Fianna Fáil (/ , -/, Irish: [ˌfʲiən̪ˠə ˈfˠaːlʲ] (listen); meaning 'Soldiers of Destiny' or 'Warriors of Fál'), officially Fianna Fáil – The Republican Party (Irish: Fianna Fáil – An Páirtí Poblachtánach), is a political party in Ireland. It is currently a partner in the Government of the 33rd Dáil, being formed on the 27 June 2020 after a Programme for Government was agreed among Fianna Fáil, Fine Gael and the Green Party. It is the first rainbow coalition since 1992, and is the first time Fianna Fáil has been in government since 2011.
|Leader and President||Micheál Martin|
|Deputy Leader||Dara Calleary|
|General Secretary||Seán Dorgan|
|Seanad Leader||Lisa Chambers|
|Founder||Éamon de Valera|
|Founded||16 May 1926|
|Split from||Sinn Féin|
|Headquarters||65–66 Lower Mount Street, Dublin 2,|
D02 NX40, Ireland
|Youth wing||Ógra Fianna Fáil|
|Political position||Centre to|
|European affiliation||Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe|
|International affiliation||Liberal International|
|European Parliament group||Renew Europe[b]|
|Slogan||An Ireland for All|
"We'll Be There"
37 / 160
20 / 60
|European Parliament[nb 1]|
2 / 13
|Local government in the Republic of Ireland|
276 / 949
^ a: Although Fianna Fáil is a member of liberal organisations like ALDE and Liberal International, some scholars question whether the party can rightly be considered liberal in ideology.
^ b: Member of the EPD group from 1973 to 1984, the EDA group from 1984 to 1995, the UfE group from 1995 to 1999, the UEN group from 1999 to 2009, and the ALDE group from 2009 to 2014.
The party was founded as an Irish republican party on 16 May 1926 by Éamon de Valera and his supporters after they split from the anti-treaty wing of Sinn Féin on the issue of abstentionism in the aftermath of the Irish Civil War. Since 1927, Fianna Fáil has been one of Ireland's two major parties, along with Fine Gael; both are seen as being centre-right parties, and as being to the right of the Labour Party and Sinn Féin. The party dominated Irish political life for most of the 20th century, and, since its foundation, either it or Fine Gael has led every government. Between 1932 and 2011, it was the largest party in Dáil Éireann. Between 1989 and 2011, it led coalition governments with parties of both the left and the right.
Fianna Fáil has been part of a coalition government since 27 June 2020. After a number of months of political stalemate following the general election, Fianna Fáil agreed with Fine Gael and the Green Party to enter into a coalition deal. This is the first of its kind in the history of Irish politics, as Fianna Fáil and Fine Gael have never formally entered into coalition with each other, a sentiment that had stemmed from the Irish Civil War. Micheál Martin, the leader of Fianna Fail, was nominated to serve as Taoiseach for the first two years of the government, before the role rotates to the Leader of Fine Gael in 2022. His predecessor and leader of Fine Gael, Leo Varadkar, will take on the position of Tánaiste, the deputy prime minister of Ireland. This is the first time Fianna Fail has been in government since 1997 to 2011 under Bertie Ahern and Brian Cowen. After the political realignment that occurred at the 2011 general election, Fianna Fail suffered the worst defeat of a sitting government and only won 20 seats. It recovered at the 2016 general election, gaining 44 and became the largest opposition party in both houses (Dáil Éireann and Seanad Éireann) of the Oireachtas.
Fianna Fáil is a member of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe and of Liberal International. Since 9 February 2019, Fianna Fáil has been in partnership with the Social Democratic and Labour Party in Northern Ireland.
Fianna Fáil was founded by Éamon de Valera, a former leader of Sinn Féin. He and a number of other members split from Sinn Féin when a motion he proposed—which called for elected members to be allowed to take their seats in Dáil Éireann if and when the controversial Oath of Allegiance was removed—failed to pass at the Sinn Féin Ard Fheis in 1926. His new party adopted its name on 2 April of the same year. While it was also opposed to the Treaty settlement, it rejected abstentionism, instead aiming to republicanise the Irish Free State from within. Fianna Fáil's platform of economic autarky had appeal among the farmers, working-class people and the poor, while alienating more affluent classes.
The party first entered government on 9 March 1932. It was in power for 61 of the 79 years between then and the election of 2011. Its longest continuous period in office has been 15 years and 11 months (March 1932 – February 1948). Its longest single period out of office in the 20th century was four years and four months (March 1973 – July 1977). All of the party's leaders have served as Taoiseach.
