Fianna Fáil (/
|Leader||Micheál Martin TD|
|Deputy Leader||Dara Calleary TD|
|General Secretary||Seán Dorgan|
|Chairman||Brendan Smith TD|
|Seanad Leader||Senator Catherine Ardagh|
|Founder||Éamon de Valera|
|Founded||23 March 1926|
|Split from||Sinn Féin|
|Headquarters||65–66 Lower Mount Street, Dublin 2,|
D02 NX40, Ireland
|Youth wing||Ógra Fianna Fáil|
|Political position||Centre to |
|European affiliation||Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe|
|International affiliation||Liberal International|
|European Parliament group||Renew Europe|
|Slogan||An Ireland for All|
43 / 158
13 / 60
|European Parliament[nb 1]|
1 / 11
|Local government in the Republic of Ireland|
279 / 949
The party was founded as an Irish republican party on 23 March 1926 by Éamon de Valera and his supporters after they split from Sinn Féin on the issue of abstentionism, in the aftermath of the Irish Civil War. Since 1927 Fianna Fáil has been one of Ireland's two major parties, along with Fine Gael; both are seen as being centre-right parties, and as being to the right of the Labour Party and Sinn Féin. The party dominated Irish political life for most of the 20th century, and since its foundation either it or Fine Gael has led every government. Between 1989 and 2011, it led coalition governments with parties of both the left and the right.
Fianna Fáil was last in government from 1997 to 2011 under Bertie Ahern and Brian Cowen, with a periodic high of 81 seats in 2002, reduced to 77 in 2007 and then to 20 in 2011, the lowest in the party's history. Having won 44 seats at the 2016 general election, Fianna Fáil is currently the largest opposition party in both houses (Dáil Éireann and Seanad Éireann) of the Oireachtas, with party leader Micheál Martin entering into a confidence and supply arrangement with a Fine Gael-led minority government at the beginning of the 32nd Dáil.
Fianna Fáil was founded by Éamon de Valera, a former leader of Sinn Féin. He and a number of other members split from Sinn Féin when a motion he proposed—which called for elected members to be allowed to take their seats in Dáil Éireann if and when the controversial Oath of Allegiance was removed—failed to pass at the Sinn Féin Ard Fheis in 1926. The party adopted its name on 2 April of the same year. While it was also opposed to the Treaty settlement, it rejected abstentionism, instead aiming to republicanise the Irish Free State from within. Fianna Fáil's platform of economic autarky had appeal among the farmers, working-class people and the poor, while alienating more affluent classes.
The party first entered government on 9 March 1932. It was in power for 61 of the 79 years between then and the election of 2011. Its longest continuous period in office has been 15 years and 11 months (March 1932 – February 1948). Its longest single period out of office in the 20th century was four years and four months (March 1973 – July 1977). Seven of the party's eight leaders have served as Taoiseach.
Fianna Fáil joined the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE) party on 16 April 2009, and the party's Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) sat in the ALDE Group during the 7th European Parliament term from June 2009 to 1 July 2014. The party is a full member of the Liberal International. Prior to this, the party was part of the Eurosceptic Union for Europe of the Nations parliamentary group between 1999 and 2009.
It was the largest party in the Dáil after every general election from that of 1932 until that of 2007. In the 2011 general election it suffered the worst defeat of a sitting government in the history of the Irish state. This loss was described as "historic" in its proportions, and "unthinkable". The party sank from being the largest in the Dáil to the third-largest; it won 20 seats, compared to its previous performance of well over 60 seats at every election since 1932.
Organisation and structureEdit
Fianna Fáil's success was credited by The Irish Times to its local structure. The basic unit was the cumann (branch); these were grouped into comhairle ceantair (district branch) and a comhairle dáil ceantair (constituency branch) in every constituency. At the party's height it had 3,000 cumainn, an average of 75 per constituency. The party claimed 55,000 members in 2004, a figure which political scientist Eoin O'Malley considers exaggerated compared to membership figures for other parties.
