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Francis Thomas Aiken (13 February 1898 – 18 May 1983) was an Irish revolutionary and politician who served as Tánaiste from 1965–1969, Minister for External Affairs from 1957 to 1969 and 1951 to 1954, Minister for Finance from 1945 to 1948, Minister for the Co-ordination of Defensive Measures 1939 to 1945, Minister for Defence from 1932 to 1939 and Minister for Lands and Fisheries from June–November 1936.

Frank Aiken
Frank Aiken Portrait.png
Tánaiste
In office
21 April 1965 – 2 July 1969
Taoiseach
Preceded bySeán MacEntee
Succeeded byErskine H. Childers
Minister for External Affairs
In office
20 March 1957 – 2 July 1969
Taoiseach
  • Seán MacEntee
  • Jack Lynch
Preceded byLiam Cosgrave
Succeeded byPatrick Hillery
In office
13 June 1951 – 2 June 1954
TaoiseachÉamon de Valera
Preceded bySeán MacBride
Succeeded byLiam Cosgrave
Minister for Finance
In office
19 June 1945 – 18 February 1948
TaoiseachÉamon de Valera
Preceded bySeán T. O'Kelly
Succeeded byPatrick McGilligan
Minister for the Co-ordination of Defensive Measures
In office
8 September 1939 – 18 June 1945
TaoiseachÉamon de Valera
Preceded byNew office
Succeeded byOffice abolished
Minister for Defence
In office
9 March 1932 – 8 September 1939
TaoiseachÉamon de Valera
Preceded byDesmond FitzGerald
Succeeded byOscar Traynor
Minister for Lands and Fisheries
In office
3 June 1936 – 11 November 1936
TaoiseachÉamon de Valera
Preceded byJoseph Connolly
Succeeded byGerald Boland
Teachta Dála
In office
August 1923 – February 1973
ConstituencyLouth
Personal details
Born
Francis Thomas Aiken[1]

(1898-02-13)13 February 1898
Camlough, County Armagh, Ireland
Died18 May 1983(1983-05-18) (aged 85)
Blackrock, Dublin, Ireland
Resting placeCamlough, Armagh, Northern Ireland
NationalityIrish
Political partyFianna Fáil (from 1926)
Other political
affiliations
Sinn Féin (1923–26)
Spouse(s)Maud Aiken (1934–1978)
Children3
Education
Alma materUniversity College Dublin
Military service
AllegianceIrish Volunteers
Irish Republican Army
Years of service1914–1925
RankChief of Staff
Battles/warsIrish War of Independence
Irish Civil War

He served as a Teachta Dála (TD) for the Louth constituency from 1923 to 1973. He was Chief of Staff of the Irish Republican Army. Originally a member of Sinn Féin, he was later a founding member of Fianna Fáil.[2]

LifeEdit

Early yearsEdit

Aiken was born on 13 February 1898 at Carrickbracken, Camlough, County Armagh, Ireland, the seventh and youngest child of James Aiken, a builder from County Tyrone, and Mary McGeeney of Corromannon, Beleek, County Armagh. James Aiken built Catholic churches in South Armagh. Aiken was a nationalist, a member of the IRB and a county councillor, who refused an offer to stand as an MP. James was Chairman of the Local Board of the Poor Guardians. In 1900, on her visit to Ireland, he told Queen Victoria that he would not welcome her "until Ireland has become free."[3]

He was educated in Newry by Irish Christian Brothers at Abbey Christian Brothers Grammar School and at St Colman's College, Newry. In 1914 he joined the Irish Volunteers and the Gaelic League. He became secretary of the local branch in 1917, and joining Sinn Féin, founded a Sinn Féin club or cumann at Camlough, County Armagh while working at the Co-Operative Flax-Scutching society. Aiken was committed to Gaelic speech which he learnt at the Donegal Gaeltacht, Ormeath Irish College.

Activist and organiserEdit

Aiken was elected Lieutenant of the local Irish Volunteers in 1917 (from 1919 better known as Irish Republican Army or IRA). while an active Sinn Féin officer of Camlough Club. At the rowdy by-election at Bessbrook in February 1918, Aiken was elected a Captain of Volunteers, stewarding electioneering. As Comhairle Ceanntair it was job to be chief fund-raiser for the Dublin Executive, responsible for the Dáil Loan, the first to be issued by the Dáil Éireann. He was quickly promoted through the ranks, rising to Commandant of Newry Brigade and eventually commander of 4th Northern Division from the spring 1921. The IRA units he would eventually command extended from County Louth, southern and western County Down, and all of County Armagh, from March 1921.