Fianna Fáil joined the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE) party on 16 April 2009, and the party's Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) sat in the ALDE Group during the 7th European Parliament term from June 2009 to 1 July 2014. The party is a full member of the Liberal International. Prior to this, the party was part of the Eurosceptic Union for Europe of the Nations parliamentary group between 1999 and 2009.
It was the largest party in the Dáil after every general election from that of 1932 until that of 2007. During the post-2008 Irish economic downturn, for which Fianna Fáil as governing party was seen to be responsible, its popularity crashed: an opinion poll on 27 February 2009 indicated that only 10% of voters were satisfied with the Government's performance. In the 2011 general election, it suffered the worst defeat of a sitting government in the history of the Irish state. This loss was described as "historic" in its proportions and "unthinkable". The party sank from being the largest in the Dáil to the third-largest, losing 58 of its 78 seats.
Organisation and structureEdit
Fianna Fáil uses a structure called a cumann system. The basic unit was the cumann (branch); these were grouped into comhairle ceantair (district branch) and a comhairle dáil ceantair (constituency branch) in every constituency. At the party's height it had 3,000 cumainn, an average of 75 per constituency. The party claimed that in 2005 they had 50,000 registered names, but only an estimated 10,000-15,000 members were considered active.
However, from the early 1990s onward the cumann structure was weakened. Every cumann was entitled to three votes to selection conventions irrespective of its size; hence, a large number of cumainn had become in effect "paper cumainn", the only use of which was to ensure an aspiring or sitting candidate got enough votes. Another problem had arisen with the emergence of parallel organisations grouped around candidates or elected officials. Supporters and election workers for a particular candidate were loyal to a candidate and not to the party. If the candidate were to leave the party, through either resignation, retirement or defeat at an election, the candidate's supporters would often depart. Although this phenomenon was nothing new (the most famous example being Neil Blaney's "Donegal Mafia") it increased significantly from the early 1990s, particularly in the Dublin Region with former Taoiseach Bertie Ahern's "Drumcondra mafia" and the groups supporting Tom Kitt and Séamus Brennan in Dublin South that were largely separate from the official party structure.
Since the 2007 election, the party's structure has significantly weakened. This was in part exacerbated by significant infighting between candidates in the run-up to the 2011 general election. The Irish Times estimated that half of its 3,000 cumainn were effectively moribund. This fraction rose in Dublin with the exception of Dublin West, the former seat of both Brian Lenihan Snr and Brian Lenihan Jnr.
Fianna Fáil is seen as a typical catch-all party. R. Ken Carty wrote of Fianna Fáil and Fine Gael that they were 'heterogeneous in their bases of support, relatively undifferentiated in terms of policy or programme, and remarkably stable in their support levels'. Evidence from expert surveys, opinion polls and candidate surveys all fail to identify strong distinctions between the two parties. Many point to Ireland's Civil War politics, and feel that the basis for the division is the disagreement about the strategy to achieve a united Ireland. Kevin Byrne and political scientist Eoin O'Malley rejected this, and have argued that the differences between the two parties goes much further back in Irish history. They linked the parties to different nationalist traditions (Irish Enlightenment and Gaelic Nationalist) which in turn could be linked to migrations of Anglo-Norman and new English into Ireland and the native Gaelic population.
In the 1990s, Fianna Fáil was described as a conservative party, but also as a nationalist party. It has presented itself as a "broad church", and attracted support from across disparate social classes. Between 1989 and 2011, it led coalition governments with parties of both the left and the right. Fianna Fáil's platform contains a number of enduring commitments: to Irish unity; to the promotion and protection of the Irish language; and to maintaining Ireland's tradition of military neutrality. While the party is distinctly more populist, nationalist and, generally speaking, more economically interventionist than Fine Gael, the party nonetheless shares its rival's support of the European Union. Although part of the ALDE (liberal) group in the European Parliament, the party has not supported the group's positions on civil liberties. It did, however, legislate for same-sex civil partnerships in 2010.
The party's name and logo incorporates the words 'The Republican Party'. According to Fianna Fáil, "Republican here stands both for the unity of the island and a commitment to the historic principles of European republican philosophy, namely liberty, equality and fraternity". The party's main goal at its beginning was to reunite the North and the South.
Leadership and presidentEdit
The posts of leader and party president of Fianna Fáil are separate, with the former elected by the Parliamentary Party and the latter elected by the Ardfheis (thus allowing for the posts to be held by different people, in theory). However, in practice they have always been held by the one person. As the Ardfheis may have already been held in any given year by the time a new leader is elected, the selection of the new party president might not take place until the next year.
