Micheál Martin (Irish pronunciation: [mʲiːçaːl̪ˠ]; born 1 August 1960) is an Irish Fianna Fáil politician who has served as Leader of the Opposition in Ireland since March 2011 and Leader of Fianna Fáil since February 2011. He has been a Teachta Dála (TD) for the Cork South-Central constituency since 1989. He previously served as Minister for Foreign Affairs from 2008 to 2011, Minister for Enterprise, Trade and Employment from 2004 to 2008, Minister for Health and Children from 2000 to 2004, Minister for Education and Science from 1997 to 2000 and Lord Mayor of Cork from 1992 to 1993.
|Leader of the Opposition|
|Assumed office |
9 March 2011
Michael D. Higgins
|Preceded by||Enda Kenny|
|Leader of Fianna Fáil|
|Assumed office |
23 January 2011
Brian Lenihan Jnr
Éamon Ó Cuív
|Preceded by||Brian Cowen|
|Minister for Foreign Affairs|
7 May 2008 – 18 January 2011
|Preceded by||Dermot Ahern|
|Succeeded by||Brian Cowen|
|Minister for Enterprise, Trade and Employment|
29 September 2004 – 7 May 2008
|Preceded by||Mary Harney|
|Succeeded by||Mary Coughlan|
|Minister for Health and Children|
27 January 2000 – 29 September 2004
|Preceded by||Brian Cowen|
|Succeeded by||Mary Harney|
|Minister for Education and Science|
26 June 1997 – 27 January 2000
|Preceded by||Niamh Bhreathnach (Education)|
|Succeeded by||Michael Woods|
|Lord Mayor of Cork|
20 June 1992 – 21 June 1993
|Preceded by||Denis Cregan|
|Succeeded by||John Murray|
|Assumed office |
|Born||1 August 1960|
Turners Cross, Cork, Ireland
|Political party||Fianna Fáil|
|Spouse(s)||Mary O'Shea (m. 1989)|
|Children||5 (2 deceased)|
|Education||Coláiste Chríost Rí|
|Alma mater||University College Cork|
As Minister for Health and Children in 2004, he introduced a ban on tobacco smoking in all Irish workplaces and established the Health Service Executive (HSE). Ireland was the first country to introduce a full workplace smoking ban. As Minister for Foreign Affairs in 2009, Martin travelled to Latin America for the first time, and made the first official visit to Cuba by an Irish Minister. That same year, he travelled to Khartoum following the kidnapping of Sharon Commins and Hilda Kawuki. In 2010, he became the first Western foreign minister to visit Gaza since Hamas took control there in 2007. On 18 January 2011, Brian Cowen accepted his resignation as Minister for Foreign Affairs. On 26 January 2011, Fianna Fáil announced that Micheál Martin had been elected as the eighth leader of the party, following Cowen's resignation as party leader four days previously. In the 2011 general election, Martin led the party to its worst showing in its 85-year history, with a loss of 57 seats and a drop in its share of the popular vote to 17.4%. In the 2016 general election, Fianna Fáil's performance improved significantly, more than doubling their Dáil representation to 44 seats from 20 in 2011.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Early political career
- 3 Cabinet career (1997–2011)
- 4 Leadership of Fianna Fáil
- 5 Personal life
- 6 Publications
- 7 References
- 8 Sources
- 9 External links
Born and raised in the Turner's Cross area of Cork, Martin was the son of Paddy Martin (1923–2012), a former soldier in the Defence Forces, CIÉ employee and Irish international boxer, and Eileen "Lana" Corbett (1929–2010). He was the third child in a family of five. Martin's eldest brother Seán and his twin brother Pádraig subsequently became involved in local politics in Cork. His two younger sisters, Eileen and Máiréad, have remained apolitical. Martin attended Coláiste Chríost Rí before studying arts at University College Cork.