In 1919 Aiken's IRA activities mainly consisted of arms raids. He led raids on dumps of the unionist militia the Ulster Volunteers or UVF who had imported weapons to resist Home Rule in 1913-14. Aiken raided UVF dumps and also prominent local unionists at Ballyedmond Castle and Loughall Manor. Though they failed to capture many weapons the raids gave experience to newly recruited Volunteers.[4] Aiken also setting up GAA Club, Gaelic League branch, a Cumann na mBan camogie league.[5]

Within a few years becoming Chairman of the Armagh branch of Sinn Féin, he was also elected onto Armagh County Council. Making an outward display of defiance, Aiken raised the republican Irish tricolor, opposite Camlough Barracks in Armagh, designed as deliberate provocation.[6]

Irish Republican Army involvementEdit

War of Irish IndependenceEdit

Aiken, operating from the south Armagh/north Louth area, was one of the most effective IRA commanders in Ulster during the Irish War of Independence. In May 1920 he led 200 IRA men in an attack on the Royal Irish Constabulary barracks in Newtownhamilton, assaulting the building and then burning it with paraffin spayed from a potato sprayer, though the police garrison did not surrender.[7] Aiken himself led a squad which blasted a hole in the wall of the barracks with gelignite and entered it, exchanging shots with the policemen inside.[8]

In December 1920 he led another assault, this time abortive, on the RIC station in his home village of Camlough. In reprisal, the newly formed Ulster Special Constabulary burned Aiken's home and those of ten of his relatives in the Camlough area. They also arrested and killed two local Republicans. From this point onward, the conflict in Aiken's area took on an increasingly bitter and sectarian quality. Aiken tried on a number of occasion to ambush USC patrols from the ruins of his family home.[9]

In April 1921, Aiken's IRA unit mounted an operation in Creggan, County Armagh to ambush the police and Special Constabulary. One Special was killed in the ensuing ambush. Some accounts have reported that Aiken took the Protestant Church congregation in the village hostage, to lure the Specials into an ambush.[10] But Mathew Lewis's account in 'Frank Aiken's War' states that both Catholic and Protestant church goers were held in a pub to prevent their getting caught in the crossfire of the ambush.[11]

Nevertheless sectarian bitterness deepened in the area. Starting the following month, the Special Constabulary started shooting Catholic civilians in revenge for IRA attacks. In June 1921 Aiken organised his most successful attack on the British military, when his men derailed a train line under a British troop train headed from Belfast to Dublin, killing the train guard, three cavalry soldiers and 63 of their horses.[12] Shortly afterwards, the Specials took four Catholics from their homes in Bessbrook and Altnaveigh and killed them.

After an IRA reorganisation in the spring of 1921 Aiken was put in command of the Fourth Northern Division of the Irish Republican Army in April 1921.[13]

The cycle of violence in the south-east Ulster area continued in the following year, despite a formal truce with the British from 11 July 1921. Michael Collins organised a clandestine guerrilla offensive against the newly created Northern Ireland in May 1922. For reasons that have never been properly determined, Aiken and his Fourth Northern Division never took part in the operation, although it was planned that they would. Aiken remained Head of the Ulster Council Command however.

Nonetheless, the local IRA's inaction at this time did not end the bloodshed in South Armagh. Aiken has been accused by unionists of ethnic cleansing of Protestants from parts of South Armagh, Newry, and other parts of the north,.[14] In particular Aiken's critics cite the killing of six Protestant civilians, called the Altnaveigh Massacre on 17 June 1922.[15] The attack was in reprisal for the Special Constabulary's killing of three nationalist near Camlough on June 13 and the sexual assault of the wife of one of Aiken's friends. As well as the six civilians, two Special Constables were killed in an ambush and two weeks later a unionist politician named William Frazer was abducted, killed and secretly buried. His body was not found until 1924.[16]