However, from the early 1990s onward the cumann structure was weakened. Every cumann was entitled to three votes to selection conventions irrespective of its size; hence, a large number of cumainn had become in effect "paper cumainn", the only use of which was to ensure an aspiring or sitting candidate got enough votes. Another problem had arisen with the emergence of parallel organisations grouped around candidates or elected officials. Supporters and election workers for a particular candidate were loyal to a candidate and not to the party. If the candidate were to leave the party, through either resignation, retirement or defeat at an election, the candidate's supporters would often depart. Although this phenomenon was nothing new (the most famous example being Neil Blaney's "Donegal Mafia") it increased significantly from the early 1990s, particularly in the Dublin Region with former Taoiseach Bertie Ahern's "Drumcondra mafia" and the groups supporting Tom Kitt and Séamus Brennan in Dublin South that were largely separate from the official party structure.
Since the 2007 election, the party's structure has significantly weakened. This was in part exacerbated by significant infighting between candidates in the run-up to the 2011 general election. The Irish Times estimated that half of its 3,000 cumainn were effectively moribund. This fraction rose in Dublin with the exception of Dublin West, the former seat of both Brian Lenihan Snr and Brian Lenihan Jnr.
Fianna Fáil is seen as a typical catch-all party. R. Ken Carty wrote of Fianna Fáil and Fine Gael that they were 'heterogeneous in their bases of support, relatively undifferentiated in terms of policy or programme, and remarkably stable in their support levels'. Evidence from expert surveys, opinion polls and candidate surveys all fail to identify strong distinctions between the two parties. Many point to Ireland's Civil War politics, and feel that the basis for the division is the disagreement about the strategy to achieve a united Ireland. Kevin Byrne and political scientist Eoin O'Malley rejected this, and have argued that the differences between the two parties goes much further back in Irish history. They linked the parties to different nationalist traditions (Irish Enlightenment and Gaelic Nationalist) which in turn could be linked to migrations of Anglo-Norman and new English into Ireland and the native Gaelic population.
Fianna Fáil is seen as conservative but also as a nationalist party. It has presented itself as a "broad church", and attracted support from across disparate social classes. Between 1989 and 2011, it led coalition governments with parties of both the left and the right. Fianna Fáil’s platform contains a number of enduring commitments: to Irish unity; to the promotion and protection of the Irish language; and to maintaining Ireland’s tradition of military neutrality. Distinctly more populist, nationalist and, generally speaking, more economically interventionist than Fine Gael, the party nonetheless shares its rival's support of the European Union and opposition to physical-force republicanism.
The party's name and logo incorporates the words 'The Republican Party'. According to Fianna Fáil, "Republican here stands both for the unity of the island and a commitment to the historic principles of European republican philosophy, namely liberty, equality and fraternity".
Leadership and presidentEdit
The posts of leader and party president of Fianna Fáil are separate, with the former elected by the Parliamentary Party and the latter elected by the Ardfheis (thus allowing for the posts to be held by different people, in theory). However, in practice they have always been held by the one person. As the Ardfheis may have already been held in any given year by the time a new leader is elected, the selection of the new party president might not take place until the next year.
The following are the terms of office as party leader and as Taoiseach:
|Joseph Brennan||1973–77||Donegal–Leitrim||Jack Lynch|
|George Colley||1977–82||Dublin Central||Jack Lynch
