Open main menu

Wikipedia β

Malcolm Turnbull

Malcolm Bligh Turnbull (born 24 October 1954) is an Australian politician who is the 29th and current Prime Minister of Australia, in office since September 2015. He first served as Leader of the Liberal Party and as Opposition Leader from 2008 to 2009, and again became party leader (and thus prime minister) after defeating Tony Abbott at the 2015 leadership spill. The Turnbull Government was re-elected at the 2016 federal election, but with only a one-seat majority. Turnbull attended Sydney Grammar School before going to the University of Sydney, where he graduated with Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Laws degrees. He then attended Brasenose College, Oxford as a Rhodes Scholar, taking the degree of Bachelor of Civil Law. For over two decades prior to entering politics, Turnbull worked in personal and managerial positions as a journalist, lawyer, merchant banker, and venture capitalist. A multi-millionaire, he purchased a stake of internet service provider Ozemail in 1994 for $500,000 and sold his stake just months before the dot com bubble burst in 1999 for $57 million, paving the way to his current estimated net worth of above $200 million with entries in the BRW Rich 200 list. Turnbull became a public figure as chairman of the Australian Republican Movement from 1993 to 2000. He was one of the leaders of the unsuccessful "Yes" campaign in the 1999 republic referendum.

The Honourable
Malcolm Turnbull
MP
Malcolm Turnbull APEC 2016.jpg
29th Prime Minister of Australia
Elections: 2016
Assumed office
15 September 2015
Monarch Elizabeth II
Governor-General Sir Peter Cosgrove
Deputy Warren Truss
Barnaby Joyce
Preceded by Tony Abbott
12th Leader of the Liberal Party
Assumed office
14 September 2015
Deputy Julie Bishop
Preceded by Tony Abbott
In office
16 September 2008 – 1 December 2009
Deputy Julie Bishop
Preceded by Brendan Nelson
Succeeded by Tony Abbott
Minister for Communications
In office
18 September 2013 – 14 September 2015
Prime Minister Tony Abbott
Preceded by Anthony Albanese
Succeeded by Mitch Fifield
Leader of the Opposition
In office
16 September 2008 – 1 December 2009
Prime Minister Kevin Rudd
Deputy Julie Bishop
Preceded by Brendan Nelson
Succeeded by Tony Abbott
Minister for the Environment and Water
In office
30 January 2007 – 3 December 2007
Prime Minister John Howard
Preceded by Ian Campbell
Succeeded by Peter Garrett
Member of the Australian Parliament
for Wentworth
Assumed office
9 October 2004
Preceded by Peter King
Chairman of the Australian Republican Movement
In office
1 April 1993 – 26 January 2000
Deputy Michael Keating
Preceded by Thomas Keneally
Succeeded by Michael Keating
Chairman of the Republic Advisory Committee
In office
13 March 1993 – 6 November 1999
Appointed by Paul Keating
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by Nick Greiner
Personal details
Born Malcolm Bligh Turnbull
(1954-10-24) 24 October 1954 (age 62)
Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Political party Liberal
Other political
affiliations
Coalition
Spouse(s) Lucy Hughes (m. 1980)
Children 2
Parents Bruce Turnbull
Coral Lansbury
Residence The Lodge
Education Vaucluse Public School
St Ives Preparatory School
Sydney Grammar School
Alma mater University of Sydney
Brasenose College, Oxford
Occupation Investment banker
(Goldman Sachs; Whitlam Turnbull & Co Ltd)
General counsel
(Australian Consolidated Press)
Profession Barrister
Businessman
Politician
Website Official website

Turnbull unsuccessfully contested Liberal preselection for the Division of Wentworth (in New South Wales) at a 1981 by-election and the 2001 federal election. He was finally successful in the lead-up to the 2004 federal election, and was subsequently elected to the House of Representatives. Elevated to the Howard Cabinet in January 2007, he briefly served as Minister for the Environment and Water until the defeat of the Liberal government at the 2007 election. Turnbull declared himself a candidate in the subsequent leadership election, but lost to Brendan Nelson by three votes. Following a period of poor opinion polling, Turnbull challenged and defeated Nelson by four votes in September 2008, thus becoming Leader of the Opposition.

