Social conservatism

  (Redirected from Social conservative)

Social conservatism is a political right-wing ideology which places emphasis on traditional power structures over social pluralism, and seeks to "reverse or stem the direction of change".[1] Social conservatism in North America rose in the late 1900s as a reaction to the economic insecurity of lower-class Protestant Americans, McCarthyism and other anti-immigration ideologies, and the organisation and politicisation of social issues.[1][2][3]

Sociologist Harry F. Dahms suggests that social conservatism relates to a "commitment" to traditional values concerned with family structures, sexual relations, patriotism, gun ownership and military invasions, describing Christian doctrinal conservatives (anti-abortion, anti-gay marriage) and gun-use conservatives (pro-NRA) as the two domains of ideology within.[4] Social conservatives also value the rights of religious institutions to participate in the public sphere, thus supporting government-religious endorsement and opposing secular government.[5][6]

Social conservatism and other ideological viewsEdit

Some social conservatives such as George W. Bush[7] and Michael Gerson[8] are otherwise apolitical, centrist or liberal on economic and fiscal issues. Social conservatives may sometimes support economic intervention where the intervention serves moral or cultural aims. Historian Jon Wiener has described social conservatism as historically the result of an appeal from "elitist preservationists" to lower-class workers to 'protect' wealth from immigration.[1] Many social conservatives support a balance between protectionism and a free market. This concern for material welfare, like advocacy of traditional mores, will often have a basis in religion. Examples include the Christian Social Union of Bavaria, the Family First Party and Katter's Australian Party, and the communitarian movement in the United States.

There is more overlap between social conservatism and paleoconservatism, in that they both have respect for traditional social forms.[9][self-published source]

Social conservatism is not to be confused with economically interventionist conservatism, where conservative ideas are combined with Keynesian economics and a welfare state, which is practised by some European conservatives, e.g. one-nation conservatives in Britain or Gaullists in France.

Social conservatism per countryEdit

CanadaEdit

In Canada, social conservatism, though widespread, is not as prominent in the public sphere as in the United States. It is prevalent in all areas of the country but is seen as being more prominent in rural areas. It is also a significant influence on the ideological and political culture of the western provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia.[citation needed]

Compared to social conservatism in the United States, social conservatism has not been as influential in Canada. The main reason is that the neoliberal or neoconservative style of politics as promoted by leaders such as former Liberal Party of Canada Prime Minister Paul Martin and Former Conservative Party of Canada Prime Minister Stephen Harper have focused on economic conservatism, with little or no emphasis on moral or social conservatism.[10] Without a specific, large political party behind them, social conservatives have divided their votes and can be found in all political parties.[11]

Social conservatives often felt that they were being sidelined by officials in the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada and its leadership of so-called "Red Tories" for the last half of the twentieth century and therefore many eventually made their political home with parties such as the Social Credit Party of Canada and the Reform Party of Canada. Despite the Reform Party being dominated by social conservatives, leader Preston Manning, seeking greater national support for the party, was reluctant for the party to wholly embrace socially conservative values. This led to his deposition as leader of the party (now called Canadian Alliance) in favor of social conservative Stockwell Day.[12] The party's successor, the Conservative Party of Canada, despite having a number of socially conservative members and cabinet ministers, has chosen so far not to focus on socially conservative issues in its platform. This was most recently exemplified on two occasions in 2012 when the current Conservative Party of Canada declared they had no intention to repeal same-sex marriage or abortion laws.[13]

Islamic worldEdit

Most Muslim countries are somewhat more socially conservative (such as Sudan, Malaysia and Gambia) than neighbouring countries that are not Muslim. However, due to their interpretation of Islamic law also known as Shariah, they differ from social conservatism as understood in Western nations.[citation needed]

Arab worldEdit

The Arab world has recently been more conservative in social and moral issues due to the rising influence of Western liberalism.[citation needed]

IndiaEdit

Hindu social conservatismEdit

Hindu social conservatism in India in the twenty first century has developed into an influential movement. Represented in the political arena by the right-leaning Bharatiya Janata Party. Hindu social conservatism, also known as the Hindutva movement, is spearheaded by the voluntary non-governmental organisation Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh. The core philosophy of this ideology is nativism and sees Hinduism as a national identity rather than a religious one. Due to an inclination towards nativism, much of its platform is based on the belief that Islamic and Christian denominations in India are the result of occupations, and therefore these groups should not receive concessions from the state.[14]

In terms of political positions, Hindu social conservatives in India seek to institutionalise a Uniform Civil Code (which is also a directive under Article 44 of the Constitution of India) for members of all religions,[15] over the current scheme of different personal laws for different religions. For instance, polygamy is legal for Muslims in India but not Hindus.