It was during his time at university that Martin became involved in politics. He was a prominent member of the cumann of Ógra Fianna Fáil, the youth wing of the party before later serving as national chairman of Ógra. After graduating with a BA degree, Martin later completed an MA in political history. Subsequently, he completed a higher diploma in education and began a career as a history teacher in Presentation Brothers College.
In 2009, he published his MA thesis as a book: Freedom to Choose: Cork and Party Politics in Ireland 1918–1932.
Early political careerEdit
Martin's time as a teacher was short-lived; he left after just one year to become a full-time politician when he secured election to Cork Corporation as a Fianna Fáil candidate in 1985. It was from this local base that he decided to embark on a career in national politics a little under two years later. Martin was one of four candidates who secured the Fianna Fáil nomination to run in the Cork South-Central constituency at the 1987 general election, however, of the four he polled the fewest first-preference votes and failed to be elected. He became a member of the Fianna Fáil national executive in 1988.
In 1989, Taoiseach Charles Haughey called a snap election, and Martin was once again added to the Fianna Fáil ticket in Cork South-Central. On that occasion he obtained the most first-preference votes of any Fianna Fáil candidate, and secured election to Dáil Éireann. He has been re-elected at each subsequent election.
In his first few years as a TD, Martin served on a number of Oireachtas committees, including those dealing with crime, finance and the Irish language. He served as Lord Mayor of Cork in 1992. Two years later, in December 1994, Bertie Ahern was elected as the new leader of Fianna Fáil, as the party lost power and went into opposition in the Dáil. Martin, however, joined Ahern's new front bench at the start of 1995 as Spokesperson on Education and the Gaeltacht.
Cabinet career (1997–2011)Edit
Minister for Education and Science (1997–2000)Edit
When Fianna Fáil returned to power following the 1997 general election, Martin was appointed to the newly expanded position of Minister for Education and Science. Aged 36, he was the youngest member of Bertie Ahern's first cabinet. As Minister for Education and Science, his tenure was characterised by an increase in spending at all levels of education, while a number of educational initiatives, such as a review of the primary school curriculum and the introduction of special needs assistants, were also initiated.
Minister for Health and Children (2000–04)Edit
In a cabinet reshuffle in January 2000, Martin was appointed Minister for Health and Children. Martin's predecessor, Brian Cowen, described the position as "like being in Angola", because 'landmines' can go off at any time.
In spite of tough opposition, Martin introduced a ban on tobacco smoking in all Irish workplaces, including pubs and restaurants. He announced on 30 January 2003, his intention to have the ban in place on 1 January 2004. He visited New York in September 2003, to look at how a similar ban worked there and signed the UN's framework convention on tobacco control at their headquarters. The smoking ban was introduced on 29 March 2004, making Ireland the first country in the world to introduce a blanket ban on smoking in the workplace. Martin was presented with an award by the European Respiratory Society in Glasgow on 4 September 2004, for his work on the smoking ban.
He introduced the first overhaul of the health system in 30 years. It included the abolition of the health boards and establishment of the Health Service Executive. He deregulated the country's pharmacies from 31 January 2002.
Minister for Enterprise, Trade and Employment (2004–08)Edit
In September 2004, he exchanged government positions with Mary Harney, to become Minister for Enterprise, Trade and Employment. The following September, the government's economic record on the cost of living came under scrutiny from the RTÉ television programme Rip-Off Republic. This led to Martin abolishing the controversial Groceries Order 1987, a piece of legislation which prohibited the sale of groceries below cost price.
Letters containing death threats and shotgun cartridges, from a group calling itself the Irish Citizens Defence Force, were posted to Martin on 29 February 2008, at a prominent Dublin fertility clinic.
Minister for Foreign Affairs (2008–11)Edit
On the resignation of Bertie Ahern as Taoiseach in May 2008, Martin supported Brian Cowen's bid for the Fianna Fáil leadership.