Because of his views on issues like climate change, republicanism, same-sex marriage and abortion, Turnbull is considered part of the moderate wing of the Liberal Party. His support of the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme proposed by the Rudd Government in late 2009 caused a split with the conservative wing, and Tony Abbott subsequently challenged and defeated him him for the leadership by a single vote. Initially intending to leave politics, Turnbull remained in parliament and became Minister for Communications in the Abbott Government following the Coalition victory at the 2013 federal election. On 14 September 2015, citing consistently poor opinion polling for the government, Turnbull resigned from cabinet and challenged Abbott to a leadership ballot, which he won by ten votes. He was sworn in as prime minister the following day and formed the Turnbull Government.

Opinion polling indicated that Turnbull enjoyed a "honeymoon period" of several months after becoming prime minister, but from around April 2016 both his personal satisfaction ratings and the Coalition's two-party polling lead had evaporated. At the July 2016 federal election, the Turnbull Government retained majority government by just a single seat, the smallest majority since the 1961 election.[1] In the days of uncertainty following the election, Turnbull had negotiated with the crossbench and secured confidence and supply support from Bob Katter, Andrew Wilkie and Cathy McGowan in the event of a hung parliament and potential need for minority government.[2]

Contents

Early life and educationEdit

Malcolm Turnbull was born in Sydney on 24 October 1954 to Bruce Bligh Turnbull and Coral Magnolia Lansbury. Turnbull's maternal grandmother, May Lansbury (née Morle), was born in England.[3][4] Turnbull's father was a hotel broker. Turnbull's mother was a radio actor, a writer, an academic, and a second cousin[5] of the British film and television actress, Angela Lansbury.[3][6] Turnbull suffered asthma as a young child.[7] Turnbull's parents separated when he was nine, with Turnbull's mother leaving first for New Zealand, and then the United States.[8] Turnbull was then raised by his father.[9][10][11][12]

Turnbull is of direct paternal Scottish descent; his great-great-great grandfather John Turnbull (1751–1834) arrived on the Coromandel in 1802 in New South Wales and became a tailor. In an interview in 2015, Turnbull said that his middle name "Bligh" is a tradition for generations, named after Governor Bligh who was much admired.[13] During his childhood, he practised Presbyterianism; he converted to Roman Catholicism upon marriage.[14]

Turnbull spent his first three years of school at Vaucluse Public School. He then attended the St Ives preparatory school at Sydney Grammar School as a boarder. In senior school he was a boarder at the former Randwick campus[8] of the school while attending classes at the main College Street campus[15][16] on a partial scholarship.[8][16][17] He was senior school co-captain in 1972, as well as winning the Lawrence Campbell Oratory Competition,[7] excelling particularly in the literary subjects such as English and history.[8][18] However, contrary to certain sources,[17] Turnbull was not the dux of his graduating year at Sydney Grammar.[19] In 1987, in memory of his late father, he set up the Bruce Turnbull means-tested scholarship at Sydney Grammar, which offers full remission of fees to a student unable to afford them.[16]

In 1973, Turnbull attended the University of Sydney and graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree (majoring in political science)[20][21] in 1977 and a Bachelor of Laws degree in 1978.[22][23] During his studies, he was involved in student politics, serving as board director of the University of Sydney Union.[24][25] He also worked as a political journalist for Nation Review, Radio 2SM and Channel 9 covering state politics.[26]

In 1978, Turnbull won a Rhodes Scholarship[27] and attended Brasenose College, Oxford, where he studied for a Bachelor of Civil Law degree from 1978 to 1980, graduating with honours. While at Oxford, he worked for The Sunday Times and contributed to newspapers and magazines in the United States and Australia.[28] While at Oxford, a university don wrote of Turnbull that he was "always going to enter life's rooms without knocking".[29]

Professional careerEdit

After graduating from Oxford, Turnbull returned to Australia and began working as a barrister. He left the bar in 1983. Firstly he attempted preselection in the safe Liberal seat of Mosman. However, he lost to Phillip Smiles. Then he chose to become general counsel and secretary for Australian Consolidated Press Holdings Group, from 1983 to 1985.