Irish Civil WarEdit

The IRA split over the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921 and this left Aiken ultimately aligned with the anti-Treaty side in the Irish Civil War in spite of personal efforts to prevent division and civil war. Aiken tried to remain neutral and after fighting broke out between pro- and anti-Treaty units in Dublin on June 28, 1922, he wrote to Richard Mulcahy on 6 July 1922 calling for a truce, the election of a new re-united IRA army council and the removal of the Oath of Allegiance from the Free State constitution.[17] Mulcahy was evasive however and said he 'could not see a way to advise the government' to agree with Aiken's proposals. Subsequently Aiken travelled to Limerick meet with anti-Treaty IRA leader Liam Lynch to urge him too to consider a truce in return for the removal of the British monarch from the constitution.[18]

Despite his pleas for neutrality and a negotiated end to the Civil War, Aiken was arrested by pro-Treaty troops on July 16, 1922, under Dan Hogan and imprisoned at Dundalk Gaol along with about 2-300 of his men.[19]

After just ten days imprisonment, he was freed in a mass escape of 100 men from Dundalk prison on 28 July. Then, on 14 August, he led a surprise attack of between 300 and 400 anti-treaty IRA men on Dundalk. They blew holes in the army barracks there and rapidly took control of the town at a cost of just two of his men killed. The operation freed 240 republican prisoners and seized 400 rifles. While in possession of the town, Aiken publicly called for an end to the civil war. For the remainder of the conflict he remained at large with his unit, carrying out guerrilla attacks on Free State forces; however, Aiken was never enthusiastic about the internecine struggle.[20]

Ending the Civil WarEdit

Aiken was with IRA Chief of Staff Liam Lynch's patrol when they were ambushed at Knockmealdown, where the chief of staff was shot and killed. He rescued the IRA's papers "saved and brought through at any cost".[21] Aiken's reward was promotion in succession to Liam Lynch as IRA Chief of Staff in March 1923. Aiken had always been ambivalent about the war against the Free State and on becoming Chief of Staff, he and the IRA Executive ordered a ceasefire or 'suspension of offensive operations on April 26, 1922. He was close to Eamon de Valera, who had long wanted to end the Civil War, and together the two came up with a compromise that would save the anti-Treaty IRA from formally surrendering. Instead of surrendering their arms to the Free State government, they would 'dump arms', putting them in dumps and ordering their fighters simply to return home. Aiken stated, 'we took up arms to free our country and we'll keep them until we see an honourable way or reaching our objective without arms'.[22]

The cease-fire and dump-arms orders, issued on 24 May 1923 effectively ended the Irish Civil War, though the Free State government did not issue a general amnesty until the following year. Aiken remained Chief of Staff of the IRA until 12 November 1925.

In the summer of 1925 the anti-treaty IRA sent a delegation led by Pa Murray to the Soviet Union for a personal meeting with Joseph Stalin, in the hopes of gaining Soviet finance and weaponry assistance.[23] A secret pact was agreed where the IRA would spy on the United States and the United Kingdom and pass information to Red Army military intelligence in New York City and London in return for £500 a month.[23] The pact was originally approved by Aiken, who left soon after, before being succeeded by Andrew Cooney and Moss Twomey who kept up the secret espionage relationship.[23]

Founder of Fianna Fáil and government ministerEdit

Aiken was at the April 1925 Commemoration ceremony at Dundalk, but by March 1926—when De Valera founded a new party, Fianna Fáil—he was in America. Aiken was first elected to Dáil Éireann as a Sinn Féin candidate for Louth in 1923; in June 1927 he was re-elected there for Fianna Fáil, continuing to be re-elected for that party at every election until his retirement from politics fifty years later.[24] He entered the first Fianna Fáil government as Minister for Defence, later becoming Minister for the Co-ordination of Defensive Measures with responsibility for overseeing Ireland's national defence and neutral position during the Second World War (see The Emergency). In May 1926 he bought Dun Gaiothe, a dairy farm, at Sandyford, Dublin. Aiken was an inventive, creative individual, an amateur inventor, taking out patents for a turf stove, a beehive, an air shelter, an electric cooker, and a spring heel for a shoe.[25][not specific enough to verify]

