MDF) joined the group as the EPP did not want to accept him on pressure of the rival FIDESZ.

The new group was provisionally named the European Conservatives,[34] (echoing the 1970s group of the same name), which was then changed to European Conservatives and Reformists.[45] The original estimates were firmed up to 84 MEPs,[32] then to approximately 60.[43] Frictions surfaced, as the ODS wanted the new group to have as many MEPs as possible, whilst the Conservatives wanted to disbar anti-immigrant parties in the new group, including the Danish People's Party and Lega Nord.[35]


On 22 June 2009, the first official list of the new group's members was released.[11] On 24 June, the group held its inaugural meeting, in which Conservative MEP Timothy Kirkhope was named interim leader.[46] Adam Bielan of PiS and Jan Zahradil of the ODS were named interim vice-chairmen.

At the first sitting of the Seventh European Parliament, on 14 July 2009, outgoing Parliament President Hans-Gert Pöttering announced that applications from all new and returning groups had been received and approved, including ECR. The group then became eligible for EU funding, office space, and committee places.

Former ECR Chairman, Michał Kamiński

The first election for the group leadership was also scheduled for 14 July 2009, pitting interim leader Kirkhope against fellow Briton Geoffrey Van Orden.[47] However, both Conservative leadership candidates were forced to forfeit the leadership in order to prevent it from falling apart, when Conservative MEP Edward McMillan-Scott defied his party whip and stood for one of the vice-presidency posts despite pledges the previous week that Polish MEP Michał Kamiński would be backed for it. Kamiński's bid for Vice-President of the European Parliament subsequently failed, and the Polish MEPs threatened to abandon the new caucus unless Kamiński was made the group leader in the parliament.[48] Kirkhope went to an emergency meeting with Polish MEPs in Strasbourg and proposed sharing the group leadership with the Kamiński; however, this was not accepted, and he had to step down as coalition leader, withdrawing in favour of Kamiński. McMillan-Scott, who alleged that the Conservative's new allies in Poland are 'racist and homophobic', had the Conservative whip withdrawn in the European Parliament.[49][50] In March 2010, McMillan-Scott joined the British Liberal Democrats and the ALDE group.[51]

Leadership changes and upheavals in membershipEdit

Group chairman Kamiński left Law and Justice (PiS) in November 2010, saying that the party had been taken over by the far-right. Kamiński and other Law and Justice MPs and MEPs formed a new Polish party, Poland Comes First, formed as a breakaway from Law and Justice following dissatisfaction with the direction and leadership of Jarosław Kaczyński. Kamiński initially remained of the group, but other Law and Justice MEPs argued he should step down.[52] On 15 December, rumours emerged that the eleven remaining PiS MEPs might leave the ECR and join the right-wing Europe of Freedom and Democracy (EFD) group instead.[53]

In February 2011, Kamiński announced he would resign his chairmanship, effective 8 March, when a replacement would be elected. Former interim leader Timothy Kirkhope was said to be the front runner,[54] but lost the election to Jan Zahradil of the Czech Republic's ODS.[55] Zahradil has been in talks with other parties about joining the ECR.[56] In late March, David Cameron invited the New Flemish Alliance (N-VA) to join the group.[57]

The May 2011 resignation of Silvana Koch-Mehrin, one of the fourteen Vice Presidents of the European Parliament, led to the ECR considering putting another candidate forward to take the position they were denied through McMillan-Scott's defection.[58] Conservative Party MEP Giles Chichester was nominated on 31 May, and was elected unopposed by the Parliament on 5 July 2011,[59] after the ALDE group to which Koch-Mehrin belongs failed to find a willing and suitable candidate.[60]

On 14 December 2011, a new leadership was elected, with Martin Callanan as Chairman and Jan Zahradil, Geoffrey Van Orden, Ryszard Legutko, and Derk Jan Eppink as Vice-Chairmen. On 26 December 2011, four members of United Poland – who had split from Law and Justice in November – left the ECR to join the Europe of Freedom and Democracy (EFD) group. On 17 January 2012, Czech Oldřich Vlasák replaced Chichester as the ECR's Vice-President of the Parliament.