The following are the terms of office as party leader and as Taoiseach:
|Joseph Brennan||1973–1977||Donegal–Leitrim||Jack Lynch|
|George Colley||1977–1982||Dublin Central||Jack Lynch
|Ray MacSharry||1982–1983||Sligo–Leitrim||Charles Haughey|
|Brian Lenihan Snr||1983–1990||Dublin West||Charles Haughey|
|John Wilson||1990–1992||Cavan–Monaghan||Charles Haughey|
|Bertie Ahern||1992–1994||Dublin Central||Albert Reynolds|
|Mary O'Rourke||1995–2002||Longford–Westmeath||Bertie Ahern|
|Brian Cowen||2002–2008||Laois–Offaly||Bertie Ahern|
|Mary Coughlan||2008–2011||Donegal South-West||Brian Cowen|
|Mary Hanafin||2011||Dún Laoghaire||Micheál Martin|
|Brian Lenihan Jnr||2011||Dublin West||Micheál Martin|
|Éamon Ó Cuív||2011–2012||Galway West||Micheál Martin|
|Dara Calleary||2018–present||Mayo||Micheál Martin|
|Eoin Ryan Snr||1977–1982||Industrial and Commercial Panel|
|Mick Lanigan||1982–1990||Industrial and Commercial Panel (1982–89)|
Nominated member of Seanad Éireann (1989–90)
|Seán Fallon||1990–1992||Industrial and Commercial Panel|
|G. V. Wright||1992–1997||Nominated member of Seanad Éireann|
|Donie Cassidy||1997–2002||Labour Panel|
|Mary O'Rourke||2002–2007||Nominated member of Seanad Éireann|
|Donie Cassidy||2007–2011||Labour Panel|
|Darragh O'Brien||2011–2016||Labour Panel|
|Catherine Ardagh||2016–present||Industrial and Commercial Panel|
General election resultsEdit
|Election||Seats won||±||Position||First Pref votes||%||Government||Leader|
44 / 153
|44||2nd||299,486||26.2%||Opposition||Éamon de Valera|
57 / 153
|13||2nd||411,777||35.2%||Opposition||Éamon de Valera|
72 / 153
|15||1st||566,498||44.5%||Minority gov't (supported by Labour)||Éamon de Valera|
77 / 153
|5||1st||689,054||49.7%||Minority gov't (supported by Labour)||Éamon de Valera|
69 / 138
|8||1st||599,040||45.2%||Minority gov't (supported by Labour)||Éamon de Valera|
77 / 138
|8||1st||667,996||51.9%||Majority gov't||Éamon de Valera|
67 / 138
|10||1st||557,525||41.9%||Minority gov't||Éamon de Valera|
76 / 138
|9||1st||595,259||48.9%||Majority gov't||Éamon de Valera|
68 / 147
|8||1st||553,914||41.9%||Opposition||Éamon de Valera|
69 / 147
|1||1st||616,212||46.3%||Minority gov't (supported by Ind)||Éamon de Valera|
65 / 147
|4||1st||578,960||43.4%||Opposition||Éamon de Valera|
78 / 147
|13||1st||592,994||48.3%||Majority gov't||Éamon de Valera|
70 / 144
|8||1st||512,073||43.8%||Minority gov't (supported by Ind)||Seán Lemass|
72 / 144
|2||1st||597,414||47.7%||Majority gov't||Seán Lemass|
75 / 144
|3||1st||602,234||45.7%||Majority gov't||Jack Lynch|
69 / 144
84 / 148
|15||1st||811,615||50.6%||Majority gov't||Jack Lynch|
78 / 166
81 / 166
|3||1st||786,951||47.3%||Minority gov't (supported by SFWP and Ind)||Charles Haughey|
75 / 166
81 / 166
|6||1st||784,547||44.1%||Minority gov't (supported by Ind)||Charles Haughey|
77 / 166
|4||1st||731,472||44.1%||Coalition (FF-PD)||Charles Haughey|
68 / 166
|9||1st||674,650||39.1%||Coalition (FF-Lab)||Albert Reynolds|
|Opposition (from December 1994)|
77 / 166
|9||1st||703,682||39.3%||Coalition (FF-PD)||Bertie Ahern|
81 / 166
|4||1st||770,748||41.5%||Coalition (FF-PD)||Bertie Ahern|
77 / 166
|4||1st||858,565||41.6%||Coalition (FF-GP-PD)||Bertie Ahern|
20 / 166
44 / 158
|23||2nd||519,356||24.3%||Confidence and supply (FG minority gov't)||Micheál Martin|
38 / 160
|6||1st||484,315||22.2%||Coalition (FF-FG-GP)||Micheál Martin|
|Seanad Group Leader
Employment Affairs and Social Protection
|Seanad Deputy Group Leader
Foreign Affairs, Irish Overseas and the Diaspora
|Agriculture, Food and the Marine||Paul Daly|
|Business, Enterprise and Innovation||Aidan Davitt|
|Rural and Community Development||Brian Ó Domhnaill|
|Justice, Children and Youth Affairs||Lorraine Clifford-Lee|
|Communications, Climate Action and Environment||Terry Leyden|
|Housing, Planning and Local Government||Jennifer Murnane-O'Connor|
|Without portfolio||Denis O'Donovan|
|Health and Mental Health||Ned O'Sullivan|
|Transport, Tourism and Sport||Keith Swanick|
|Public Expenditure and Reform and Defence||Ned O'Sullivan|
Ógra Fianna FáilEdit
Fianna Fáil's youth wing is called Ógra Fianna Fáil. Formed in 1975, it plays an active role in recruiting new members and supporting election campaigns. Ógra also plays an important role in the party organisation, where it has five representatives on the Ard Chomhairle (National Executive).