During this time he defended Kerry Packer against the "Goanna" allegations made by the Costigan Commission. Turnbull attempted to use the press to goad the counsel assisting the commission, Douglas Meagher QC, into suing him and Packer for the withering public attack both undertook to sully Meagher's and Costigan's names. Turnbull accused Meagher and Costigan of being "unjust, capricious, dishonest and malicious". Turnbull led Packer to sue Meagher for defamation, an action that was struck down by Justice David Hunt as being an abuse of process, and that Turnbull had managed "to poison the fountain of justice". The "Scorched Earth" tactic made Turnbull enemies in the NSW Bar Association, something that led to Turnbull leaving the Bar Association.[30]

In partnership with Bruce McWilliam, he established his own law firm, Turnbull McWilliam. During 1986, Turnbull defended Peter Wright, a former MI5 official who wrote the book Spycatcher, and successfully stopped the British government's attempts to suppress the book's publication in Australia. Turnbull later wrote a book on the trial.[31]

"The fact of the matter is that nothing is achieved in this world, particularly politically, other than with persistence, and persistence involves repetition and it involves argument and re-argument... The public interest in free speech is not just in truthful speech, in correct speech, in fair speech... The interest is in the debate. You see, every person who has ultimately changed the course of history has started off being unpopular." Turnbull's closing submissions, 18 December 1986[32]

In 1987, Turnbull established an investment banking firm, Whitlam Turnbull & Co Ltd, in partnership with Neville Wran (a former Labor Premier of New South Wales) and the former State Bank of New South Wales chief executive, Nicholas Whitlam (son of Gough Whitlam, a former Labor prime minister). Whitlam parted company with the others in 1990 and the firm operated as Turnbull & Partners Ltd from then until 1997, when Turnbull moved to become a managing director and later a partner of Goldman Sachs.

Turnbull was a director of FTR Holdings Ltd (1995–2004), chair and managing director of Goldman Sachs Australia (1997–2001) and a partner with Goldman Sachs and Co (1998–2001).

Turnbull was a director of Star Technology Systems (1993–1995), which attempted, but failed, to mine gold at Sukhoi Log mine.[33]

In the 1990s, Turnbull was chairman of Axiom Forest Resources, which conducted logging in the Solomon Islands under the trading name Silvania Forest Products. The latter's work was described by the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau as a "clear-felling operation", and the then Solomon Islands Prime Minister Solomon Mamaloni reportedly threatened to close it down for "constant breaches of logging practices", according to a critical article in the Solomon Times.[34][35]

Turnbull purchased a stake of internet service provider Ozemail in 1994 for $500,000 and sold his stake just months before the dot com bubble burst in 1999 for $57 million to then-telecommunications giant MCI Worldcom.[36] In the same year he used his software and investment company FTR Holdings Ltd to take positions in a number of Internet businesses including WebCentral and Chaos.com.[37]

In May 2002, Turnbull appeared before the HIH Insurance royal commission and was questioned on Goldman Sachs's involvement in the possible privatisation of one of the acquisitions of the collapsed insurance company. The Royal Commissioner's report made no adverse findings against him or Goldman Sachs,[38] however, Turnbull was one of nine defendants who settled later litigation over the collapse in undisclosed payments, thought to be worth as much as $500m. [39]

Early political involvementEdit

Turnbull first showed interest in entering the Australian Parliament in 1981. He stood for Liberal Party preselection for the seat of Wentworth in the eastern suburbs of Sydney in the 1981 Wentworth by-election; however he was beaten by Peter Coleman.[9] He attempted preselection in the safe seat of Mosman in 1983, but lost to Phillip Smiles. He let his membership of the Liberal Party lapse in the 1980s, and rejoined in late 2000.[40] Turnbull was Federal Treasurer of the Liberal Party and a member of the party's federal and New South Wales executives from 2002 to 2003, and was also a director of the Menzies Research Centre, the Liberal Party's research centre.

In 1993 he was appointed by Paul Keating as Chairman of the Republic Advisory Committee, charged with exploring ways of moving Australia to an overtly republican form of government by removing the Queen from Australian government.