|Ray MacSharry||1982–83||Sligo–Leitrim||Charles Haughey|
|Brian Lenihan Snr||1983–90||Dublin West||Charles Haughey|
|John Wilson||1990–92||Cavan–Monaghan||Charles Haughey|
|Bertie Ahern||1992–94||Dublin Central||Albert Reynolds|
|Mary O'Rourke||1995–2002||Longford–Westmeath||Bertie Ahern|
|Brian Cowen||2002–08||Laois–Offaly||Bertie Ahern|
|Mary Coughlan||2008–11||Donegal South-West||Brian Cowen|
|Mary Hanafin||2011||Dún Laoghaire||Micheál Martin|
|Brian Lenihan Jnr||2011||Dublin West||Micheál Martin|
|Éamon Ó Cuív||2011–12||Galway West||Micheál Martin|
|Dara Calleary||2018–||Mayo||Micheál Martin|
|Eoin Ryan Snr||1977–82||Industrial and Commercial Panel|
|Mick Lanigan||1982–90||Industrial and Commercial Panel (1982–89)|
Nominated member of Seanad Éireann (1989–90)
|Seán Fallon||1990–92||Industrial and Commercial Panel|
|G. V. Wright||1992–97||Nominated member of Seanad Éireann|
|Donie Cassidy||1997–2002||Labour Panel|
|Mary O'Rourke||2002–07||Nominated member of Seanad Éireann|
|Donie Cassidy||2007–11||Labour Panel|
|Darragh O'Brien||2011–2016||Labour Panel|
|Catherine Ardagh||2016–present||Industrial and Commercial Panel|
General election resultsEdit
|Election||Seats won||±||Position||First Pref votes||%||Government||Leader|
44 / 153
|44||2nd||299,486||26.2%||Opposition||Éamon de Valera|
57 / 153
|13||2nd||411,777||35.2%||Opposition||Éamon de Valera|
72 / 153
|15||1st||566,498||44.5%||Minority gov't (supported by LP)||Éamon de Valera|
77 / 153
|5||1st||689,054||49.7%||Minority gov't (supported by LP)||Éamon de Valera|
69 / 138
|8||1st||599,040||45.2%||Minority gov't (supported by LP)||Éamon de Valera|
77 / 138
|8||1st||667,996||51.9%||Majority gov't||Éamon de Valera|
67 / 138
|10||1st||557,525||41.9%||Minority gov't||Éamon de Valera|
76 / 138
|9||1st||595,259||48.9%||Majority gov't||Éamon de Valera|
68 / 147
|8||1st||553,914||41.9%||Opposition||Éamon de Valera|
69 / 147
|1||1st||616,212||46.3%||Minority gov't (supported by Ind)||Éamon de Valera|
65 / 147
|4||1st||578,960||43.4%||Opposition||Éamon de Valera|
78 / 147
|13||1st||592,994||48.3%||Majority gov't||Éamon de Valera|
70 / 144
|8||1st||512,073||43.8%||Minority gov't (supported by Ind)||Seán Lemass|
72 / 144
|2||1st||597,414||47.7%||Majority gov't||Seán Lemass|
75 / 144
|3||1st||602,234||45.7%||Majority gov't||Jack Lynch|
69 / 144
84 / 148
|15||1st||811,615||50.6%||Majority gov't||Jack Lynch|
78 / 166
81 / 166
|3||1st||786,951||47.3%||Minority gov't (supported by SFTWP and Ind)||Charles Haughey|
75 / 166
81 / 166
|6||1st||784,547||44.1%||Minority gov't (supported by Ind)||Charles Haughey|
77 / 166
|4||1st||731,472||44.1%||Coalition (FF-PD)||Charles Haughey|
68 / 166
|9||1st||674,650||39.1%||Coalition (FF-LP)||Albert Reynolds|
|Opposition (from December 1994)|
77 / 166
|9||1st||703,682||39.3%||Coalition (FF-PD)||Bertie Ahern|
81 / 166
|4||1st||770,748||41.5%||Coalition (FF-PD)||Bertie Ahern|
77 / 166
|4||1st||858,565||41.6%||Coalition (FF-GP-PD)||Bertie Ahern|
20 / 166
44 / 158
|23||2nd||519,356||24.3%||Confidence and supply(FG minority gov't)||Micheál Martin|
|Seanad Group Leader
Employment Affairs and Social Protection
|Seanad Deputy Group Leader
Foreign Affairs, Irish Overseas and the Diaspora
|Agriculture, Food and the Marine||Paul Daly|
|Business, Enterprise and Innovation||Aidan Davitt|
|Rural and Community Development||Brian Ó Domhnaill|
|Justice, Children and Youth Affairs||Lorraine Clifford-Lee|
|Communications, Climate Action and Environment||Terry Leyden|
|Housing, Planning and Local Government||Jennifer Murnane-O'Connor|
|Without portfolio||Denis O'Donovan|
|Health and Mental Health||Ned O'Sullivan|
|Transport, Tourism and Sport||Keith Swanick|
|Public Expenditure and Reform and Defence||Ned O'Sullivan|
Ógra Fianna FáilEdit
Fianna Fáil's youth wing is called Ógra Fianna Fáil. Formed in 1975, it plays an active role in recruiting new members and supporting election campaigns. Ógra also plays an important role in the party organisation, where it has five representatives on the Ard Chomhairle (National Executive).