Senator Thomas Byrne was the last nominated head or Cathaoirleach (Chairperson) of Ógra Fianna Fáil, before the youth wing introduced widespread organisational reform following the heavy electoral defeat suffered by the whole party in 2011.
Fianna Fáil and Northern Ireland politicsEdit
On 17 September 2007, Fianna Fáil announced that the party would for the first time organise in Northern Ireland. The then Foreign Minister Dermot Ahern was asked to chair a committee on the matter: "In the period ahead Dermot Ahern will lead efforts to develop that strategy for carrying through this policy, examining timescales and structures. We will act gradually and strategically. We are under no illusions. It will not be easy. It will challenge us all. But I am confident we will succeed".
The party embarked on its first ever recruitment drive north of the border in September 2007 in northern universities, and established two 'Political Societies', the William Drennan Cumann in Queens University, Belfast, and the Watty Graham Cumann in UU Magee, Derry, which subsequently became official units of Fianna Fáil's youth wing, attaining full membership and voting rights, and attained official voting delegates at the 2012 Árd Fheis. On 23 February 2008, it was announced that a former Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) councillor, Colonel Harvey Bicker, had joined Fianna Fáil.
Bertie Ahern announced on 7 December 2007 that Fianna Fáil had been registered in Northern Ireland by the UK Electoral Commission. The party's Ard Fheis in 2009 unanimously passed a motion to organise in Northern Ireland by establishing forums, rather than cumainn, in each of its six counties. In December 2009, Fianna Fáil secured its first Northern Ireland Assembly MLA when Gerry McHugh, an independent MLA, announced he had joined the party. Mr. McHugh confirmed that although he had joined the party, he would continue to sit as an independent MLA. In June 2010, Fianna Fáil opened its first official office in Northern Ireland, in Crossmaglen, County Armagh. The then Taoiseach Brian Cowen officially opened the office, accompanied by Ministers Éamon Ó Cuív and Dermot Ahern and Deputies Rory O’Hanlon and Margaret Conlon. Discussing the party's slow development towards all-Ireland politics, Mr. Cowen observed: "We have a very open and pragmatic approach. We are a constitutional republican party and we make no secret of the aspirations on which this party was founded. It has always been very clear in our mind what it is we are seeking to achieve, that is to reconcile this country and not being prisoners of our past history. To be part of a generation that will build a new Ireland, an Ireland of which we can all be proud".
As of 2007, Fianna Fáil has been a registered and recognised party in Northern Ireland. However, it has not contested any elections in the region. At the party's 2014 Ard Fheis, a motion was passed without debate to stand candidates for election north of the border for the first time in 2019.
In 2017, Omagh councillor Sorcha McAnespy said she wished to run in the 2019 Northern Ireland local government election in the constituency under a Fianna Fáil ticket. In October 2017 she was elected as northern representative on the party's national executive, the "committee of 15".
Since 24 January 2019, the party have been in partnership with the Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) formerly the main Irish nationalist party in Northern Ireland, but now smaller than Sinn Féin. There had long been speculation about the eventual partnership for several years prior. This was initially met with a negative reaction from Seamus Mallon, former Deputy Leader of the SDLP, who stated he would be opposed to any such merger. Former leader of the SDLP Margaret Ritchie originally stated publicly that she opposed any merger, announcing to the Labour Party Conference that such a merger would not happen on her "watch". On 10 January 2019, Richie stated that she now supported a new partnership with Fianna Fáil.
Both Fianna Fáil and the SDLP currently have shared policies on key areas including addressing the current political situation in Northern Ireland, improving public services in both jurisdictions of Ireland, such as healthcare and education, and bringing about the further unity and cooperation of the people on the island and arrangements for a future poll on Irish reunification.