Clash with the Governor GeneralEdit

Aiken became a source of controversy in mid-1932 when he, along with Vice-President of the Executive Council Seán T. O'Kelly publicly snubbed the Governor-General of the Irish Free State, James McNeill, by staging a public walkout at a function in the French legation in Dublin. McNeill privately wrote to Éamon de Valera, the President of the Executive Council, to complain at what media reports called the "boorishness" of Aiken and O'Kelly's behaviour. While agreeing that the situation was "regrettable" de Valera, instead of chastising the ministers, suggested that the Governor-General inform the Executive Council of his social engagements to enable ministers to avoid ones he was attending. Aiken had in March 1932 been trying to reach a new rapprochement, and "reconciled the Army to the new regime".[26][not specific enough to verify] On 9 March he visited republican prisoners in Arbour Hill prison released the next day - he was given the vice-presidency Agriculture to James Ryan at the Ottawa Conference. He advised on the usage of cutting peat bogs in County Meath, and visited Curragh Camp to use the turf to accelerate land distribution to the poor tenantry. Land was released in 'the Midlands' for development.

McNeill took offence at de Valera's response and against government advice, published his correspondence with de Valera. De Valera then formally advised King George V to dismiss the Governor General. The King arranged a special deal between both men, whereby McNeill would retire from his post a few weeks earlier than planned, with the resignation coinciding with the dates de Valera had suggested for the dismissal. On 25 April 1938, Aiken was too closely associated with the IRA to be allowed into the Anglo-Irish Agreement negotiations. Although the governor-generalship of the Irish Free State was controversial, the media and even anti-governor-generalship politicians in the opposition Labour Party publicly, and even members of de Valera's cabinet privately, criticised Aiken and O'Kelly for their treatment of McNeill, whom all sides saw as a decent and honourable man. Aiken refused to discuss the affair later in life. De Valera later made amends by appointing Mrs McNeill as an Irish ambassador.

Minister for the Coordination of Defensive Measures and the Second World WarEdit

Aiken was appointed to this post by de Valera at the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939. Aiken gained notoriety in liberal Dublin circles for his overseeing of censorship. His clashes with R. M. Smyllie, editor of The Irish Times, ensured his censorious attitude was resented by many. Aiken not only censored war coverage by the Irish Times, whose editorial line was largely pro-British, but also banned or censored pro-allied war films and even forbade the reporting of parliamentarians' speeches that went against the government line of strict neutrality.[27] Aiken justified these measures, citing the 'terrible and all prevailing force of modern warfare' and the importance therein of morale and propaganda.[28]

Aiken remained opposed to a British role in Ireland and to partition of Ireland and was therefore a strong supporter of de Valera's policy of Irish neutrality, denying Britain use of Irish ports during the Battle of the Atlantic. Aiken considered that Ireland had to stand ready to resist invasion by both Germany and Britain. The Irish Army was therefore greatly expanded under Aiken's ministry, up to a strength of 41,000 regulars and 180,000 in auxiliary units the Local Defence Force and Local Security Force, by 1941, though these formations were relatively poorly equipped.[29]

Aiken wanted to incorporate the IRA into the Army and offered them an amnesty in the spring of 1940, which the underground organisation turned down.[30] Nevertheless, in the course of the war, as the IRA cooperated with German intelligence, and pressed for a German landing in Northern Ireland, the government with Aiken's approval, interned several hundred IRA members and executed six for the shooting of Irish police officers. Though Aiken remained somewhat sympathetic to them in private, and visited their prisoners in Arbour Hill prison in Dublin, he did not appeal for clemency for those condemned to death.[31]

Thinking that Britain would lose the war in 1940, he refused to back senior British civil servant Malcolm MacDonald's plan for the unification of Ireland in return for the Irish state joining the British effort. In negotiations between the Irish government and McDonald, Aiken told him that a united Ireland, if it was conceded, would still stay neutral to safeguard its security and that further talks were 'a sheer waste of time'. Furthermore, Aiken told him that the Irish people 'would not support their government taking them into the war without some actual provocation from Germany'.[32] Aiken when asked on American radio, about the offer of unity in return for entering the war, replied, 'most certainly not. We want union and sovereignty, not union and slavery'.[33]