Australian Republican MovementEdit

From 1993 to 2000, Turnbull was the chairman of the Australian Republican Movement. He was an elected delegate at the Australian Constitutional Convention 1998 in Canberra in February.[41] At the Convention, Turnbull cautioned against mixing the roles of president and prime minister, advocating a parliamentary republic, and supported the bi-partisan appointment republican model adopted by the convention.[42]

Turnbull was active in the unsuccessful 1999 referendum campaign to establish an Australian republic as chairman of the Yes Committee. He published a book on the campaign, called Fighting for the Republic. When the referendum failed, Turnbull accused incumbent Prime Minister and Monarchist John Howard of "breaking the nation's heart".[43]

In 2000 Turnbull retired as chairman of the Australian Republican Movement. Turnbull left the board of Ausflag in 1994 after being asked for his resignation and in 2004 joined the Australian National Flag Association.[44]

Selection of political partyEdit

Turnbull had a long affiliation with the Liberal Party of Australia throughout his career. During his time at the head of the Australian Republican Movement, he had considered running for a seat as a Labor candidate. In 2015, it was revealed that Turnbull had held talks with John Della Bosca during this time on a possible switch and that he had harboured aspirations in his youth to head the Australian Workers' Union, which has a strong connection with Labor.[45] The actuation, made by former Labor Foreign Minister Bob Carr, has since been used by Labor leader Bill Shorten in relation to the Royal Commission into trade union governance and corruption.[46]

Howard GovernmentEdit

First years in parliament (2004–2006)Edit

 
Turnbull in November 2005.

In 2000, Turnbull sought Liberal preselection for Wentworth but did not contest after being convinced that Liberal incumbent Peter King had the numbers in Wentworth's Liberal branches.[21] In 2003, Turnbull announced that he was again seeking Liberal preselection in Wentworth,[47] and in 2004 defeated King.[21] During the bitter pre-selection campaign, King accused Turnbull of branch stacking, by having local members transferring their membership to a branch that would decide the pre-selection, what King referred to as "branch stripping".[48] Following his preselection loss, King stood for the seat at the 2004 election as an independent candidate. As a result, the traditionally Liberal electorate was turned into an electoral wildcard, with the contest for the seat becoming a three-person race between Turnbull, King and Labor candidate David Patch. During the campaign, Turnbull spent over A$600,000 on the campaign.[49] While the Liberal primary vote fell 10.3 percent to 41.8 percent, King received 18 percent of the primary vote with a 57/43 Liberal/Labor preference split which brought Turnbull over the line, but on a reduced 55.5 percent two-party vote after a 2.4 percent swing it made Wentworth a marginal seat on paper for the first time since the 1993 election.[50]

Front Bench (2006–2007)Edit

Announcing his cabinet reshuffle on 24 January 2006, the prime minister, John Howard, promoted Turnbull from the backbench to parliamentary secretary, with special responsibility for water, at the height of the 2000s Australian drought.[51] In this new capacity he reported directly to the prime minister. On 26 September 2006, Howard announced the creation, within the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, of a new Office of Water Resources to address the problem of drought in Australia. Turnbull was given charge of this office until he was elevated by Howard as Minister for the Environment and Water Resources in January 2007.

In his position as Environment Minister, Turnbull approved a proposed A$1.7 billion Bell Bay Pulp Mill in Tasmania's north, near Launceston.[52] Turnbull's approval of the Bell Bay Pulp Mill project of Gunns Ltd came on 4 October 2007 and followed a report by the Government's chief scientist Jim Peacock on the project's potential environmental impact, which requires the project to meet 48 "strict environmental" conditions.

In February 2007, Turnbull was criticised for claiming a government allowance of A$175 a night and paying it to his wife as rent while living in a townhouse owned by her in Canberra.[53]

During the 2007 election campaign, Turnbull announced that the then Government would contribute A$10 million to the investigation of an untried Russian technology that aims to trigger rainfall from the atmosphere, even when there are no clouds. The Australian Rain Corporation presented research documents written in Russian, explained by a Russian researcher who spoke to local experts in Russian.[54] Although Turnbull claimed that Australian Rain Corporation was Australian-based, investigations revealed that it was 75 per cent Swiss-owned. It was also revealed that a prominent stakeholder in the Australian Rain Corporation, Matt Handbury, is a nephew of Rupert Murdoch. Turnbull has refused to answer questions regarding Handbury's contribution to the Wentworth Forum, the main fund-raising organisation for Turnbull's 2007 election campaign.[54]

In 2007, Turnbull promised that his government, if elected, would grant same-sex couples death benefits in Commonwealth superannuation schemes, a promise similar to one made three years earlier, during the 2004 election campaign.[55]