In European institutionsEdit
In the European Parliament from 1999 to 2009, Fianna Fáil was a leading member of Union for Europe of the Nations (UEN), a small national-conservative and Eurosceptic parliamentary group. European political commentators had often noted substantive ideological differences between the party and its colleagues, whose strongly conservative stances had at times prompted domestic criticism of Fianna Fáil. Fianna Fáil MEPs had been an attached to the European Progressive Democrats (1973–1984), European Democratic Alliance (1984–1995), and Union for Europe (1995–1999) groups before the creation of UEN.
Party headquarters, over the objections of some MEPs, had made several attempts to sever the party's links to the European right, including an aborted 2004 agreement to join the European Liberal Democrat and Reform (ELDR) Party, with whom it already sat in the Council of Europe under the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE) banner. On 27 February 2009, Taoiseach Brian Cowen announced that Fianna Fáil proposed to join the ELDR Party and intended to sit with them in the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE) Group in the European Parliament after the 2009 European elections. The change was made official on 17 April 2009, when FF joined the ELDR Party.
In October 2009, it was reported that Fianna Fáil had irritated its new Liberal colleagues by failing to vote for the motion on press freedom in Italy (resulting in its defeat by a majority of one in the Parliament) and by trying to scupper their party colleagues' initiative for gay rights. In January 2010, a report by academic experts writing for the votewatch.eu site found that FF "do not seem to toe the political line" of the ALDE Group "when it comes to budget and civil liberties" issues.
In the 2014 European elections, Fianna Fáil received 22.3% of first-preference votes but only returned a single MEP, a reduction in representation of two MEPs from the previous term. This was due to a combination of the party's vote further dropping in Dublin and a two candidate strategy in the Midlands North West constituency, which backfired, resulting in sitting MEP Pat "the Cope" Gallagher losing his seat. On 23 June 2014, returning MEP Brian Crowley announced that he intended to sit with the European Conservatives and Reformists (ECR) rather than the ALDE group during the upcoming 8th term of the European parliament. The following day on 24 June 2014 Crowley had the Fianna Fáil party whip withdrawn. He has since been re-added to Fianna Fáil's website.
- "Fianna Fail". UCD.ie. 16 May 1926. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
- Hurley, Sandra (15 June 2020). "Selling the deal: Party memberships have final say on government". RTÉ. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
- Teague, Paul; Donaghey, Jimmy. "Social Partnership and Democratic Legitimacy in Ireland" (PDF). International Labour and Employment Relations Association.
- Quinn, Ben; Johnston, Chris (27 February 2016). "Ireland general election: Irish PM admits his coalition has been rejected – live". The Guardian.
…the possibility of a grand coalition between Ireland’s two centrist, sometimes right-of-centre, Christian democratic parties: Fine Gael and Fianna Fáil.
- Lubomír Kopecek; Vít Hloušek (2010). Origin, Ideology and Transformation of Political Parties: East-Central and Western Europe Compared. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 157. ISBN 978-1-4094-9977-0.
- Oddbjørn Knutsen (2006). Class Voting in Western Europe: A Comparative Longitudinal Study. Lexington Books. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-7391-1095-9.
- T. Banchoff (1999). Legitimacy and the European Union. Taylor & Francis. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-415-18188-4. Retrieved 19 October 2017.
- George A. Kourvetaris; Andreas Moschonas (1996). The Impact of European Integration: Political, Sociological, and Economic Changes. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 208. ISBN 978-0-275-95356-0. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
- Ian Budge; David Robertson; Derek Hearl (1987). Ideology, Strategy and Party Change: Spatial Analyses of Post-War Election Programmes in 19 Democracies. Cambridge University Press. p. 137. ISBN 978-0-521-30648-5. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
- Caroline Close (2019). "The liberal family ideology: Distinct, but diverse". In Emilie van Haute; Caroline Close (eds.). Liberal Parties in Europe. Taylor & Francis. p. 344. ISBN 978-1-351-24549-4.
- Chadwick, Lauren (25 May 2019). "Fine Gael and Green Party have strong showing in Ireland". Euronews. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
- O'Loughlin, Michael. "Republicanism still a potent link between Fianna Fáil and Sinn Féin". Irish Times. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
- Hayward, Katy; Fallon, Jonathan (2009). "Fianna Fáil: Tenacious Localism, Tenuous Europeanism". Irish Political Studies. 24 (4): 491–509. doi:10.1080/07907180903274784.
- Routledge Handbook of European Elections. P.247. Chapter author - Richard Dunphy. Book edited by Donatella M. Viola. Published by Routledge in London in 2015.
- Fianna Fail on election footing now, says Martin. Irish Independent. Author - Daniel McConnell. Published 1 January 2015. Retrieved 18 July 2017.
