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Fianna Fáil (/fiˌænə ˈfɔɪl, ˌfənə -/ fee-ANFOYL,[16][17] Irish: [ˌfʲiən̪ˠə ˈfˠaːlʲ] (About this soundlisten); meaning 'Soldiers of Destiny' or 'Warriors of Fál'),[18] officially Fianna Fáil – The Republican Party[19][5] (Irish: Fianna Fáil – An Páirtí Poblachtánach),[20] is a political party in Ireland.

Fianna Fáil
LeaderMicheál Martin
Deputy LeaderDara Calleary
General SecretarySeán Dorgan
ChairmanBrendan Smith
Seanad LeaderCatherine Ardagh
FounderÉamon de Valera
Founded23 March 1926 (1926-03-23)
Split fromSinn Féin[1]
Headquarters65–66 Lower Mount Street, Dublin 2,
D02 NX40, Ireland
Youth wingÓgra Fianna Fáil
Membership (2016)20,000[2]
Political positionCentre[9][10][11] to
National affiliationFianna Fáil-SDLP Partnership
European affiliationAlliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe
International affiliationLiberal International
European Parliament groupRenew Europe
Colours     Green
SloganAn Ireland for All
"We'll Be There"[15]
Dáil Éireann
43 / 158
Seanad Éireann
13 / 60
European Parliament[nb 1]
1 / 11
Local government in the Republic of Ireland
279 / 949

The party was founded as an Irish republican party on 23 March 1926 by Éamon de Valera and his supporters after they split from Sinn Féin on the issue of abstentionism[21] in the aftermath of the Irish Civil War. Since 1927 Fianna Fáil has been one of Ireland's two major parties, along with Fine Gael; both are seen as being centre-right parties, and as being to the right of the Labour Party and Sinn Féin. The party dominated Irish political life for most of the 20th century, and since its foundation either it or Fine Gael has led every government. Between 1989 and 2011, it led coalition governments with parties of both the left and the right.

Fianna Fáil was last in government from 1997 to 2011 under Bertie Ahern and Brian Cowen, with a periodic high of 81 seats in 2002, reduced to 77 in 2007 and then to 20 in 2011, the lowest in the party's history. Having won 44 seats at the 2016 general election, Fianna Fáil became the largest opposition party in both houses (Dáil Éireann and Seanad Éireann) of the Oireachtas,[22] with party leader Micheál Martin entering into a confidence and supply arrangement with a Fine Gael-led minority government at the beginning of the 32nd Dáil.[23]

Fianna Fáil is a member of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe[24] and of Liberal International.[25] Since 9 February 2019, Fianna Fáil has been in partnership with the Social Democratic and Labour Party in Northern Ireland.[26]


Fianna Fáil was founded by Éamon de Valera, a former leader of Sinn Féin.[27] He and a number of other members split from Sinn Féin when a motion he proposed—which called for elected members to be allowed to take their seats in Dáil Éireann if and when the controversial Oath of Allegiance was removed—failed to pass at the Sinn Féin Ard Fheis in 1926.[28] The party adopted its name on 2 April of the same year. While it was also opposed to the Treaty settlement, it rejected abstentionism, instead aiming to republicanise the Irish Free State from within. Fianna Fáil's platform of economic autarky had appeal among the farmers, working-class people and the poor, while alienating more affluent classes.[29]

The party first entered government on 9 March 1932. It was in power for 61 of the 79 years between then and the election of 2011. Its longest continuous period in office has been 15 years and 11 months (March 1932 – February 1948). Its longest single period out of office in the 20th century was four years and four months (March 1973 – July 1977). Seven of the party's eight leaders have served as Taoiseach.[citation needed]

Fianna Fáil joined the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE) party on 16 April 2009, and the party's Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) sat in the ALDE Group during the 7th European Parliament term from June 2009 to 1 July 2014. The party is a full member of the Liberal International.[30] Prior to this, the party was part of the Eurosceptic Union for Europe of the Nations parliamentary group between 1999 and 2009.[31]

It was the largest party in the Dáil after every general election from that of 1932 until that of 2007. In the 2011 general election, it suffered the worst defeat of a sitting government in the history of the Irish state.[32][33] This loss was described as "historic" in its proportions[34] and "unthinkable".[35] The party sank from being the largest in the Dáil to the third-largest,[36] losing 58 of its 78 seats.[37]