OppositionEdit

2007 election and aftermathEdit

With no electoral competition from former incumbent MP Peter King, as there had been in 2004, Turnbull retained his seat at the 2007 election gaining a two-party vote 1.3 percent swing in Wentworth,[56] despite a 5.6 percent swing away from the coalition in the state, and a 5.4 percent swing nationwide.[57] Prime Minister Howard had lost his own seat of Bennelong, and on 25 November 2007, Liberal deputy leader Peter Costello announced he would not seek the party leadership. Turnbull declared his candidacy later the same day, and was considered a favourite by many.[58] He narrowly lost to Brendan Nelson at the 2007 Liberal leadership ballot on 29 November by three votes. Nelson in turn appointed him Shadow Treasurer.[59]

Shortly afterwards, fellow opposition front bencher Nick Minchin suggested that Turnbull's failure to consult with party colleagues before declaring his opinion to the media on such issues as an apology to the Stolen Generations cost him the leadership.[60] This led to a disagreement between the two and culminated in Minchin privately telling Turnbull that he was "too f***ing sensitive."[61] In May 2008, Turnbull attacked the 2008 Australian federal budget, concerned by increased taxes on luxury cars and certain alcoholic drinks, citing possible increased inflation.[62]

Leader of the Opposition (2008–2009)Edit

 
Turnbull (centre) with deputy leader Julie Bishop (right) and Helen Coonan (left) in July 2009.

Turnbull defeated Brendan Nelson at the 2008 Liberal leadership ballot on 16 September by four votes. The same month, he confessed that he had smoked marijuana in his younger days, becoming the first Liberal leader to make such an admission. He said he now thought it was a very bad idea because the drug could be damaging.[63] In early 2009 Turnbull appointed Chris Kenny, a former Downer staffer and Advertiser journalist, as his chief of staff.[64]

In May 2009, Turnbull attacked the 2009 Australian federal budget, in particular the means testing of the private health insurance rebate.[65] The following month, Godwin Grech, a Treasury official, alleged that a car dealer with links to the Labor Party had received preferential treatment under the OzCar program, sparking the 'OzCar affair'. That day Turnbull stated that Prime Minister Rudd and Treasurer Wayne Swan had "used their offices and taxpayers' resources to seek advantage for one of their mates and then lied about it to the Parliament" and that they needed to explain their actions or resign.[66] On 22 June the e-mail Grech had provided to the Liberal Party to support this allegation was found to have been faked by Grech; later admitted by Grech,[67] and an Australian National Audit Office inquiry on 4 August cleared both Rudd and Swan of any wrongdoing.[68] Turnbull's handling of the OzCar affair led to a large decline in his and the Liberal Party's approval ratings in opinion polls.[69]

On 24 November 2009 a party room meeting was held to discuss the Rudd government's proposed Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme (CPRS). Turnbull instructed the party to support CPRS despite significant disagreement among his colleagues.[70] There was even a suggestion that some Liberal Senators should vote to "guillotine" debate and force an immediate Senate vote on the CPRS bill. (If the Senate rejected the bill, this would have given the government a double dissolution trigger.) In response the next day, MPs Wilson Tuckey and Dennis Jensen made a leadership "spill motion" which if successful Kevin Andrews would have stood to challenge Turnbull for the liberal party leadership.[71] The rebellion continued, though – many front bench Liberals resigned from the shadow cabinet, including Tony Abbott.[72]

Brendan Nelson holds the record for lowest Newspoll "Better Prime Minister" rating of 7 percent (29 February-2 March 2008). Three leaders including Turnbull hold the combined second-lowest rating of 14 percent – Simon Crean (28–30 November 2003), Turnbull (27–29 November 2009) and Bill Shorten (3–6 December 2015).

Turnbull's support for the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme proposed by the Rudd Government split the Turnbull opposition, resulting in Tony Abbott defeating Turnbull at the 2009 Liberal leadership ballot on 1 December by a single vote.[73]

After the leadership vote, Turnbull said he would serve out his full term as member for Wentworth.[74] On 6 April 2010, he announced he would not seek re-election.[75] However, on 1 May 2010 he reversed his decision,[76] stating he had been convinced by the former Liberal Prime Minister, John Howard, to remain in parliament.[43]

Shadow Minister (2010–2013)Edit

At the 2010 federal election, Turnbull was re-elected with an 11.01 percent two-party swing[77] and was subsequently brought back to the front bench as shadow communications minister.[78] At the 2012 Alfred Deakin Lecture on digital liberty[79] he spoke out strongly against the Australian government's proposed two-year data retention law.[80]

In July 2012, Turnbull was criticised for saying that civil unions should be accepted as a first step toward same-sex marriage in Australia. Turnbull supports same-sex marriage and a conscience vote for Coalition MPs on the issue. However, Tony Abbott did not allow a conscience vote on the issue. Turnbull said that countries that have allowed same-sex marriage, such as the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Norway, Canada and the United Kingdom first had civil unions.[81]

Abbott GovernmentEdit

Minister for Communications (2013–2015)Edit

 
Turnbull at the 2014 International Telecommunication Union plenipotentiary conference in South Korea..