Senator Thomas Byrne was the last nominated head or Cathaoirleach (Chairperson) of Ógra Fianna Fáil, before the youth wing introduced widespread oganisational reform following the heavy electoral defeat suffered by the whole party in 2011.
Fianna Fáil and Northern Ireland politicsEdit
On 17 September 2007, Fianna Fáil announced that the party would for the first time organise in Northern Ireland. The then Foreign Minister Dermot Ahern was asked to chair a committee on the matter: "In the period ahead Dermot Ahern will lead efforts to develop that strategy for carrying through this policy, examining timescales and structures. We will act gradually and strategically. We are under no illusions. It will not be easy. It will challenge us all. But I am confident we will succeed".
The party embarked on its first ever recruitment drive north of the border in September 2007 in northern universities, and established two 'Political Societies', the William Drennan Cumann in Queens University, Belfast, and the Watty Graham Cumann in UU Magee, Derry, which subsequently became official units of Fianna Fáil's youth wing, attaining full membership and voting rights, and attained official voting delegates at the 2012 Árd Fheis. On 23 February 2008, it was announced that a former Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) councillor, Colonel Harvey Bicker, had joined Fianna Fáil.
Bertie Ahern announced on 7 December 2007 that Fianna Fáil had been registered in Northern Ireland by the UK Electoral Commission. The party's Ard Fheis in 2009 unanimously passed a motion to organise in Northern Ireland by establishing forums, rather than cumainn, in each of its six counties. In December 2009, Fianna Fáil secured its first Northern Ireland Assembly MLA when Gerry McHugh, an independent MLA, announced he had joined the party. Mr. McHugh confirmed that although he had joined the party, he would continue to sit as an independent MLA. In June 2010, Fianna Fáil opened its first official office in Northern Ireland, in Crossmaglen, County Armagh. The then Taoiseach Brian Cowen officially opened the office, accompanied by Ministers Éamon Ó Cuív and Dermot Ahern and Deputies Rory O’Hanlon and Margaret Conlon. Discussing the party's slow development towards all-Ireland politics, Mr. Cowen observed: "We have a very open and pragmatic approach. We are a constitutional republican party and we make no secret of the aspirations on which this party was founded. It has always been very clear in our mind what it is we are seeking to achieve, that is to reconcile this country and not being prisoners of our past history. To be part of a generation that will build a new Ireland, an Ireland of which we can all be proud".
As of 2007, Fianna Fáil has been a registered and recognised party in Northern Ireland. However, it has not contested any elections in the region. At the party's 2014 Ard Fheis, a motion was passed without debate to stand candidates for election north of the border for the first time in 2019.
In 2017, Omagh councillor Sorcha McAnespy said she wished to run in the 2019 Northern Ireland local government election in the constituency under a Fianna Fáil ticket. In October 2017 she was elected as northern representative on the party's national executive, the "committee of 15".
Since 24 January 2019, the party have been in partnership with the Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) formerly the main Irish nationalist party in Northern Ireland, but now smaller than Sinn Féin. There had long been speculation about the eventual partnership for several years prior. This was initially met with a negative reaction from Seamus Mallon, former Deputy Leader of the SDLP, who stated he would be opposed to any such merger. Former leader of the SDLP Margaret Ritchie originally stated publicly that she opposed any merger, announcing to the Labour Party Conference that such a merger would not happen on her "watch". On 10 January 2019, Richie stated that she now supported a new partnership with Fianna Fáil.
Both Fianna Fáil and the SDLP currently have shared policies on key areas including addressing the current political situation in Northern Ireland, improving public services in both jurisdictions of Ireland, such as healthcare and education, and bringing about the further unity and cooperation of the people on the island and arrangements for a future poll on Irish reunification.
In European institutionsEdit
In the European Parliament from 1999 to 2009, Fianna Fáil was a leading member of Union for Europe of the Nations (UEN), a small national-conservative and Eurosceptic parliamentary group. European political commentators had often noted substantive ideological differences between the party and its colleagues, whose strongly conservative stances had at times prompted domestic criticism of Fianna Fáil. Fianna Fáil MEPs had been an attached to the European Progressive Democrats (1973–1984), European Democratic Alliance (1984–1995), and Union for Europe (1995–1999) groups before the creation of UEN.