In March 1941, Aiken was sent to America to secure US supplies, both military and economic, that Britain was withholding because of Irish neutrality.Aiken had a bad tempered meeting with President Franklin Roosevelt in Washington DC. Roosevelt urged Aiken and Ireland to join the war on the allied side and asked Aiken if it was true that he had said that 'Ireland had nothing to fear from a German victory'. Aiken denied saying this but cited the British 'supply squeeze' as an act of aggression and asked the US to help. Roosevelt said that he would agree to send supplies only if Britain consented. At the close of the meeting Aiken asked the President to 'support us in our stand against aggression'. 'German aggression, yes' Roosevelt replied, to which Aiken retorted 'British aggression too'. This infuriated Roosevelt, who shouted 'nonsense' and 'pulled the tablecloth [from under his lunch] sending cutlery flying around the room'.[34]

Ultimately, Aiken was not able to secure a promise of American arms, but was able to get a shipment of grain, two merchant ships and coal. Roosevelt also gave 'his personal guarantee' that Britain would not invade Ireland.[35]

Minister for External AffairsEdit

 
Wreath laying ceremony at Commodore John Barry Memorial. President Kennedy, Mayor of Wexford Thomas Burne, Minister of External Affairs of Ireland Frank Aiken, U. S. Ambassador to Ireland Matthew McCloskey, Naval Aide to the President Tazewell Shepard, others. Wexford, Ireland, Crescent Quay.

Aiken was Minister for Finance for three years following the war and was involved in economic post–war development in the industrial, agricultural, educational and other spheres. However, it was during his two periods as Minister for External Affairs—1951 to 1954, and 1957 to 1969—that Aiken fulfilled his enormous political potential. As Foreign Minister he adopted where possible an independent stance for Ireland at the United Nations and other international forums such as the Council of Europe. Despite a great deal of opposition, both at home and abroad, he stubbornly asserted the right of smaller UN member countries to discuss the representation of communist China at the General Assembly. Unable to bring the issue of the partition of Ireland to the UN, because of Britain's veto on the Security Council and unwillingness of other Western nations to interfere in what they saw as British affairs at that time (the US taking a more ambiguous position), Aiken ensured that Ireland vigorously defended the rights of small nations such as Tibet and Hungary, nations whose problems he felt Ireland could identify with and had a moral obligation to help.

Aiken also supported the right of countries such as Algeria to self-determination and spoke out against apartheid in South Africa. Under Ireland's policy of promoting the primacy of international law and reducing global tension at the height of the Cold War, Aiken promoted the idea of "areas of law", which he believed would free the most tense regions around the world from the threat of nuclear war.

The 'Aiken Plan' was introduced at the United Nations in an effort to combine disarmament and peace in the Middle East, Ireland a country being on good terms with both Israel and many Arab countries. In the UN the Irish delegation sat between Iraq and Israel and formed a kind of physical 'buffer' and in the days of Aiken (who as a minister spent a lot of time with the UN delegation) both the Italians (who on their turn sat in the vicinity of the Iraqi delegation), the Irish and the Israeli claimed to be the one and only UN delegation of New York, a city inhabited by many Irish, Jewish and Italians.

Aiken was also a champion of nuclear non-proliferation and he received the honour of being the first minister to sign the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1968 at Moscow. Aiken's impact as Minister for External Affairs was such that he is sometimes seen as the father of Irish foreign policy. His performance was praised in particular by a later Minister for Foreign Affairs, Fine Gael's Garret FitzGerald.

Quit politics over Charles HaugheyEdit

Aiken retired from Ministerial office and as Tánaiste in 1969. During the Arms Crisis it is said that the Taoiseach, Jack Lynch, turned to Aiken for advice on a number of issues. He retired from politics in 1973 due to the fact that Charles Haughey, whose style of politics Aiken strongly disliked, was allowed to run as a Fianna Fáil candidate in the 1973 general election. Initially he planned to announce the reason for his decision, but under pressure finally agreed to announce that he was retiring on medical advice.[36]

Refused candidacy for the presidency of IrelandEdit

After his retirement the outgoing President of Ireland, Éamon de Valera, sought to convince Aiken—one of his closest friends—to run for Fianna Fáil in the 1973 presidential election. However, Aiken refused all requests to run and the party finally selected Erskine H. Childers to be its candidate. Childers won the election. In 1966, Aiken was appalled by the candidature of Charles Haughey, who was an open anti-partitionist.