Organisation and structureEdit

Fianna Fáil Official Logo

Fianna Fáil's success was credited by The Irish Times to its local structure.[citation needed] The basic unit was the cumann (branch); these were grouped into comhairle ceantair (district branch) and a comhairle dáil ceantair (constituency branch) in every constituency.[citation needed] At the party's height it had 3,000 cumainn, an average of 75 per constituency.[citation needed] The party claimed 55,000 members in 2004, a figure which political scientist Eoin O'Malley considers exaggerated compared to membership figures for other parties.[citation needed]

However, from the early 1990s onward the cumann structure was weakened. Every cumann was entitled to three votes to selection conventions irrespective of its size; hence, a large number of cumainn had become in effect "paper cumainn", the only use of which was to ensure an aspiring or sitting candidate got enough votes.[citation needed] Another problem had arisen with the emergence of parallel organisations grouped around candidates or elected officials. Supporters and election workers for a particular candidate were loyal to a candidate and not to the party. If the candidate were to leave the party, through either resignation, retirement or defeat at an election, the candidate's supporters would often depart.[citation needed] Although this phenomenon was nothing new (the most famous example being Neil Blaney's "Donegal Mafia")[38] it increased significantly from the early 1990s, particularly in the Dublin Region with former Taoiseach Bertie Ahern's "Drumcondra mafia" and the groups supporting Tom Kitt and Séamus Brennan in Dublin South that were largely separate from the official party structure.[citation needed]

Since the 2007 election, the party's structure has significantly weakened. This was in part exacerbated by significant infighting between candidates in the run-up to the 2011 general election.[39] The Irish Times estimated that half of its 3,000 cumainn were effectively moribund. This fraction rose in Dublin with the exception of Dublin West, the former seat of both Brian Lenihan Snr and Brian Lenihan Jnr.[40]


Fianna Fáil is seen as a typical catch-all party. R. Ken Carty wrote of Fianna Fáil and Fine Gael that they were 'heterogeneous in their bases of support, relatively undifferentiated in terms of policy or programme, and remarkably stable in their support levels'. Evidence from expert surveys, opinion polls and candidate surveys all fail to identify strong distinctions between the two parties.[41][42][43][44] Many point to Ireland's Civil War politics, and feel that the basis for the division is the disagreement about the strategy to achieve a united Ireland. Kevin Byrne and political scientist Eoin O'Malley rejected this, and have argued that the differences between the two parties goes much further back in Irish history. They linked the parties to different nationalist traditions (Irish Enlightenment and Gaelic Nationalist) which in turn could be linked to migrations of Anglo-Norman and new English into Ireland and the native Gaelic population.[45]

In the 1990s, Fianna Fáil was described as a conservative party, but also as a nationalist party.[3][4][5] It has presented itself as a "broad church",[46] and attracted support from across disparate social classes.[47][48] Between 1989 and 2011, it led coalition governments with parties of both the left and the right. Fianna Fáil’s platform contains a number of enduring commitments: to Irish unity; to the promotion and protection of the Irish language; and to maintaining Ireland’s tradition of military neutrality.[49][50] While the party is distinctly more populist,[51] nationalist and, generally speaking, more economically interventionist[52] than Fine Gael, the party nonetheless shares its rival's support of the European Union.[53][54]

The party's name and logo incorporates the words 'The Republican Party'. According to Fianna Fáil, "Republican here stands both for the unity of the island and a commitment to the historic principles of European republican philosophy, namely liberty, equality and fraternity".[55]

Leadership and presidentEdit

The posts of leader and party president of Fianna Fáil are separate, with the former elected by the Parliamentary Party and the latter elected by the Ardfheis (thus allowing for the posts to be held by different people, in theory). However, in practice they have always been held by the one person. As the Ardfheis may have already been held in any given year by the time a new leader is elected, the selection of the new party president might not take place until the next year.[citation needed]

The following are the terms of office as party leader and as Taoiseach:

Leader Period Constituency Years as Taoiseach
Éamon de Valera 1926–1959 Clare 1932193319371938194319441948; 19511954; 1957–1959
(Government of the 7th Dáil, 8th Dáil, 9th Dáil, 10th Dáil, 11th Dáil, 12th Dáil, 14th Dáil and 16th Dáil)
Seán Lemass 1959–1966 Dublin South-Central 1959–19611965–1966
(Government of the 16th Dáil, 17th Dáil and 18th Dáil)
Jack Lynch 1966–1979 Cork Borough (1948–69)
Cork City North-West (1969–77)
Cork City (1977–81)
1966–19691973; 1977–1979
(Government of the 18th Dáil, 19th Dáil and 21st Dáil)
Charles Haughey 1979–1992 Dublin North-East (1957–77)
Dublin Artane (1977–81)
Dublin North-Central (1981–92)
1979–1981; Feb 1982Nov 1982; 19871989–1992
(Government of the 21st Dáil, 23rd Dáil, 25th Dáil and 26th Dáil)
Albert Reynolds 1992–1994 Longford–Roscommon 1992–1992–1994
(22nd Government of Ireland and 23rd Government of Ireland)
Bertie Ahern 1994–2008 Dublin Central 199720022007–2008
(Government of the 28th Dáil, 29th Dáil and 30th Dáil)
Brian Cowen 2008–2011 Laois–Offaly 2008–2011
(Government of the 30th Dáil)
Micheál Martin 2011–present Cork South-Central

Deputy leaderEdit

Name Period Constituency Leader
Joseph Brennan 1973–77 Donegal–Leitrim Jack Lynch
George Colley 1977–82 Dublin Central Jack Lynch

Charles Haughey

Ray MacSharry 1982–83 Sligo–Leitrim Charles Haughey
Brian Lenihan Snr 1983–90 Dublin West Charles Haughey
John Wilson 1990–92 Cavan–Monaghan Charles Haughey
Bertie Ahern 1992–94 Dublin Central Albert Reynolds
Mary O'Rourke 1995–2002 Longford–Westmeath Bertie Ahern
Brian Cowen 2002–08 Laois–Offaly Bertie Ahern
Mary Coughlan 2008–11 Donegal South-West Brian Cowen
Mary Hanafin 2011 Dún Laoghaire Micheál Martin
Brian Lenihan Jnr 2011 Dublin West Micheál Martin
Éamon Ó Cuív 2011–12 Galway West Micheál Martin
Position abolished
Dara Calleary 2018– Mayo Micheál Martin

Seanad leaderEdit

Name Period Panel
Eoin Ryan Snr 1977–82 Industrial and Commercial Panel
Mick Lanigan 1982–90 Industrial and Commercial Panel (1982–89)
Nominated member of Seanad Éireann (1989–90)
Seán Fallon 1990–92 Industrial and Commercial Panel
G. V. Wright 1992–97 Nominated member of Seanad Éireann
Donie Cassidy 1997–2002 Labour Panel
Mary O'Rourke 2002–07 Nominated member of Seanad Éireann
Donie Cassidy 2007–11 Labour Panel
Darragh O'Brien 2011–2016 Labour Panel
Catherine Ardagh 2016–present Industrial and Commercial Panel

General election resultsEdit

Election Seats won ± Position First Pref votes % Government Leader
1927 (Jun)
44 / 153
 44  2nd 299,486 26.2% Opposition Éamon de Valera
1927 (Sep)
57 / 153
 13  2nd 411,777 35.2% Opposition Éamon de Valera
72 / 153
 15  1st 566,498 44.5% Minority gov't (supported by LP) Éamon de Valera
77 / 153
 5  1st 689,054 49.7% Minority gov't (supported by LP) Éamon de Valera
69 / 138
 8  1st 599,040 45.2% Minority gov't (supported by LP) Éamon de Valera
77 / 138
 8  1st 667,996 51.9% Majority gov't Éamon de Valera
67 / 138
 10  1st 557,525 41.9% Minority gov't Éamon de Valera
76 / 138
 9  1st 595,259 48.9% Majority gov't Éamon de Valera
68 / 147
 8  1st 553,914 41.9% Opposition Éamon de Valera
69 / 147
 1  1st 616,212 46.3% Minority gov't (supported by Ind) Éamon de Valera
65 / 147
 4  1st 578,960 43.4% Opposition Éamon de Valera
78 / 147
 13  1st 592,994 48.3% Majority gov't Éamon de Valera
70 / 144
 8  1st 512,073 43.8% Minority gov't (supported by Ind) Seán Lemass
72 / 144
 2  1st 597,414 47.7% Majority gov't Seán Lemass
75 / 144
 3  1st 602,234 45.7% Majority gov't Jack Lynch
69 / 144
 6  1st 624,528 46.2% Opposition Jack Lynch
84 / 148
 15  1st 811,615 50.6% Majority gov't Jack Lynch
78 / 166
 6  1st 777,616 45.3% Opposition Charles Haughey
1982 (Feb)
81 / 166
 3  1st 786,951 47.3% Minority gov't (supported by SFTWP and Ind) Charles Haughey
1982 (Nov)
75 / 166
 6  1st 763,313 45.2% Opposition Charles Haughey
81 / 166
 6  1st 784,547 44.1% Minority gov't (supported by Ind) Charles Haughey
77 / 166
 4  1st 731,472 44.1% Coalition (FF-PD) Charles Haughey
68 / 166
 9  1st 674,650 39.1% Coalition (FF-LP) Albert Reynolds
Opposition (from December 1994)
77 / 166
 9  1st 703,682 39.3% Coalition (FF-PD) Bertie Ahern
81 / 166
 4  1st 770,748 41.5% Coalition (FF-PD) Bertie Ahern
77 / 166
 4  1st 858,565 41.6% Coalition (FF-GP-PD) Bertie Ahern
20 / 166
 57  3rd 387,358 17.5% Opposition Micheál Martin
44 / 158
 23  2nd 519,356 24.3% Confidence and supply(FG minority gov't) Micheál Martin