- Micheal Martin to replace Brian Cowen as Fianna Fail leader. The Telegraph. Published 26 January 2011. Retrieved 18 July 2017.
- Weakened Irish PM faces delicate balancing act. EUobserver. Author - Shona Murray. Published 12 May 2016. Retrieved 18 July 2017.
- George Taylor; Brendan Flynn (2008). "The Irish Greens". In E. Gene Frankland; Paul Lucardie; Benoît Rihoux (eds.). Green Parties in Transition: The End of Grass-roots Democracy?. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-7546-7429-0.
- John Barlow; David Farnham; Sylvia Horton; F.F. Ridley (2016). "Comparing Public Managers". In David Farnham; Annie Hondeghem; Sylvia Horton; John Barlow (eds.). New Public Managers in Europe: Public Servants in Transition. Springer. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-349-13947-7.
- Titley, Gavan (24 February 2011). "Beyond the yin and yang of Fine Gael and Fianna Fáil". The Guardian. London.
- Noel Whelan (2011). A History of Fianna Fáil: The outstanding biography of the party. Gill & Macmillan Ltd. p. 219. ISBN 978-0717147618. Retrieved 1 June 2019.
- Close, Caroline (12 February 2019). "The liberal party family ideology: Distinct, but diverse". In Close, Caroline; van Haute, Emilie (eds.). Liberal Parties in Europe. Routledge. p. 366. ISBN 9781351245487.
However, the liberal identity of the Irish Fianna Fáil is highly questionable…
- "Fianna Fáil". Lexico UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 14 August 2019.
- "Fianna Fáil". Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. Longman. Retrieved 14 August 2019.
- Ó Dónaill, Niall (1977). (advisory ed. Tomás de Bhaldraithe) (ed.). Foclóir Gaeilge-Béarla (in Irish). Dublin: An Gúm. pp. 512, 540. ISBN 978-1-85791-037-7.,
- "About Fianna Fáil". Fianna Fáil. Archived from the original on 14 November 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
The party's name incorporates the words 'The Republican Party' in its title.
- T. Banchoff (1999). Legitimacy and the European Union. Taylor & Francis. p. 127. ISBN 978-0-415-18188-4. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
- "History of Fianna Fáil". fiannafail.ie. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 3 June 2017.
- McDonald, Harry (28 February 2016). "Fianna Fáil truce will allow Kenny to continue as taoiseach". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 June 2017.
- Boland, Vincent (7 April 2016). "Ireland's main opposition party rejects coalition deal". Financial Times. Retrieved 7 June 2017.
- "ALDE Party Members". Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
- "Full Members of Liberal International". Liberal International. Archived from the original on 25 May 2014. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
- "Speech of Fianna Fáil Leader Micheál Martin TD at the announcement of Fianna Fáil/SDLP Partnership Initiative". 24 January 2019.
- "Notable New Yorkers – Eamon de Valéra". Archived from the original on 8 February 2004.
- The Times, Irish Republican Split. Search For Basis of Cooperation 13 March 1926
- Peter Mair and Liam Weeks, "The Party System," in Politics in the Republic of Ireland, ed. John Coakley and Michael Gallagher, 4th ed. (New York: Routledge, 2004), p. 140
- "Leaders of Ireland". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 20 February 2020.
- "Our Members—Europe". Liberal International.
- Christophe Gillissen (2010). Ireland: Looking East. Peter Lang. p. 157–. ISBN 978-90-5201-652-8.
- "Angry electorate coldly voted to liquidate Fianna Fáil". The Irish Times. 28 February 2011. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
- "10% satisfied with Govt performance". RTÉ. 26 February 2009. Archived from the original on 28 February 2009. Retrieved 26 February 2009.
- "Recapturing relevance a huge challenge for FF". The Irish Times. 1 May 2011. Retrieved 4 October 2015.
- Haughey, Nuala (23 November 2010). "Irish government teeters on the brink". The National.
- "Recapturing relevance a huge challenge for FF". The Irish Times. 1 May 2011. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
- D.), Michael Marsh (Ph; Farrell, David M.; McElroy, Gail (6 September 2017). A Conservative Revolution?: Electoral Change in Twenty-first-century Ireland. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198744030 – via Google Books.
- Thompson, Wayne C. (13 August 2015). Western Europe 2015-2016. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9781475818857 – via Google Books.
- "Fianna Fail | History, Policies, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 20 February 2020.
- "Fianna Fail faces crisis in party's structure, says report". The Irish Times. Retrieved 20 February 2020.
- "Fianna Fail's decline". The Irish Times. Retrieved 20 February 2020.