On 9 April 2013, Turnbull and Tony Abbott announced their party's alternative National Broadband Network (NBN) plan.[82] The new plan is a modified and scaled-down NBN with "fibre to the node" (FTTN) then last-mile by copper cable.[83] The new policy developed by Turnbull contrasted with the previous Liberal Party position, which had called for the dismantling of the NBN should the Liberal Party win the 2013 federal election. As such, the policy allowed the NBN to continue irrespective of the result of the election, although it did so in a different form from what was previously being built.[83] In 2014, Turnbull announced that the Vertigan Report, a cost-benefit analysis of providing fast broadband to regional and rural Australia through wireless and satellite services, revealed that it will cost nearly A$5 billion and was expected to produce only A$600 million in economic benefits – a return of just 10 per cent. In spite of the economic cost, Turnbull stated that subsidising broadband to regional areas is "fiendishly expensive" but said there was no other option.[84]

Turnbull brokered a deal between the government, NBN Co and Telstra in December 2014 whereby NBN Co acquired Telstra's copper network and hybrid-fibre coaxial (HFC) which shall be used to deliver the NBN. Further, Telstra and NBN Co are to work together on the FTTN trial which involves 200,000 premises.[85] In August 2015, Turnbull revealed that the overall end cost of the network build would likely expand up to an additional $15 billion, with NBN Co likely to take on the additional expenditure as debt. Though still cheaper than the original Labor Party NBN policy, which would have delivered faster connection speeds, the peak funding requirement under the current model is between $46 billion and $56 billion.[86]

February 2015 leadership spill motionEdit

Following persistent leadership tensions, the 2015 Liberal leadership spill motion on 9 February was moved against incumbent Tony Abbott. Although the spill motion was defeated 61 votes to 39, Turnbull had been thought to be considering a leadership run if the spill motion had succeeded, telling reporters before the vote that "if for whatever reason the leadership of a political party is vacant then anyone, any member of the party can stand, whether they be a minister or a backbencher, without any disloyalty to the person whose leadership has been declared vacant."[87][88]

Prime Minister of Australia (2015–present)Edit

September 2015 leadership spill motionEdit

Despite the defeat of the spill motion, questions over Abbott's leadership continued, with the Government consistently performing poorly in opinion polls. On 14 September 2015, after 30 consecutive Newspolls had put the Liberals far behind Labor, Turnbull resigned from the Cabinet and announced he would challenge Abbott for the leadership of the Liberal Party.[89] Turnbull stated that Abbott "was not capable of providing the economic leadership we need" and that the Liberal Party needs a "style of leadership that respects the people's intelligence."[90][91] Turnbull defeated Abbott by 54 votes to 44 at the 2015 Liberal leadership ballot on 14 September.[92][93] He was sworn in as the 29th Prime Minister of Australia the following day.[94][95]

Turnbull announced an extensive reshuffle on 20 September 2015 to form the First Turnbull Ministry. Notably, he increased the number of female Cabinet Ministers from two to five and appointed Marise Payne as Australia's first female Minister for Defence. The number of Cabinet Ministers rose from 19 to 21. On Turnbull's key policy differences with Abbott, particularly climate change, republicanism and same-sex marriage, he stated that there would be no immediate change before any election.[96] The Nationals successfully negotiated a total of $4 billion worth of deals from Turnbull, as well as control of the water portfolio, in exchange for a continued Coalition agreement.[97][98] Turnbull has stated that he would not lead a government that did not take climate change seriously.[99]

2016 electionEdit

 
Turnbull visits Governor-General Sir Peter Cosgrove, to request both houses of Parliament be dissolved and the writs for a double dissolution election be issued.