In a cabinet reshuffle on 13 May 2008, following the election of Brian Cowen as Taoiseach, Martin became Minister for Foreign Affairs. One of the first issues that he had to deal with was the referendum on the Treaty of Lisbon. Martin led the government campaign. Despite the overwhelming majority of government and opposition parties supporting a Yes vote, the electorate rejected the government's recommendation. Martin and Cowen failed to convince the Irish public to support the ratification of the Treaty of Lisbon, and this protest expressed in the referendum on 12 June 2008 plunged the government into a major political crisis.
In February 2009, Martin travelled to Latin America for the first time, making stopovers in Mexico and Havana; it was the first time an Irish government Minister had made an official visit to Cuba.
On 7 February 2010, he defended the €4.4 million redevelopment of the Irish embassy in Ottawa, Canada. While in Brussels on 22 February 2010, he questioned Foreign Affairs Minister of Israel Avigdor Lieberman over the use of fraudulent Irish passports in the assassination of Mahmoud al-Mabhouh.
On 26 May 2010, he met with senior Chinese leaders in Beijing, to discuss relations between China and Ireland, before travelling onward to Shanghai. While there, he visited the Irish pavilion at Expo 2010 in the city.
Criticism of Gaza blockadeEdit
As Minister for Foreign Affairs, Martin was critical of the blockade of Gaza, particularly after being denied access to the area in 2009. He wrote to Spain (as President of the EU), to suggest that the body send a team of foreign ministers to the area in 2010. He made his first visit there himself on 25 February 2010, on a one-day humanitarian mission through the Egyptian border. In doing so, Martin became the first Western foreign minister to visit Gaza, since Hamas took control in 2007. While in Gaza, the Minister toured hospitals and schools. He was accompanied by United Nations vehicles.
|“||I would appeal to the Israeli government and all concerned to lift this blockade. Micheál Martin appeals to Israel while in Gaza on 25 February 2010.||”|
Martin was Minister for Foreign Affairs during the Gaza flotilla raid and the aftermath of this incident. He told Dáil Éireann that he had requested that the Israeli government allow the MV Rachel Corrie to deliver its cargo of aid to Gaza instead of involving itself in "further bloodshed".
Leadership of Fianna FáilEdit
In September 2010, doubts about Brian Cowen's abilities and political judgement as Taoiseach and party leader emerged following a disastrous early-morning radio interview on Morning Ireland. Cowen survived, however, that same month Martin admitted that he and other cabinet members, namedly Brian Lenihan and Dermot Ahern, harboured ambitions to lead the party should a vacancy arise. While some backbench rebel Fianna Fáil TD's called for Cowen to go, no cabinet minister publicly came forward to challenge the incumbent. In spite of this, Martin once again expressed an interest in running for the leadership of Fianna Fáil once the vacancy arises in December 2010 on RTÉ's Saturday View radio programme.
On 16 January 2011, Martin announced that he would vote against Brian Cowen in the upcoming confidence motion in his leadership of the party. He offered to resign as Minister for Foreign Affairs, but his resignation was initially refused by Cowen. Following the result of the motion, which Cowen won, the resignation was accepted.
On 22 January 2011, just days after winning a vote of confidence, Brian Cowen announced that he was stepping down as leader of Fianna Fáil, but would remain as Taoiseach. On a special RTÉ News programme that day, a number of Fianna Fáil TDs came on the air and publicly backed Martin for the leadership. Later that evening, Martin formally announced his intention to seek support for the leadership of Fianna Fáil. He was immediately seen as the front-runner; however, a number of other candidates entered the field to ensure a contest. Finance Minister Brian Lenihan was seen as Martin's biggest rival for the position, however, his position was weakened due to his public declaration of support for Cowen the previous week. Éamon Ó Cuív and Mary Hanafin, while both having different support bases within the party, were both seen as outsiders.