2014 European Parliament electionsEdit

Bernd Lucke, former leader of Alternative for Germany

The 2014 European elections were held on 22–25 May 2014. On 4 June 2014, the ECR accepted applications from the Danish People's Party (4 MEPs) and the Finns Party (2 MEPs), both formerly attached to the EFD group during the 7th term of the European Parliament, as well as the Family Party of Germany, both Ordinary People and Independent Personalities (OĽaNO) and New Majority (NOVA) from Slovakia, and the Independent Greeks.[61][62] Alternative for Germany and Bulgaria Without Censorship were admitted on 8 June, followed by the Dutch Reformed Political Party on 16 June.[63] On 18 June the New Flemish Alliance (N-VA) joined the group,[64] a party previously attached to the Greens/EFA group.[65] N-VA party members had voted by a wide margin to join the ECR group instead of ALDE; 70 voted to join the ECR, and just three to join ALDE.[66] The N-VA's decision allowed the ECR to overtake ALDE as the third biggest group in the European parliament,[66] assuming the role of "kingmakers" in the new parliament.[67] On 23 June, Irish Fianna Fáil MEP Brian Crowley joined from the ALDE group, but without the permission of his party or its leader Micheál Martin, who removed Crowley's party whip the following day.[68][69] On the same day, IMRO – Bulgarian National Movement joined,[70] taking the group to 70 MEPs.

The ECR’s unanimous decision to admit the Danish People’s Party and Finns Party as members was criticised because one MEP from each party has a criminal conviction.[71][72] Morten Messerschmidt, lead candidate for the Danish People’s Party, was convicted in 2002 for publishing material that appeared to suggest that there is a link between a multiethnic society and rape, violence and forced marriages.[73] Jussi Halla-aho, a Finns Party MEP, was convicted in 2012 after writing a 2008 blog entry which claimed that Islam "reveres paedophilia".[73] However, Syed Kamall, the ECR's Chairman, who is a practising Muslim, defended the new members.[73]

Following the election, British Conservative MEP Sajjad Karim was the group's candidate for President of the European Parliament.[74]

On 8 March 2016, the bureau of the ECR Group began motions to exclude the two remaining MEPs of the Alternative for Germany (AfD) from their group due to the AfD's links with the far-right Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ) and controversial remarks about immigration, inviting the MEPs to voluntarily leave the group by 31 March, with a motion of exclusion to be tabled on 12 April otherwise.[75][76]

2019 European Parliament electionsEdit

Prior to the 2019 elections, the Sweden Democrats and Brothers of Italy joined the ECR group,[77] while Forum for Democracy and Debout la France have pledged to do so after the elections should they win seats during them.[78]

Two ECR member parties, the Danish People's Party and the Finns Party, announced their intention to form a new group called the European Alliance for People and Nations with Alternative for Germany and Italy's League following the 2019 elections.[79]

Changes in membershipEdit

Conservatives and Reformists SummitEdit


The ECR has MEPs from eighteen states, including eleven with more than one MEP (in dark blue) and seven with one MEP each (light blue).

The ECR has 75 Members of the European Parliament, from twenty-three parties across eighteen countries. The ECR draws the majority of its MEPs from northern and central Europe.

Ninth European ParliamentEdit

Following the 2019 election, the ECR has 63 seats.

Eighth European ParliamentEdit

Following the 2014 election, members from twelve new parties joined. Additional parties were admitted during the course of the Eighth European Parliament, such as the Slovakian Freedom and Solidarity party and the Italian Direzione Italia. Alternative for Germany was initially admitted, but expelled in April 2016.