When Jack Lynch, the Taoiseach and friend, announced his retirement, and future rise owed to Haughey, Aiken refused to serve. Haughey was a shrewd, but corruptible campaigner: running a gang of 500 businessmen out of Gresham's Hotel, Dublin to raise funds for his cause. Haughey's support for the Provisional IRA's bombing war was eventually exposed as in defiance of Aiken's warnings and persistent advice.[37]

Clash with Ernest BlytheEdit

Shortly before his death, former Cumann na nGaedheal minister Ernest Blythe accused Aiken of rudely snubbing him in public throughout his political career. He said that, because of his support for the Treaty and Aiken's opposition, Aiken would pointedly turn his back on him whenever they came into contact.

Aiken's continuing bitterness towards Blythe was in contrast with the cross-party friendship which had developed between their colleagues Seán MacEntee (anti-treaty) and Desmond FitzGerald (pro-treaty) who, after the divide, re-established relationships and ensured their children held no civil war bitterness. The great rivals Éamon de Valera and W. T. Cosgrave, after years of enmity, also became reconciled in the 1960s. However Aiken refused to reconcile with former friends who had taken sides in the Civil War.

FamilyEdit

In 1934 Aiken married Maud Davin, the director of the Dublin Municipal School of Music. The couple had three children: Aedamar, Proinnsias, and Lochlann.[38]

DeathEdit

Frank Aiken died on 18 May 1983 in Dublin from natural causes at the age of 85. He was buried with full State honours in his native Camlough, County Armagh, Northern Ireland.

Honours and memorialsEdit

Aiken received many decorations and honours, including honorary doctorates from the National University of Ireland and University College Dublin. He received the Grand Cross of St. Olav, the highest honour Norway can give to a foreigner, during a state visit to Norway in 1964.[39] He was also a lifelong supporter of the Irish language. His son, also named Frank, ran unsuccessfully in the 1987 and 1989 general elections for the Progressive Democrats. His wife died in a road accident in 1978.

Aiken Barracks in Dundalk, County Louth, is named in honour of Aiken and is the headquarters of the 27 Infantry Battalion.[citation needed]

The extensive property owned by Aiken in the Lamb's Cross area of County Dublin (lying between Sandyford and Stepaside) has been transformed into the housing estate called Aiken's Village.[citation needed]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Frank Aiken - Family and Early Life, 1898-1921 | eoin magennis". Academia.edu. 1 January 1970. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
  2. ^ "Frank Aiken". Oireachtas Members Database. Retrieved 15 January 2011.
  3. ^ Matthew Lewis, Frank Aiken's War, p.12
  4. ^ Matthew Lewis, Frank Aiken's War, p.64-65
  5. ^ C Townshend, "The Republic: The Fight For Irish Independence" (London 2014), p.23.
  6. ^ University College of Dublin Archive P104/1309, cited by Townshend in "The Republic", 32.
  7. ^ Matthew Lewis, Frank Aiken's War p67-72
  8. ^ Lewis, Frank Aiken's War, p.90-91
  9. ^ Lewis, Frank Aiken's War p.71-72
  10. ^ Toby Harnden, Bandit Country, The IRA and South Armagh (1999), p/127-128
  11. ^ Lewis, Frank Aiken's War, p.78-79
  12. ^ "South Armagh History – The 4th Northern Division". Sinn Féin Cumann South Armagh. Archived from the original on 12 February 2008. Retrieved 19 April 2008. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  13. ^ C Townshend, "The Republic: The Fight For Irish Independence" (Penguin 2014), 457.
  14. ^ "Families Acting for Innocent Relatives (FAIR)". Victims.org.uk. 8 February 2008. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
  15. ^ "History Ireland". History Ireland. 17 June 1922. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
  16. ^ Pearse Lawlor, The Outrages p298-300
  17. ^ Lewis, Frank Aiken's War, p.174
  18. ^ Lewis, Frank Aiken's War, p174-175
  19. ^ The Irish Story, The Anti-Treaty attack on Dundalk
  20. ^ Irish Dictionary of National Biography
  21. ^ Florence O' Donoghue, "No Other Law" (Dublin, 1954, 1986), 305.
  22. ^ Lewis, Frank Aiken's War, p197
  23. ^ a b c "The secret IRA–Soviet agreement, 1925". History Ireland. 8 February 2015.
  24. ^ "Frank Aiken". ElectionsIreland.org. Retrieved 15 January 2011.
  25. ^ Skinner, p.178; Horgan, p.67-8.
  26. ^ J.J.Lee, p.176.
  27. ^ Robert Fisk, In Time of War, Ireland, Ulster and the Price of Neutrality, 1939-1945, (Paladin, London, 1985) p.165-168
  28. ^ Bryce Evans, 'The Iron Man with the Wooden Head'. Frank Aiken and the Second World War, in Bryce Evans and Stephen Kelly, eds, Frank Aiken: Nationalist and Internationalist (Dublin, IAP, 2014)
  29. ^ Evans, Frank Aiken, Nationalist And Internationalist, p.134-135
  30. ^ Evans, Frank Aiken, p.135.
  31. ^ Evans, Frank Aiken, p.137
  32. ^ Robert Fisk, In Time of War, Ireland, Ulster and the Price of Neutrality, 1939-1945, (Paladin, London, 1985) p.204-206
  33. ^ Evans, Frank Aiken, p.140
  34. ^ Evans, Frank Aiken, p.141-142
  35. ^ Evans, Frank Aiken, p.142
  36. ^ Bruce Arnold, Jack Lynch: Hero in Crisis (Merlin Publishing, 2001) pp. 173-75.
  37. ^ Stephen Kelly (24 June 2014). "The Haughey factor: why Frank Aiken really retired from party politics". Irishtimes.com. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
  38. ^ "Dictionary of Irish Biography - Cambridge University Press". dib.cambridge.org. Retrieved 29 June 2018.
  39. ^ "First Irish State Visit to Norway 1964". RTÉ Archives. Retrieved 5 April 2014.