On 26 January 2011, the Fianna Fáil parliamentary party met to elect their new leader. Martin was proposed by Dara Calleary and seconded by Áine Brady and received 33 first preference votes. It was more than double that of his nearest rival Ó Cuív, however, he was still short of winning the election. After Hanafin and Lenihan had been eliminated from the contest and their surplus votes distributed, Martin emerged with 50 votes and was duly elected the eighth leader of Fianna Fáil. After election he pledged to reinvigorate Fianna Fáil from its traditional centre ground roots, believing that Fianna Fáil has never delivered to the Irish people through the labels of left and right.
Martin led the party into the 2011 general election, which saw Fianna Fáil swept from power in the worst defeat of a sitting government in the history of the Irish state. The party saw its first-preference vote more than halved. Without significant transfers, the count quickly turned into a rout. Ultimately, Fianna Fáil lost 57 seats, representing a decline of 75%–the worst electoral performance in its 85-year history. The party was knocked down to only 20 seats for third place–the first time in 79 years that it was not the largest party in the Dáil.
While Martin and other Fianna Fáil leaders concluded early on that they would not be re-elected to another term in government, they were surprised by the severity of the defeat; they had hoped to hold onto at least 30 seats. In the wake of what has been described as "defeat on a historic scale", Martin pledged to renew the party "at every level".
During the Seanad elections, Martin recommended support for 10 candidates, in an attempt to bring new blood into the parliamentary party. This caused resentment from Fianna Fáil Councillors and incumbent Fianna Fáil Senators. Only five of the recommended ten were elected, although the party performed better than expected winning fourteen seats.
In August 2011, Martin approached Gay Byrne as a possible nominee for the presidential election, but this approach caused controversy within his party, who favoured an internal candidate, Brian Crowley, which was exacerbated on the declining of the nomination by Byrne and the withdrawal from the process by Crowley. In an opinion poll in September 2011, Fianna Fáil's popularity fell to 10%, several points lower than its performance in the February 2011 election.
At the 2016 general election, Martin led Fianna Fáil to a modest recovery, with a representation of 44 seats in the 158-member parliament. In 2016, he was nominated for Taoiseach, but no nominees received enough votes.
Martin is also the party Spokesperson on Northern Ireland.
In January 2018, Martin stated that he would support a relaxation of Ireland's abortion stance, citing “cruel inflexibility and unintended consequences”. Specifically, he said "he would vote in favour of repealing the Eighth Amendment and to allow abortion on request until near the end of the first trimester," leading to some political conflict within Fianna Fail. 31 of the party's TDs and Senators posed for a photograph showing their opposition to repealing the eighth amendment, with over half of the parliamentary party supporting a No vote.
In October 2018, there was confusion within the party when Sorcha McAnespy said that Martin had told her she was the next Fianna Fail candidate in north elections, which the party then did not support.
In November 2018, Varadkar and Martin arguing over carbon tax increases led to The Dail almost being adjourned for the day. Martin was given the decision in December 2018 on whether to enter into talks to renegotiate the confidence-and-supply deal. In December 2018, Martin ruled out a 2019 general election, agreeing to a one-year extension between his party and Fine Gael in Ireland's "national interest."
Martin is married to Mary O'Shea, whom he met at university, and together the couple have had five children. In October 2010, Martin's youngest daughter, Léana, died in Great Ormond Street Hospital after suffering from a heart condition. Eleven years earlier a son, Ruairí, died in infancy.
- Micheál Martin, Freedom to Choose: Cork & Party Politics in Ireland 1918–1932 (The Collins Press, Cork, 2009).
- Martin spells his first name Micheál, that is without an acute accent, or síneadh fada over the i. See Martin's official website Micheál Martin TD. The Irish language version of the name Michael is usually spelt Mícheál.
- "Micheál Martin". Oireachtas Members Database. Retrieved 8 June 2008.
- "Irish politics needs to wake up to the consequences of a no-deal Brexit": The Irish Times, published 6/29/20
- ISBN 184889001X
- "Micheál Martin". ElectionsIreland.org. Retrieved 2 October 2009.
- "Record £160m funding for third-level institutions". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. Raidió Teilifís Éireann. 27 July 1999. Retrieved 1 March 2010.