- Komito, Lee (1985). Politics and Clientelism in Urban Ireland: Information, reputation, and brokerage (Ph.D.). Ann Arbor, Michigan: University Microfilms International. 8603660. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
The only exception was Neil Blaney in Donegal. Blaney had a very strong personal following in Donegal and, perhaps most importantly, was able to claim that it was everyone who remained in Fianna Fáil that had actually departed from party ideals. In nationalist Donegal, the claim that he represented the true Fianna Fáil seemed effective.
- White, Michael (25 February 2011). "Irish general election turns into slanging match with parties divided". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 27 February 2011.
- "Fianna Fáil has lost the local knowledge. The grassroots are not being listened to". The Irish Times. 27 August 2011.
- Laver, Michael; Benoit, Kenneth (April 2003). "The Evolution of Party Systems Between Elections" (PDF). American Journal of Political Science. 47 (2): 215–233. doi:10.1111/1540-5907.00015. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
- Benoit, Kenneth; Laver, Michael (June 2003). "Estimating Irish Party Positions Using Computer Wordscoring: The 2002 Elections". Irish Political Studies. 18 (1): 97–107. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.144.6558. doi:10.1080/07907180312331293249.
- Benoit, Kenneth; Laver, Michael (Summer–Autumn 2005). "Mapping the Irish Policy Space: Voter and Party Spaces in Preferential Elections" (PDF). The Economic and Social Review. 36 (2): 83–108. Retrieved 24 June 2013. Check date values in:
- Gilland Lutz, Karin (Winter 2003). "Irish party competition in the new millennium: Change, or plus ça change?". Irish Political Studies. 18 (2): 40–59. doi:10.1080/1364298042000227640.
- Byrne, Kevin; O'Malley, Eoin (November 2012). "Politics with Hidden Bases: unearthing party system's deep roots" (PDF). British Journal of Politics and International Relations. 14 (4): 613–629. doi:10.1111/j.1467-856X.2011.00478.x.
- Tom Garvin (2005). Preventing the Future: Why was Ireland so Poor for so Long?. Gill and Macmillan. p. 208. ISBN 978-0717139705. Retrieved 3 June 2017.
- "Micheal Martin elected as eighth leader of Fianna Fáil". The Irish Times. 26 January 2011.
- Cowen, Barry (26 May 2011). "Cowen Calls on Government to resist OECD right wing agenda". Fianna Fáil. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
- "About Fianna Fáil". Fianna Fáil. Archived from the original on 14 November 2017. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
- "Fianna Fáil". Britannica.com. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
- Katy Hayward; Mary C. Murphy, eds. (2013). "Ireland's EU Referendum Experience". The Europeanization of Party Politics in Ireland, North and South. Routledge. p. 26. ISBN 9780955820373.
- Murphy, William (2005). "Cogging Berkeley?: "The Querist" and the Rhetoric of Fianna Fáil's Economic Policy". Irish Economic and Social History. 32: 63–82. doi:10.1177/033248930503200104. JSTOR 24338940.
- Morris, Allison (22 February 2019). "SDLP and Fianna Fáil call for all island pro remain alliance". The Irish News.
- "Irish PM's pro-EU party ahead in European vote, polls suggest". France 24. 25 May 2019.
- "Voting behaviour in the new European Parliament: the first six months, EP7, 1st Semester: July–December 2009" (PDF). Votewatch.eu.
- "Ahern Welcomes Coming Into Law of Civil Partnership and Certain Rights and Obligations of Cohabitants Act 2010". Department of Justice and Law Reform. 17 July 2010.
- "Our Party". Fianna Fáil. 28 October 2013. Archived from the original on 8 September 2013.
- Kelly, Stephen (2013). Fianna Fáil, Partition and Northern Ireland, 1926-1971. Dublin: Irish Academic Press. pp. 9–12.
- "33rd DÁIL GENERAL ELECTION 8 February 2020 Election Results (Party totals begin on page 68)" (PDF). Houses of the Oireachtas. Retrieved 8 May 2020.
- "Micheál Martin reveals Fianna Fáil frontbench lineup". The Irish Times. 18 May 2016.
- Ahern, Bertie (17 September 2007). "Speech by Bertie Ahern at a Fianna Fáil conference, (17 September 2007)". University of Ulster Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN) website. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
- "Fianna Fáil confirms UUP recruit". BBC News. 23 February 2008. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- "FF officially recognised in Northern Ireland". Irish Times. 22 March 2014. Retrieved 22 March 2014.
- "Assembly Member Joins Fianna Fail". BBC News. 1 December 2009. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- "Taoiseach opens Fianna Fáil Party Office in Crossmaglen". Crossmaglen Examiner. 27 June 2010. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- "Fianna Fáil accepted as NI party". BBC News. 7 December 2007. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
- "Highland Radio – Latest Donegal News and Sport » Fianna Fail Ard Fheis passes two significant Donegal North East motions". 22 March 2014. Retrieved 25 July 2015.