BibliographyEdit

  • Kelly, Dr. S & Evans, B, (eds.) Frank Aiken: Nationalist and Internationalist (Irish Academic Press, 2014)
  • Bowman, J, De Valera and the Ulster Question 1917-1973 (Oxford 1982)
  • Campbell, Colm, Emergency Law in England 1918-1925 (Oxford 1994)
  • Cronin, S, The Ideology of the IRA (Ann Arbor 1972)
  • Harnden, Toby, Bandit Country the IRA and South Armagh, Hodder & Staughton, (London 1999)
  • Hart, P, The IRA at war 1916-1923 (London 2003)
  • Henry, R.M, The Evolution of Sinn Fein (Dublin and London, 1920)
  • Hepburn, A.C, Catholic Belfast and Nationalist Ireland in the era of Joe Devlin 1871-1934 (Oxford 2008)
  • Hopkinson, Michael, The Irish War of Independence (Dublin and Montreal 2002).
  • Lewis, Matthew, Frank Aiken's War, The Irish Revolution 1916-1923, UCD Press (Dublin 2014)
  • Ni Dhonnchadha, Máirín and Dorgan, Theo (eds), Revising the Rising(Derry 1991).
  • McCartan, Patrick, With de Valera in America (New York 1932)
  • McDermott, J, Northern Divisions: The Old IRA and the Belfast Pogroms, 1920-22 (Belfast 2001)
  • Phoenix, E, Northern Nationalism: Nationalist Politics, Partition and the Catholic minority in Northern Ireland 1890-1941 (Belfast 1994)
  • Skinnider, Margaret, Doing My Bit For Ireland (New York 1917).

External linksEdit

Oireachtas
New constituency Teachta Dála for Louth
1923–1973
Succeeded by
Joseph Farrell
Political offices
Preceded by
Desmond FitzGerald
Minister for Defence
1932–1939
Succeeded by
Oscar Traynor
Preceded by
Joseph Connolly
Minister for Lands and Fisheries
1936
(acting)
Succeeded by
Gerald Boland
New office Minister for the Co-ordination of Defensive Measures
1939–1945
Succeeded by
Office abolished
Preceded by
Seán T. O'Kelly
Minister for Finance
1945–1948
Succeeded by
Patrick McGilligan
Preceded by
Seán MacBride
Minister for External Affairs
1951–1954
Succeeded by
Liam Cosgrave
Preceded by
James Dillon
Minister for Agriculture
1957
(acting)
Succeeded by
Seán Moylan
Preceded by
Liam Cosgrave
Minister for External Affairs
1957–1969
Succeeded by
Patrick Hillery
Preceded by
Seán Moylan
Minister for Agriculture
Nov. 1957
(acting)
Succeeded by
Paddy Smith
Preceded by
Seán MacEntee
Tánaiste
1965–1969
Succeeded by
Erskine H. Childers