Front benchEdit

Dáil ÉireannEdit

Portfolio [56] Name
Leader of Fianna Fáil
Leader of the Opposition
Micheál Martin
Opposition Chief Whip Michael Moynihan
Agriculture, Food and the Marine Charlie McConalogue
Culture, Heritage and the Gaeltacht Niamh Smyth
Children and Youth Affairs Anne Rabbitte
Communications, Climate Action and Environment Timmy Dooley
Defence Jack Chambers
Disability Margaret Murphy O'Mahony
Dublin John Lahart
Education and Skills Thomas Byrne
Housing, Planning and Local Government Barry Cowen
Finance Michael McGrath
Foreign Affairs and Trade Darragh O'Brien
Health Billy Kelleher
Rural and Community Development Vacant
Business, Enterprise and Innovation Niall Collins
Justice and Equality Jim O'Callaghan
Mental Health James Browne
Public Expenditure and Reform Dara Calleary
Employment Affairs and Social Protection Willie O'Dea
Transport, Tourism and Sport Robert Troy

Seanad ÉireannEdit

Portfolio Name
Seanad Group Leader
Employment Affairs and Social Protection
Catherine Ardagh
Seanad Deputy Group Leader
Foreign Affairs, Irish Overseas and the Diaspora
Agriculture, Food and the Marine Paul Daly
Business, Enterprise and Innovation Aidan Davitt
Rural and Community Development Brian Ó Domhnaill
Education Robbie Gallagher
Finance Gerry Horkan
Justice, Children and Youth Affairs Lorraine Clifford-Lee
Communications, Climate Action and Environment Terry Leyden
Housing, Planning and Local Government Jennifer Murnane-O'Connor
Without portfolio Denis O'Donovan
Health and Mental Health Ned O'Sullivan
Transport, Tourism and Sport Keith Swanick
Public Expenditure and Reform and Defence Ned O'Sullivan

Ógra Fianna FáilEdit

Fianna Fáil's youth wing is called Ógra Fianna Fáil. Formed in 1975, it plays an active role in recruiting new members and supporting election campaigns. Ógra also plays an important role in the party organisation, where it has five representatives on the Ard Chomhairle (National Executive).[citation needed]

Senator Thomas Byrne was the last nominated head or Cathaoirleach (Chairperson) of Ógra Fianna Fáil, before the youth wing introduced widespread organisational reform following the heavy electoral defeat suffered by the whole party in 2011.[citation needed]

Fianna Fáil and Northern Ireland politicsEdit

On 17 September 2007, Fianna Fáil announced that the party would for the first time organise in Northern Ireland. The then Foreign Minister Dermot Ahern was asked to chair a committee on the matter: "In the period ahead Dermot Ahern will lead efforts to develop that strategy for carrying through this policy, examining timescales and structures. We will act gradually and strategically. We are under no illusions. It will not be easy. It will challenge us all. But I am confident we will succeed".[57]

The party embarked on its first ever recruitment drive north of the border in September 2007 in northern universities, and established two 'Political Societies', the William Drennan Cumann in Queens University, Belfast, and the Watty Graham Cumann in UU Magee, Derry, which subsequently became official units of Fianna Fáil's youth wing, attaining full membership and voting rights, and attained official voting delegates at the 2012 Árd Fheis. On 23 February 2008, it was announced that a former Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) councillor, Colonel Harvey Bicker, had joined Fianna Fáil.[58]