- Manley, John (14 September 2017). "Former SDLP mayor and ex-Sinn Féin member to run for Fianna Fáil". The Irish News.
- "Sorcha McAnespy secures place on Fianna Fáil ruling executive". Irish News. 19 October 2017. Retrieved 19 October 2017.
- "Fianna Fáil 'will organise in NI'". bbc.co.uk. 17 September 2007. Retrieved 8 December 2007.
- McClafferty, Enda (10 January 2019). "Ritchie backs SDLP-Fianna Fáil alliance". BBC News.
- "Fianna Fail and SDLP announce joint partnership". 24 January 2019.
- "SDLP and FF 'to unveil shared policies'". BBC News. 23 January 2019.
- "Full Text: Taoiseach Brian Cowen at the official Opening of 72nd Fianna Fáil Ard Fheis – Part 1" Archived 3 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Fianna Fáil website, posted 27 February 2009
- Willis, Andrew (29 October 2009). "Irish leader feeling the heat in EU liberal group". Euobserver.com. Retrieved 22 November 2010.
- "Luke Ming Flanagan takes first seat in Midlands North West". newstalk.com. Retrieved 25 July 2015.
- "Elections 2014 Midlands North West Constituency". The Irish Times. Retrieved 25 July 2015.
- Hugh O'Connell. "Pat 'The Cope': Fianna Fáil's European election strategy could be 'dangerous'". TheJournal.ie. Retrieved 25 July 2015.
- "Crowley angers FF by joining conservative group". RTÉ.ie. 23 June 2014. Retrieved 25 July 2015.
- Henry McDonald (24 June 2014). "Fianna Fáil MEP loses whip for joining rightwing European parliament bloc". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 July 2015.
- "Brian Crowley". Retrieved 1 October 2017.
- Joe Ambrose (2006) Dan Breen and the IRA, Douglas Village, Cork : Mercier Press, 223 p., ISBN 1-85635-506-3
- Bruce Arnold (2001) Jack Lynch: Hero in Crisis, Dublin : Merlin, 250p. ISBN 1-903582-06-7
- Tim Pat Coogan (1993) De Valera : long fellow, long shadow, London : Hutchinson, 772 p., ISBN 0-09-175030-X
- Joe Joyce and Peter Murtagh (1983) The Boss: Charles J. Haughey in government, Swords, Dublin : Poolbeg Press, 400 p., ISBN 0-905169-69-7
- Stephen Kelly (2013),Fianna Fail, Partition and Northern Ireland, Kildare : Irish Academic Press ISBN 978-0716531869
- Stephen Kelly (2016), 'A failed political entity': Charles J. Haughey and the Northern Ireland question, 1945-1992, Kildare: Merrion Press ISBN 9781785370984
- F.S.L. Lyons (1985) Ireland Since the Famine, 2nd rev. ed., London : FontanaPress, 800 p., ISBN 0-00-686005-2
- Dorothy McCardle (1968) The Irish Republic. A documented chronicle of the Anglo-Irish conflict and the partitioning of Ireland, with a detailed account of the period 1916–1923, etc., 989 p., ISBN 0-552-07862-X
- Donnacha Ó Beacháin (2010) Destiny of the Soldiers: Fianna Fáil, Irish Republicanism and the IRA, 1926-1973, Gill and Macmillan, 540 p., ISBN 0-71714-763-0
- T. Ryle Dwyer (2001) Nice fellow : a biography of Jack Lynch, Cork : Mercier Press, 416 p., ISBN 1-85635-368-0
- T. Ryle Dwyer (1999) Short fellow : a biography of Charles J. Haughey, Dublin : Marino, 477 p., ISBN 1-86023-100-4
- T. Ryle Dwyer, (1997) Fallen Idol : Haughey's controversial career, Cork : Mercier Press, 191 p., ISBN 1-85635-202-1
- Raymond Smith (1986) Haughey and O'Malley : The quest for power, Dublin : Aherlow, 295 p., ISBN 1-870138-00-7
- Tim Ryan (1994) Albert Reynolds : the Longford leader : the unauthorised biography, Dublin : Blackwater Press, 226 p., ISBN 0-86121-549-4
- Dick Walsh (1986) The Party: Inside Fianna Fáil, Dublin : Gill & Macmillan, 161 p., ISBN 0-7171-1446-5
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fianna Fáil.|
- Official website
- 'Report of the Tribunal of Inquiry into the Beef Processing Industry'
- Report of the McCracken Tribunal
- Final report of the Mahon Tribunal