Seventh European ParliamentEdit

When the ECR was founded, at the start of the 2009–2014 Parliament, it had MEPs in eight states, with just three having more than one MEP each (dark blue).
By the end of the 2009–14 Parliament, the ECR had been joined by MEPs from Croatia, Denmark, and Italy, as well as additional MEPs in the United Kingdom and Poland.

Originally, it had been announced on 22 June 2009 that Hannu Takkula, MEP for the Finnish Centre Party (an Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe member party) would also be a member of ECR (with his two party colleagues remaining in ALDE), but he reversed this decision two days later.[90]

The group membership was reduced to 54 when Edward McMillan-Scott was expelled from the group in July 2009. It increased to 55 again when Anna Rosbach joined the group in March 2011.[91] UKIP MEP David Campbell Bannerman rejoined the Conservative Party in May 2011, taking the group's tally to 56:[92] one larger than The Greens–European Free Alliance – an advantage that disappeared in June 2011. Anthea McIntyre was confirmed as the ECR's 57th MEP on 1 December 2011. United Poland, which had been founded by four defectors from Law and Justice – Zbigniew Ziobro, Tadeusz Cymański, Jacek Kurski, and Jacek Włosowicz [pl] – left the ECR for Europe of Freedom and Democracy (EFD) on 26 December 2011. In March 2012, Conservative Roger Helmer defected to the UK Independence Party (UKIP) and also joined EFD; Marta Andreasen moved in the opposite direction, joining the Conservatives and the ECR from UKIP and the EFD group, in February 2013.[citation needed] In October 2012, Cristiana Muscardini joined the ECR, when she left Future and Freedom to found the Conservatives and Social Reformers. In April 2013, the ECR was joined by fellow Italian Susy De Martini, an independent who was formerly a member of The People of Freedom. The newly elected Croatian MEP Ruža Tomašić of the Croatian Party of Rights joined the group when Croatia joined the EU in July 2013.[93] In November 2013, Poland Comes First dissolved itself, with three of its members joining the new Poland Together, which was also joined by Artur Zasada from the EPP: taking the group's number of MEPs to 57. In 2014, Mirosław Piotrowski rejoined Law and Justice, and sought reelection in 2014 under that party's banner.


Ninth European Parliament[citation needed]:

Country Party Abbr. Leader Ideology European Parliament
  Belgium New Flemish Alliance
Dutch: Nieuw-Vlaamse Alliantie
N-VA Bart De Wever Flemish nationalism
Social conservatism
3 / 21
  Bulgaria Bulgarian National Movement
Bulgaria: Българско Национално Движение
IMRO Krasimir Karakachanov National conservatism
Right-wing populism
2 / 17
  Croatia Croatian Conservative Party
Croatian: Hrvatska konzervativna stranka
HKS Marijan Pavliček National conservatism
Economic liberalism
1 / 12
  Czech Republic Civic Democratic Party
Czech: Občanská demokratická strana
ODS Petr Fiala Liberal conservatism
4 / 21
  Germany Family Party of Germany
German: Familienpartei Deutschlands
FD Maria Hartmann Social conservatism
Christian democracy
1 / 96
  Greece Greek Solution
Greek: Ελληνική Λύση
ΕΛ Kyriakos Velopoulos National conservatism
1 / 21
  Italy Brothers of Italy
Italian: Fratelli d'Italia
Fdl Giorgia Meloni National conservatism
Right-wing populism
5 / 73
  Latvia National Alliance
Latvian: Nacionālā Apvienība
MA Raivis Dzintars National conservatism
Right-wing populism
2 / 8
  Lithuania Electoral Action of Poles in Lithuania
Lithuanian: Lietuvos lenkų rinkimų akcija
LLRA Valdemar Tomaševski Minority politics
Christian democracy
1 / 11
  Netherlands Forum for Democracy
Dutch: Forum voor Democratie
FvD Thierry Baudet National conservatism
3 / 26
Reformed Political Party
Dutch: Staatkundig Gereformeerde Partij
SGP Kees van der Staaij Social conservatism
Christian right
1 / 26
  Poland Law and Justice
Polish: Prawo i Sprawiedliwość
PiS Jarosław Kaczyński National conservatism
Christian democracy
26 / 51
  Slovakia Freedom and Solidarity
Slovakian: Sloboda a Solidarita
SaS Richard Sulík Conservative liberalism
2 / 13
  Spain Vox
Spanish: Vox
VOX Santiago Abascal National conservatism
Right-wing populism
3 / 54
  Sweden Sweden Democrats
Swedish: Sverigedemokraterna
SD Jimmie Åkesson National conservatism
Right-wing populism
3 / 20
  United Kingdom Conservative Party
English: Conservative Party
Con Theresa May (acting) Conservatism
British unionism
4 / 73