- "The HSE – Angola all over again". The Sunday Business Post. 11 November 2007. Archived from the original on 12 August 2007.
- "Martin to introduce smoking ban 2004". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. Raidió Teilifís Éireann. 30 January 2003. Retrieved 1 March 2010.
- "Martin to assess NY smoking ban". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. Raidió Teilifís Éireann. 14 September 2003. Retrieved 1 March 2010.
- "Ban on smoking in the workplace in Ireland". Citizens Information Ireland. Retrieved 2 October 2009.
- "Ireland's Smoking Ban Declared a Success". Fox News Channel. 30 March 2004.
- "Martin to receive award for smoking ban". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. Raidió Teilifís Éireann. 4 September 2004. Retrieved 1 March 2010.
- "Pharmacy deregulation begins". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. Raidió Teilifís Éireann. 31 January 2002. Retrieved 1 March 2010.
- "Martin promises Symphysiotomy review". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. Raidió Teilifís Éireann. 1 October 2003. Retrieved 1 March 2010.
- "Grocery prices to drop from today after order's abolition". Irish Independent. 20 March 2006.
- "Ireland: Death threats to clinics, gov't". USA Today. 10 March 2008. Retrieved 26 February 2010.
- "Cowen front-runner to succeed Ahern". RTÉ News. 3 April 2008.
- "Cowen disaster: little authority and no leadership". Irish Independent. 15 June 2008.
- "Martin begins Latin America visit". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. Raidió Teilifís Éireann. 16 February 2009. Retrieved 1 March 2010.
- "Martin travelling to Sudan for Commins talks". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. Raidió Teilifís Éireann. 5 September 2009. Retrieved 1 March 2010.
- "Martin defends €4.4m embassy spending". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. Raidió Teilifís Éireann. 7 February 2010. Retrieved 1 March 2010.
- Luke Baker (22 February 2010). "Martin to quiz Israeli minister on passports". Irish Independent. Retrieved 22 February 2010.
- Ralph Riegel, Conor Kane and Fionnan Sheahan (27 February 2010). "Ministers may be shuffled out of the St Patrick's Day parade". Irish Independent. Retrieved 27 February 2010.
- "Taoiseach confirms St Patrick's Day trips". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. Raidió Teilifís Éireann. 5 March 2010. Retrieved 5 March 2010.
- "Micheál Martin discusses relations with China". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. Raidió Teilifís Éireann. 26 May 2010. Retrieved 26 May 2010.
- "Martin calls for Chinese on Leaving Cert". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. Raidió Teilifís Éireann. 27 May 2010. Retrieved 27 May 2010.
- "Micheál Martin visits Uganda, Ethiopia". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. Raidió Teilifís Éireann. 28 June 2010. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
- "Martin critical of Gaza 'open prison'". RTÉ News. 21 December 2009. Retrieved 21 December 2009.
- "Martin to visit UN projects in Gaza". RTÉ News. 25 February 2010. Retrieved 25 February 2010.
- "Irish foreign minister makes ground-breaking Gaza visit". ArabNews. 25 February 2010. Archived from the original on 27 February 2010. Retrieved 25 February 2010.
- "Irish delegation examines Gaza misery". Press TV. 25 February 2010. Retrieved 25 February 2010.
- Colm Kelpie (26 February 2010). "Martin urges Israel to lift Gaza blockade". Irish Independent. Retrieved 26 February 2010.
- "Irish FM urges EU to pressure Israel to end Gaza blockade". Ha'aretz. 5 March 2010. Retrieved 5 March 2010.
- "Martin hits out at 'inhumane' Gaza blockade". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. Raidió Teilifís Éireann. 5 March 2010. Retrieved 5 March 2010.
- Dougherty, Jill (3 June 2010). "Ireland asks Israel for safe passage of another ship with aid for Gaza". CNN. Retrieved 3 June 2010.