Muslim social conservatismEdit

There are several socially conservative Muslim organisations in India, ranging from groups such as the Indian Union Muslim League which aim to promote the preservation of Indian Muslim culture as a part of the nation's identity and history.[citation needed]

South AfricaEdit

Social conservatism had an important place in Apartheid South Africa ruled by the National Party. Pornography,[16] gambling[17] and other activities that were deemed undesirable were severely restricted. The majority of businesses were forbidden from doing business on Sunday.[18]

Despite the legalisation of same-sex marriage and polygamy, in modern-day South Africa, the population remains heteronormative on issues such as homosexuality with 80% of the population against homosexuality.[19]

United StatesEdit

Social conservatism in the United States is a right-wing political ideology that opposes social progressivism. It is centered on the preservation of what adherents often call 'traditional' or 'family values', though the accepted aims of the movement often vary amongst the organisations it comprises, making it hard to generalise about ideological preferences. There are, however, a number of general principles to which at least a majority of social conservatives adhere, such as opposition to abortion and opposition to same-sex marriage.

The Republican Party is the largest political party with socially conservative ideals incorporated into its platform. Other socially conservative parties include the Constitution Party and the Prohibition Party.

Social conservatives are strongest in the South, where they are a mainstream political force with aspirations to translate those ideals using the party platform nationally. In recent decades, the supporters of social conservatism played a major role in the political coalitions of Ronald Reagan and George W. Bush.[20]