Eighth European Parliament:

Party Abbr. Member state MEPs Date joined Europarty
New Flemish Alliance N-VA   Belgium
4 / 21
18 June 2014
Reload Bulgaria BBT   Bulgaria
1 / 17
12 June 2014
IMRO – Bulgarian National Movement IMRO-BNM   Bulgaria
1 / 17
24 June 2014
Croatian Conservative Party HKS   Croatia
1 / 11
1 July 2013
Solidarity Movement KA   Cyprus
1 / 6
8 March 2016
Civic Democratic Party ODS   Czech Republic
2 / 21
22 June 2009
Danish People's Party DF   Denmark
3 / 13
4 June 2014 EAPN
Finns Party PS   Finland
2 / 13
4 June 2014 EAPN
Independent[a] Independent   Germany
1 / 96
29 September 2018 None
Liberal Conservative Reformers[b] LKR   Germany
4 / 96
12 June 2014
Bündnis C AUF & PBC   Germany
1 / 96
4 June 2014
Independent[c] Independent   Greece
1 / 21
4 June 2014 None
Fianna Fáil[d] FF   Ireland
1 / 11
23 June 2014 None
Direction Italy DI   Italy
2 / 73
19 May 2015
Brothers of Italy FdI   Italy
2 / 73
17 December 2018
National Alliance NA   Latvia
1 / 8
22 June 2009
EAPL–CFA[e] LLRA–KŠS   Lithuania
1 / 11
23 June 2009
Christian Union CU   Netherlands
1 / 26
22 June 2009
Reformed Political Party SGP   Netherlands
1 / 26
16 June 2014
Law and Justice PiS   Poland
14 / 51
22 June 2009
Right Wing of the Republic PR   Poland
1 / 51
1 July 2014
Independent Independent   Poland
4 / 51
1 July 2014 None
M10 M10   Romania
1 / 32
27 October 2015
Freedom and Solidarity SaS   Slovakia
1 / 13
8 October 2014
New Majority NOVA   Slovakia
1 / 13
4 June 2014
Ordinary People OĽaNO   Slovakia
1 / 13
4 June 2014
Sweden Democrats[94] SD   Sweden
2 / 20
3 July 2018 None
Conservative Party Conservative   United Kingdom
18 / 73
22 June 2009
Ulster Unionist Party UUP   United Kingdom
1 / 73
22 June 2009
  1. ^ Joachim Starbatty left LKR.
  2. ^ Bernd Lucke left AfD with 4 more MEPs after losing leadership of his party in 2015. The remaining two AfD members, Beatrix von Storch and Marcus Pretzell were expelled from the ECR group in 2016.
  3. ^ Notis Marias left ANEL.
  4. ^ Brian Crowley was the sole member of Fianna Fáil elected in the 2014 election; following his announcement that he was joining the ECR, Fianna Fáil withdrew the party whip. Crowley remains a member of the Fianna Fáil party as a whole, but has been excluded from its cross-Parliamentary caucus.
  5. ^ Full name: Electoral Action of Poles in Lithuania – Christian Families Alliance



The ECR is led by a Chairman, currently Syed Kamall of the British Conservative Party.