Bertie Ahern announced on 7 December 2007 that Fianna Fáil had been registered in Northern Ireland by the UK Electoral Commission.[59] The party's Ard Fheis in 2009 unanimously passed a motion to organise in Northern Ireland by establishing forums, rather than cumainn, in each of its six counties. In December 2009, Fianna Fáil secured its first Northern Ireland Assembly MLA when Gerry McHugh, an independent MLA, announced he had joined the party.[60] Mr. McHugh confirmed that although he had joined the party, he would continue to sit as an independent MLA. In June 2010, Fianna Fáil opened its first official office in Northern Ireland, in Crossmaglen, County Armagh. The then Taoiseach Brian Cowen officially opened the office, accompanied by Ministers Éamon Ó Cuív and Dermot Ahern and Deputies Rory O’Hanlon and Margaret Conlon. Discussing the party's slow development towards all-Ireland politics, Mr. Cowen observed: "We have a very open and pragmatic approach. We are a constitutional republican party and we make no secret of the aspirations on which this party was founded. It has always been very clear in our mind what it is we are seeking to achieve, that is to reconcile this country and not being prisoners of our past history. To be part of a generation that will build a new Ireland, an Ireland of which we can all be proud".[61]

As of 2007, Fianna Fáil has been a registered and recognised party in Northern Ireland.[62] However, it has not contested any elections in the region. At the party's 2014 Ard Fheis, a motion was passed without debate to stand candidates for election north of the border for the first time in 2019.[63]

In 2017, Omagh councillor Sorcha McAnespy said she wished to run in the 2019 Northern Ireland local government election in the constituency under a Fianna Fáil ticket.[64] In October 2017 she was elected as northern representative on the party's national executive, the "committee of 15".[65]

Since 24 January 2019, the party have been in partnership with the Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP)[66] formerly the main Irish nationalist party in Northern Ireland, but now smaller than Sinn Féin. There had long been speculation about the eventual partnership for several years prior. This was initially met with a negative reaction from Seamus Mallon, former Deputy Leader of the SDLP, who stated he would be opposed to any such merger. Former leader of the SDLP Margaret Ritchie originally stated publicly that she opposed any merger, announcing to the Labour Party Conference that such a merger would not happen on her "watch". On 10 January 2019, Richie stated that she now supported a new partnership with Fianna Fáil.[67]

Both Fianna Fáil and the SDLP currently have shared policies on key areas including addressing the current political situation in Northern Ireland, improving public services in both jurisdictions of Ireland, such as healthcare and education, and bringing about the further unity and cooperation of the people on the island and arrangements for a future poll on Irish reunification.[68][69]

In European institutionsEdit

In the European Parliament from 1999 to 2009, Fianna Fáil was a leading member of Union for Europe of the Nations (UEN), a small national-conservative and Eurosceptic parliamentary group. European political commentators had often noted substantive ideological differences between the party and its colleagues, whose strongly conservative stances had at times prompted domestic criticism of Fianna Fáil. Fianna Fáil MEPs had been an attached to the European Progressive Democrats (1973–1984), European Democratic Alliance (1984–1995), and Union for Europe (1995–1999) groups before the creation of UEN.[citation needed]

Party headquarters, over the objections of some MEPs, had made several attempts to sever the party's links to the European right, including an aborted 2004 agreement to join the European Liberal Democrat and Reform (ELDR) Party, with whom it already sat in the Council of Europe under the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE) banner. On 27 February 2009, Taoiseach Brian Cowen announced that Fianna Fáil proposed to join the ELDR Party and intended to sit with them in the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE) Group in the European Parliament after the 2009 European elections.[70] The change was made official on 17 April 2009, when FF joined the ELDR Party.[citation needed]

In October 2009, it was reported that Fianna Fáil had irritated its new Liberal colleagues by failing to vote for the motion on press freedom in Italy (resulting in its defeat by a majority of one in the Parliament) and by trying to scupper their party colleagues' initiative for gay rights.[71] In January 2010, a report by academic experts writing for the site found that FF "do not seem to toe the political line" of the ALDE Group "when it comes to budget and civil liberties" issues.[72]