Party headquarters, over the objections of some MEPs, had made several attempts to sever the party's links to the European right, including an aborted 2004 agreement to join the European Liberal Democrat and Reform (ELDR) Party, with whom it already sat in the Council of Europe under the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE) banner. On 27 February 2009, Taoiseach Brian Cowen announced that Fianna Fáil proposed to join the ELDR Party and intended to sit with them in the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE) Group in the European Parliament after the 2009 European elections. The change was made official on 17 April 2009, when FF joined the ELDR Party.
In October 2009, it was reported that Fianna Fáil had irritated its new Liberal colleagues by failing to vote for the motion on press freedom in Italy (resulting in its defeat by a majority of one in the Parliament) and by trying to scupper their party colleagues' initiative for gay rights. In January 2010, a report by academic experts writing for the votewatch.eu site found that FF "do not seem to toe the political line" of the ALDE Group "when it comes to budget and civil liberties" issues.
In the 2014 European elections, Fianna Fáil received 22.3% of first-preference votes but only returned a single MEP, a reduction in representation of two MEPs from the previous term. This was due to a combination of the party's vote further dropping in Dublin and a two candidate strategy in the Midlands North West constituency, which backfired, resulting in sitting MEP Pat "the Cope" Gallagher losing his seat. On 23 June 2014, returning MEP Brian Crowley announced that he intended to sit with the European Conservatives and Reformists (ECR) rather than the ALDE group during the upcoming 8th term of the European parliament. The following day on 24 June 2014 Crowley had the Fianna Fáil party whip withdrawn. He has since been re-added to Fianna Fáil's website.
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- Joe Ambrose (2006) Dan Breen and the IRA, Douglas Village, Cork : Mercier Press, 223 p., ISBN 1-85635-506-3
- Bruce Arnold (2001) Jack Lynch: Hero in Crisis, Dublin : Merlin, 250p. ISBN 1-903582-06-7
- Tim Pat Coogan (1993) De Valera : long fellow, long shadow, London : Hutchinson, 772 p., ISBN 0-09-175030-X
- Joe Joyce and Peter Murtagh (1983) The Boss: Charles J. Haughey in government, Swords, Dublin : Poolbeg Press, 400 p., ISBN 0-905169-69-7
- F.S.L. Lyons (1985) Ireland Since the Famine, 2nd rev. ed., London : FontanaPress, 800 p., ISBN 0-00-686005-2
- Dorothy McCardle (1968) The Irish Republic. A documented chronicle of the Anglo-Irish conflict and the partitioning of Ireland, with a detailed account of the period 1916–1923, etc., 989 p., ISBN 0-552-07862-X
- Donnacha Ó Beacháin (2010) Destiny of the Soldiers: Fianna Fáil, Irish Republicanism and the IRA, 1926-1973, Gill and Macmillan, 540 p., ISBN 0-71714-763-0
- T. Ryle Dwyer (2001) Nice fellow : a biography of Jack Lynch, Cork : Mercier Press, 416 p., ISBN 1-85635-368-0
- T. Ryle Dwyer (1999) Short fellow : a biography of Charles J. Haughey, Dublin : Marino, 477 p., ISBN 1-86023-100-4
- T. Ryle Dwyer, (1997) Fallen Idol : Haughey's controversial career, Cork : Mercier Press, 191 p., ISBN 1-85635-202-1
- Raymond Smith (1986) Haughey and O'Malley : The quest for power, Dublin : Aherlow, 295 p., ISBN 1-870138-00-7
- Tim Ryan (1994) Albert Reynolds : the Longford leader : the unauthorised biography, Dublin : Blackwater Press, 226 p., ISBN 0-86121-549-4
- Dick Walsh (1986) The Party: Inside Fianna Fáil, Dublin : Gill & Macmillan, 161 p., ISBN 0-7171-1446-5
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fianna Fáil.|
- Official website
- 'Report of the Tribunal of Inquiry into the Beef Processing Industry'
- Report of the McCracken Tribunal
- Final report of the Mahon Tribunal