There have been five Chairmen of the European Conservatives and Reformists group:

Assumed office To Name Party
24 June 2009 14 July 2009 Timothy Kirkhope   Conservative Party
14 July 2009 8 March 2011 Michał Kamiński   Law and Justice / Poland Comes First
8 March 2011 14 December 2011 Jan Zahradil   Civic Democratic Party
14 December 2011 12 June 2014 Martin Callanan   Conservative Party
12 June 2014 present Syed Kamall   Conservative Party

Group BureauEdit

In addition to the Chairman, the ECR is led by three Vice-Chairmen and a wider Bureau, including the leader of each national delegation represented in the ECR.

Position Name Party
Chairman Syed Kamall   Conservative Party
Vice-Chairman Ryszard Legutko   Law and Justice
Vice-Chairman Hans-Olaf Henkel   Liberal Conservative Reformers
Vice-Chairman Notis Marias   Independent
Vice-Chairman Morten Messerschmidt   Danish People's Party
Vice-Chairman Helga Stevens   New Flemish Alliance
Vice-Chairman Geoffrey Van Orden   Conservative Party
Chief Whip Ashley Fox   Conservative Party
Treasurer Emma McClarkin   Conservative Party
Member of the Bureau Nikolay Barekov   Bulgaria Without Censorship
Member of the Bureau Brian Crowley   Fianna Fáil
Member of the Bureau Ryszard Czarnecki   Law and Justice
Member of the Bureau Mark Demesmaeker   New Flemish Alliance
Member of the Bureau Vicky Ford   Conservative Party
Member of the Bureau Anna Fotyga   Law and Justice
Member of the Bureau Karol Karski   Law and Justice
Member of the Bureau Bernd Lucke   Liberal Conservative Reformers
Member of the Bureau Jim Nicholson   Ulster Unionist Party
Member of the Bureau Tomasz Piotr Poręba   Law and Justice
Member of the Bureau Branislav Škripek   Ordinary People
Member of the Bureau Valdemar Tomaševski   Electoral Action of Poles in Lithuania
Member of the Bureau Ruža Tomašić   Croatian Conservative Party
Member of the Bureau Peter Van Dalen   ChristianUnion
Member of the Bureau Jan Zahradil   Civic Democratic Party
Member of the Bureau Roberts Zīle   National Alliance