In the 2014 European elections, Fianna Fáil received 22.3% of first-preference votes but only returned a single MEP, a reduction in representation of two MEPs from the previous term. This was due to a combination of the party's vote further dropping in Dublin and a two candidate strategy in the Midlands North West constituency, which backfired, resulting in sitting MEP Pat "the Cope" Gallagher losing his seat.[73][74][75] On 23 June 2014, returning MEP Brian Crowley announced that he intended to sit with the European Conservatives and Reformists (ECR) rather than the ALDE group during the upcoming 8th term of the European parliament.[76] The following day on 24 June 2014 Crowley had the Fianna Fáil party whip withdrawn.[77] He has since been re-added to Fianna Fáil's website.[78]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Fianna Fáil had two MEPs elected at the 2019 European Parliament election. Barry Andrews, the fourth candidate elected for Dublin, will not take his seat until the UK leaves the EU and its MEPs vacate their seats.


  1. ^ "Fianna Fail". 16 May 1926. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
  2. ^ "Fine Gael top the poll when it comes to members' fees". Retrieved 1 October 2017.
  3. ^ a b T. Banchoff (1999). Legitimacy and the European Union. Taylor & Francis. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-415-18188-4. Retrieved 19 October 2017.
  4. ^ a b George A. Kourvetaris; Andreas Moschonas (1996). The Impact of European Integration: Political, Sociological, and Economic Changes. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 208. ISBN 978-0-275-95356-0. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
  5. ^ a b c Ian Budge; David Robertson; Derek Hearl (1987). Ideology, Strategy and Party Change: Spatial Analyses of Post-War Election Programmes in 19 Democracies. Cambridge University Press. p. 137. ISBN 978-0-521-30648-5. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
  6. ^ Nordsieck, Wolfram (2016). "Ireland". Parties and Elections in Europe. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  7. ^ Hayward, Katy; Fallon, Jonathan (2009). "Fianna Fáil: Tenacious Localism, Tenuous Europeanism". Irish Political Studies. 24 (4): 491–509. doi:10.1080/07907180903274784.
  8. ^ Routledge Handbook of European Elections. P.247. Chapter author - Richard Dunphy. Book edited by Donatella M. Viola. Published by Routledge in London in 2015.
  9. ^ Fianna Fail on election footing now, says Martin. Irish Independent. Author - Daniel McConnell. Published 1 January 2015. Retrieved 18 July 2017.
  10. ^ Micheal Martin to replace Brian Cowen as Fianna Fail leader. The Telegraph. Published 26 January 2011. Retrieved 18 July 2017.
  11. ^ Weakened Irish PM faces delicate balancing act. EUobserver. Author - Shona Murray. Published 12 May 2016. Retrieved 18 July 2017.
  12. ^ George Taylor; Brendan Flynn (2008). "The Irish Greens". In E. Gene Frankland; Paul Lucardie; Benoît Rihoux (eds.). Green Parties in Transition: The End of Grass-roots Democracy?. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-7546-7429-0.
  13. ^ John Barlow; David Farnham; Sylvia Horton; F.F. Ridley (2016). "Comparing Public Managers". In David Farnham; Annie Hondeghem; Sylvia Horton; John Barlow (eds.). New Public Managers in Europe: Public Servants in Transition. Springer. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-349-13947-7.
  14. ^ Titley, Gavan (24 February 2011). "Beyond the yin and yang of Fine Gael and Fianna Fáil". The Guardian. London.
  15. ^ Noel Whelan (2011). A History of Fianna Fáil: The outstanding biography of the party. Gill & Macmillan Ltd. p. 219. ISBN 978-0717147618. Retrieved 1 June 2019.
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  17. ^ "Fianna Fáil". Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. Longman. Retrieved 14 August 2019.
  18. ^ Ó Dónaill, Niall (1977). (advisory ed. Tomás de Bhaldraithe) (ed.). Foclóir Gaeilge-Béarla (in Irish). Dublin: An Gúm. pp. 512, 540. ISBN 978-1-85791-037-7.,
  19. ^ "About Fianna Fáil". Fianna Fáil. Archived from the original on 14 November 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2016. The party's name incorporates the words 'The Republican Party' in its title.
  20. ^ T. Banchoff (1999). Legitimacy and the European Union. Taylor & Francis. p. 127. ISBN 978-0-415-18188-4. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
  21. ^ "History of Fianna Fáil". Retrieved 3 June 2017.
  22. ^ Boland, Vincent (7 April 2016). "Ireland's main opposition party rejects coalition deal". The Financial Times. Retrieved 7 June 2017.
  23. ^ McDonald, Harry (28 February 2016). "Fianna Fáil truce will allow Kenny to continue as taoiseach". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 June 2017.
  24. ^ "ALDE Party Members". Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  25. ^ "Full Members of Liberal International". Liberal International. Archived from the original on 25 May 2014. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  26. ^ "Speech of Fianna Fáil Leader Micheál Martin TD at the announcement of Fianna Fáil/SDLP Partnership Initiative". 24 January 2019.
  27. ^ "Notable New Yorkers – Eamon de Valéra". Archived from the original on 8 February 2004.
  28. ^ The Times, Irish Republican Split. Search For Basis of Cooperation 13 March 1926
  29. ^ Peter Mair and Liam Weeks, "The Party System," in Politics in the Republic of Ireland, ed. John Coakley and Michael Gallagher, 4th ed. (New York: Routledge, 2004), p. 140
  30. ^ "Our Members—Europe". Liberal International.
  31. ^ Christophe Gillissen (2010). Ireland: Looking East. Peter Lang. p. 157–. ISBN 978-90-5201-652-8.
  32. ^ "Recapturing relevance a huge challenge for FF". The Irish Times. 1 May 2011. Retrieved 4 October 2015.
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  36. ^ D.), Michael Marsh (Ph; Farrell, David M.; McElroy, Gail (6 September 2017). "A Conservative Revolution?: Electoral Change in Twenty-first-century Ireland". Oxford University Press – via Google Books.
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  38. ^ Komito, Lee (1985). Politics and Clientelism in Urban Ireland: Information, reputation, and brokerage (Ph.D.). Ann Arbor, Michigan: University Microfilms International. 8603660. Retrieved 24 June 2013. The only exception was Neil Blaney in Donegal. Blaney had a very strong personal following in Donegal and, perhaps most importantly, was able to claim that it was everyone who remained in Fianna Fáil that had actually departed from party ideals. In nationalist Donegal, the claim that he represented the true Fianna Fáil seemed effective.
  39. ^ White, Michael (25 February 2011). "Irish general election turns into slanging match with parties divided". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 27 February 2011.
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Further readingEdit