List of social conservative political partiesEdit

ArmeniaEdit

AustraliaEdit

AustriaEdit

BelgiumEdit

Bosnia and HerzegovinaEdit

BrazilEdit

Czech RepublicEdit

DenmarkEdit

EstoniaEdit

Faroe IslandsEdit

FinlandEdit

FranceEdit

GermanyEdit

GeorgiaEdit

GreeceEdit

HungaryEdit

IndiaEdit

IrelandEdit

IsraelEdit

ItalyEdit

JapanEdit

LatviaEdit

LiechtensteinEdit

LithuaniaEdit

LuxembourgEdit

MalaysiaEdit

MexicoEdit

MoldovaEdit

NetherlandsEdit

New ZealandEdit

NigeriaEdit

NorwayEdit

PolandEdit

RomaniaEdit

RussiaEdit

SlovakiaEdit

SloveniaEdit

SpainEdit

SerbiaEdit

South AfricaEdit

South KoreaEdit

SwedenEdit

SwitzerlandEdit

TurkeyEdit

United KingdomEdit

Northern Ireland onlyEdit

United StatesEdit

Social conservative factions of political partiesEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Wiener, Jonathan (Spring 1973). "Review: The Politics of Unreason: Right-Wing Extremism in America, 1790-1970". The Journal of Interdisciplinary History. MIT Press. 3 (4): 791–793. doi:10.2307/202704. JSTOR 202704 – via JSTOR.
  2. ^ Riley, Jim. "Liberalism & Conservatism". academic.regis.edu.
  3. ^ Farney, James Harold (2012). Social Conservatives and Party Politics in Canada and the United States. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 9781442612600.
  4. ^ Smith, Robert B. (2014). Harry F. Dahms (ed.). Social Conservatism, Distractors, and Authoritarianism: Axiological versus instrumental rationality. Mediations of Social Life in the 21st Century. Emerald Group Publishing. p. 101. ISBN 9781784412227.
  5. ^ Dean, John W. (11 July 2006). Conservatives Without Conscience. Penguin Publishing Group. p. 77. ISBN 9781101201374.
  6. ^ Wald, Kenneth D.; Calhoun-Brown, Allison (2007). Religion and Politics in the United States. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 240. ISBN 9780742540415.
  7. ^ Veronique de Rugy and Tad DeHaven (31 July 2003). ""Conservative" Bush Spends More than "Liberal" Presidents Clinton, Carter". Cato.org. Retrieved 30 March 2011.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  8. ^ "Michael Gerson - Compassionate to the End". Washington Post. 30 January 2008. Retrieved 30 March 2011.
  9. ^ Rowland, Howard S. (2010). Things to Think About. Xlibris Corporation. p. 171. ISBN 9781453571286.[self-published source]
  10. ^ John Middlemist Herrick and Paul H. Stuart, eds. Encyclopedia of social welfare history in North America (2005) p. 143
  11. ^ David M. Haskell, Through a lens darkly: how the news media perceive and portray evangelicals (2009) p 57
  12. ^ Murray Dobbin, Preston Manning and the Reform Party (1991)
  13. ^ "Same-sex marriages declared legal and valid by federal justice minister Rob Nicholson". National Post. 13 January 2012.
  14. ^ M S Golwalkar (1966), Bunch of thoughts, Publishers: Sahitya Sindhu Prakashana
  15. ^ Press Trust of India (2 August 2003). "Muslim leaders oppose uniform civil code". Express India. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
  16. ^ JCW Van Rooyen, Censorship in South Africa (Cape Town: Juta and Co., 1987),
  17. ^ Bet and board in the new South Africa. (legalisation of gambling could lead to growth of casinos, lotteries)(Brief Article)The Economist (US) | 5 August 1995
  18. ^ Apartheid mythology and symbolism. desegregated and re-invented in the service of nation building in the new South Africa: the covenant and the battle of Blood/Ncome River
  19. ^ Dale T. McKinley. "South Africa's Social Conservatism: A Real and Present Danger". SACSIS.org.za.
  20. ^ Darren Dochuk, From Bible Belt to Sun Belt: Plain-Folk Religion, Grassroots Politics, and the Rise of Evangelical Conservatism (W.W. Norton & Company; 2010) shows how migrants to Southern California from Oklahoma, Texas, and Arkansas provided evangelical support for social conservatism.
  21. ^ "Depuis 2011, le FN est devenu "protectionniste au sens large"". Libération.fr. 21 April 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
  22. ^ DAN BILEFSKY (13 April 2010). "Hungarian Winner Vows Battle Against the Far Right". Retrieved 12 October 2011.
  23. ^ Jörg Flecker (2007). Changing working life and the appeal of the extreme right. ISBN 978-0-7546-4915-1.
  24. ^ Il programma del Popolo della Famiglia di Mario Adinolfi (intelligonews)
  25. ^ Programma (Italia Cristiana)
  26. ^ Parties and Elections in Europe. Parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved on 24 August 2013.
  27. ^ Piero Ignazi (2008). Partiti politici in Italia. Il Mulino, Bologna. p. 58.
  28. ^ "La famiglia è una sola: quella naturale - Lega - Salvini Premier". www.leganord.org.
  29. ^ La Lega:"No a matrimonio e adozioni gay"
  30. ^ "IN EUROPA A TESTA ALTA".
  31. ^ Giuseppe Vatinno (20 February 2017). "Gianni Alemanno parla del Movimento Nazionale per la Sovranità". Affaritaliani. Retrieved 16 July 2017.
  32. ^ "Nello Musumeci, "il missino" che ha riunito la destra - Il Tempo". 8 November 2017. Archived from the original on 8 November 2017.
  33. ^ Inada, Miho; Dvorak, Phred. "Same-Sex Marriage in Japan: A Long Way Away?" Archived 16 June 2016 at the Wayback Machine. The Wall Street Journal. 20 September 2013. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
  34. ^ "Arriola reitera rechazo a adopción homoparental pese a críticas". Forbes (in Spanish).
  35. ^ "The politics of homophobia in South Korea". East Asia Forum. 4 July 2016.
  36. ^ "the Democrats engulfed in 'LGBT aversion'". Seoul Shinmun (in Korean). 19 March 2020.
  37. ^ "Gay Marriage Bill In Northern Ireland Blocked Again By Socially Conservative Democratic Unionist Party". Huffingtonpost.co.uk. 27 April 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2019.

BibliographyEdit

  • Heywood, Andrew (2017). Political Ideologies: An Introduction. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-137-60604-4.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)

Further readingEdit