- "Martin admits leadership ambition". Irish Examiner. 22 September 2010. Retrieved 29 January 2011.
- "Martin 'interested' in FF role". The Irish Times. 4 December 2010. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
- "Martin calls for Fianna Fáil to change leader". RTÉ News. 16 January 2011. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
- "Martin to vote against Cowen". The Irish Times. 16 January 2011. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
- "Four candidates to replace Cowen as FF leader". RTÉ News. 24 January 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2011.
- "Micheál Martin elected as eighth leader of Fianna Fáil". The Irish Times. 26 January 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2011.
- "Micheal Martin elected new leader of Fianna Fáil". Irish Independent. 26 January 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2011.
- "Micheál Martin elected as eighth leader of Fianna Fáil – The Irish Times – Wed, 26 January 2011". The Irish Times. 1 January 2011. Retrieved 18 September 2011.
- Ferriter, Diarmaid (1 March 2011). "Recapturing relevance a huge challenge for FF". The Irish Times. Retrieved 18 September 2011.
- O'Regan, Michael; Walsh, Jimmy (28 April 2011). "Martin's choices a cause of 'resentment'". The Irish Times. Retrieved 18 September 2011.
- Collins, Stephen (29 April 2011). "Fianna Fáil on course to beat Seanad election expectations". The Irish Times. Retrieved 18 September 2011.
- Rustic retreats (18 November 2010). "Another fateful blow dealt to the Soldiers of Destiny". The Irish Independent. Retrieved 18 September 2011.
- Dublin v Kerry (18 November 2010). "FF slumps to 10pc in poll". The Irish Independent. Retrieved 18 September 2011.
- "Fianna Fáil ‘a bit to the left’, says Micheál Martin": The Irish Times, Fiach Kelly, published 1/6/2016
- "Irish election: Rivals Fine Gael and Fianna Fáil to discuss forming new government": BBC, published 3/2/20
- "Irish election: Dáil fails to elect new taoiseach": BBC, published 3/10/2016
- Wheaton, Sarah (18 January 2018). "Irish opposition leader swings behind legalizing abortion". Politico. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
Ireland’s opposition leader catalyzed the country’s abortion debate Thursday by saying he would defy the majority of his party to repeal a ban on terminating pregnancies.Italic or bold markup not allowed in:
- "Fianna Fáil's Martin supports repeal of abortion law". BBC News. 19 January 2018.
The Republic of Ireland's main opposition leader has changed his mind on the country's abortion law due to the "real damage" it causes to women. "Abortion is a permanent and present reality" in Ireland, Fianna Fáil's Micheál Martin told RTÉ' radio.
- "‘Brave’ or ‘a betrayal’? Fianna Fáil members split on Martin’s abortion stance": The Irish Times, Ciara Kenn7, published 1/19/2018
- "FF's deputy leader says it was 'premature' for McAnespy to be told she would be a candidate in NI elections": The Journal, published 10/26/2018
- "Dáil in chaos as Varadkar and Martin argue 'like children' in carbon tax increase 'racket'": The Independent, Kevin Doyle and John Downing, published 11/21/2018
- "Micheál Martin expected to offer Taoiseach another year": The Irish Times, , published 12/5/2018
- "Citing Brexit, Micheal Martin rules out 2019 general election": The Irish World, published 12/12/2018
- "Micheal Martin's daughter passes away". TheJournal.ie. 23 September 2010. Retrieved 19 January 2011.
- "Martin family heartbroken at death of daughter". Irish Independent. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Micheál Martin.|
- Official website
- Micheál Martin's page on the Fianna Fáil website
- Profile of Martin's tenure as Minister for Health
| Lord Mayor of Cork
| Teachta Dála for Cork South-Central
| Minister for Education and Science
| Minister for Health and Children
| Minister for Enterprise, Trade and Employment
| Minister for Foreign Affairs
| Leader of the Opposition
|Party political offices|
| Leader of Fianna Fáil