  • Joe Ambrose (2006) Dan Breen and the IRA, Douglas Village, Cork : Mercier Press, 223 p., ISBN 1-85635-506-3
  • Bruce Arnold (2001) Jack Lynch: Hero in Crisis, Dublin : Merlin, 250p. ISBN 1-903582-06-7
  • Tim Pat Coogan (1993) De Valera : long fellow, long shadow, London : Hutchinson, 772 p., ISBN 0-09-175030-X
  • Joe Joyce and Peter Murtagh (1983) The Boss: Charles J. Haughey in government, Swords, Dublin : Poolbeg Press, 400 p., ISBN 0-905169-69-7
  • F.S.L. Lyons (1985) Ireland Since the Famine, 2nd rev. ed., London : FontanaPress, 800 p., ISBN 0-00-686005-2
  • Dorothy McCardle (1968) The Irish Republic. A documented chronicle of the Anglo-Irish conflict and the partitioning of Ireland, with a detailed account of the period 1916–1923, etc., 989 p., ISBN 0-552-07862-X
  • Donnacha Ó Beacháin (2010) Destiny of the Soldiers: Fianna Fáil, Irish Republicanism and the IRA, 1926-1973, Gill and Macmillan, 540 p., ISBN 0-71714-763-0
  • T. Ryle Dwyer (2001) Nice fellow : a biography of Jack Lynch, Cork : Mercier Press, 416 p., ISBN 1-85635-368-0
  • T. Ryle Dwyer (1999) Short fellow : a biography of Charles J. Haughey, Dublin : Marino, 477 p., ISBN 1-86023-100-4
  • T. Ryle Dwyer, (1997) Fallen Idol : Haughey's controversial career, Cork : Mercier Press, 191 p., ISBN 1-85635-202-1
  • Raymond Smith (1986) Haughey and O'Malley : The quest for power, Dublin : Aherlow, 295 p., ISBN 1-870138-00-7
  • Tim Ryan (1994) Albert Reynolds : the Longford leader : the unauthorised biography, Dublin : Blackwater Press, 226 p., ISBN 0-86121-549-4
  • Dick Walsh (1986) The Party: Inside Fianna Fáil, Dublin : Gill & Macmillan, 161 p., ISBN 0-7171-1446-5

External linksEdit