According to calculations by Vote Watch Europe, the ECR group had a cohesion rate of 86.65% in parliamentary votes during the 7th session (2009–14). This is slightly lower than in the four pro-European groups, but higher than in the European United Left–Nordic Green Left (GUE/NGL) and far higher than in the Europe of Freedom and Democracy (EFD) groups. Internal cohesion was highest in votes on constitutional and inter-institutional affairs (94.79%), international trade, and industry, research & energy. The greatest divergence within the group was in decisions on regional development (70.53% cohesion), agriculture, and development (cooperation).[95] The parties that were most loyal to the group (meaning that they voted with the majority of ECR members the most often) were the UK Conservatives (97.51%), the Ulster Unionist Party and the Czech Civic Democratic Party. The members who deviated from the ECR majority the most often were the individual MEPs Andreasen from the UK (who had switched over from EFD group only in 2013; 61.20% loyalty), Muscardini from Italy, and Rosbach (who had crossed over from EFD in 2011).[96]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b "ECR formation – Press release june 22 2009". 2009-06-22. Retrieved 2015-05-14.
  2. ^ a b c Nordsieck, Wolfram (2019). "European Union". Parties and Elections in Europe. Archived from the original on 2017-06-08. Retrieved 2019-05-30.
  3. ^
  4. ^ Further MEPs from EFA and ECPM
  5. ^ a b François Foret (2015). Religion and Politics in the European Union: The Secular Canopy. Cambridge University Press. p. 103. ISBN 978-1-107-08271-7.
  6. ^ a b Christophe Gillissen (2010). Ireland: Looking East. Peter Lang. p. 157. ISBN 978-90-5201-652-8.
  7. ^ Jørn Holm-Hansen (2011). "Continuity and Change in Polish Party Politics Since 1989". In Ingo Peters; Elisabeth Bakke (eds.). 20 Years Since the Fall of the Berlin Wall: Transitions, State Break-Up and Democratic Politics in Central Europe and Germany. BWV Verlag. p. 277. ISBN 978-3-8305-1975-1. Retrieved 2013-02-06.
  8. ^ Senem Aydin-Düzgit (2012). Constructions of European Identity: Debates and Discourses on Turkey and the EU. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-137-28351-1.
  9. ^ Hans Slomp (2011). Europe, A Political Profile: An American Companion to European Politics [2 volumes]: An American Companion to European Politics. ABC-CLIO. p. 245. ISBN 978-0-313-39182-8.
  10. ^ Matt Cole; Helen Deighan (2012). Political Parties in Britain. Oxford University Press. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-7486-6903-5.
  11. ^ a b "Conservative MEPs form new group". BBC. 2009-06-22. Retrieved 2009-06-22.
  12. ^ Reformists, European Conservatives and. "ECR Group – European Conservatives and Reformists Group".
  13. ^ Erkanor Saka (2009). Mediating the EU: Deciphering the Transformation of Turkish Elites (PhD Thesis). ProQuest. p. 202. ISBN 978-1-109-21663-9. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  14. ^ Matthew (26 October 2011). "Why anti-EUism is not left-wing". Workers' Liberty. Alliance for Workers Liberty. Retrieved 31 January 2016.
  15. ^ Andreas Staab (2013). The European Union Explained: Institutions, Actors, Global Impact. Indiana University Press. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-253-00976-0.
    Mulholland, Hélène (22 June 2009). "Tories unveil group of controversial new allies in European parliament". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2011-03-05.
    "Conservative MEPs form new 'anti-federalist' group in the European Parliament". The Telegraph. London. 22 June 2009. Retrieved 2011-03-05.
    "Cuban dissident wins Sakharov Prize". European Voice. 21 October 2010. Retrieved 2011-03-05.
  16. ^ Ingeborg Toemmel (2014). The European Union: What it is and how it Works. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 158. ISBN 978-1-137-42754-0.
    "EU parliament sees birth of new right-wing group", EUobserver, 22 June 2009, retrieved 2011-07-18
    "Tory minders gag right-wing allies in the ECR", The Times, London, 8 Nov 2009, retrieved 2011-07-18
    New-look European Parliament, BBC News, 3 Sep 2009, retrieved 2011-07-18
  17. ^ "Rules of Procedure of the European Parliament – July 2009 – Rule 30 – Formation of political groups".
  18. ^ "Rules of Procedure of the European Parliament – March 2009 – Rule 29 – Formation of political groups".
  19. ^ "The Prague Declaration : European Conservatives and Reformists Group". Retrieved 2013-09-07.
  20. ^ a b Kite, Melissa (11 June 2006). "Cameron gives Hague month to get MEPs out of Brussels group". London: Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2009-09-28.
  21. ^ a b "Tories leaving Europe's EPP group". BBC News. 2009-03-11. Retrieved 2018-06-05.
  22. ^ Kubosova, Lucia (13 July 2006). "Plans to form new MEP group kicked into 2009". EUobserver. Retrieved 2009-03-26.
  23. ^ "Cameron Euro declaration". BBC News. 2006-07-13. Retrieved 2008-05-27.
  24. ^ Mulvey, Steven (13 July 2006). "Q & A: The Tories and the EPP". BBC News. Retrieved 2008-05-27.
  25. ^ "Could the UUP be ready to leave the European Democrats?". The Belfast News Letter. 2006-07-14.
  26. ^ "Will Mirek really leave the EPP-ED?". EUobserver. 2007. Retrieved 2008-05-28.
  27. ^ "16 Heads of State meet at an EPP summit". European People's Party. 2007. Retrieved 2008-05-28.
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