On 21 March 2016, Turnbull announced that Parliament would consider bills to reinstate the Australian Building and Construction Commission (ABCC) for a third time. Turnbull said that if the Senate again rejected the bill, he would advise the Governor-General to call a double dissolution of Parliament and a federal election for 2 July. Turnbull also brought forward the delivery of the federal budget from 10 May to 3 May to facilitate this.[100] On 18 April, the Senate once again rejected the bills to reinstate the ABCC. On 8 May, Turnbull visited Government House to advise the Governor-General to issue the writs for a double dissolution on 9 May; this confirmed the date of the election as 2 July 2016.[101]

During the 2016 election campaign, a ReachTEL opinion poll of 626 Wentworth voters conducted on 31 May predicted a two-party swing against Turnbull for the first time since his election to Wentworth – revealing a reduced 58 percent two-party vote from a large 10.9 percent two-party swing.[102]

During June 2016, the president of the Australian National Imams Council, Sheikh Shady Alsuleiman participated in an Iftar dinner at Kirribilli House. The Prime Minister said he would not have invited Alsuleiman if he had known of his position regarding homosexuals.[103]

Opinion polling prior to the 2016 federal election indicated a honeymoon period which lasted for several months until the beginning of April, when Turnbull entered net negative satisfaction rating territory and the Coalition's two-party polling lead had evaporated, right through to the knife-edge 2016 election. In the following days of uncertainty, Turnbull negotiated with the crossbench and secured confidence and supply support from Bob Katter, Andrew Wilkie and Cathy McGowan in the event of a hung parliament and resulting minority government.[2]

After close exit polling and electorates reporting through the night, it became obvious that the election was too close to call.[104] However, it became obvious as negotiations between Crossbenchers and power brokers that the Coalition had kept onto their majority. Consequently, it was the closest federal majority result since the 1961 election, with the Liberal/National Coalition retaining majority government by a single seat.[1]

In February 2017, Turnbull confirmed he had donated $1.75 million to the Liberal Party's election campaign.[105]

Asylum seeker policyEdit

 
Turnbull and U.S. President Donald Trump in New York City, May 2017

Asylum seeker policy is a contentious wedge issue in Australian politics, especially since the Tampa affair. Continuing the bipartisan stance of Operation Sovereign Borders has been at the forefront the Coalition's asylum seeker policy. Around 1,250 asylum seekers remain in the offshore processing centres on Manus Island and Nauru. In August 2016 protestors called for the closure of camps on Manus and Nauru[106] after The Guardian released leaked incident reports alleging "routine dysfunction and cruelty" on Nauru.[107]

In July 2016 the Obama administration set up a refugee center in Costa Rica in response to a Central American migration crisis.[108][109] In November, Turnbull and Peter Dutton announced that Australia would accept 1,250 refugees from Central America, in exchange for the U.S. accepting refugees on Nauru and Manus.[110][111][112]

Turnbull and President Donald Trump held a phone conversation on 28 January 2017, the transcript of which later leaked to the Washington Post.[113] On 2 February 2017, Trump tweeted that Obama's deal was "dumb".[114][115] US Vice-President Mike Pence later confirmed that the United States would honour the deal, subject to 'extreme vetting' of asylum seekers.[116] Australia began receiving Central American asylum seekers in July 2017.[117]

Energy policyEdit

 
Malcolm Turnbull with Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, 2015

Since the 2016 election, the Turnbull government has followed prior Coalition government energy policies. This involves the wholesale dismissal of renewable energy targets and emissions intensity schemes. This only hardened when South Australia faced large blackouts which Turnbull had blamed on the state's 'ambitious' renewable energy target.[118] In response to the gas and energy crisis that occurred in March 2017,[119] Malcolm Turnbull announced a 50% increase in the capacity of Snowy Hydro through 'pumped hydro' technology.[120]

In April 2017, Turnbull announced that he would use the Commonwealth government's powers to place export restrictions on the nation's liquified natural gas ("LNG") industry.[121] He announced that these changes were in response to the high wholesale gas prices that were a result of a shortage of gas in the domestic gas market and that it was 'unacceptable' that domestic prices were so high, indicating a consequence of these restrictions would be a decrease in the wholesale gas price. The multinational gas companies and the gas industry association heavily criticised the policy saying that it would neither increase supply or reduce the wholesale price of gas.[122]

Same-sex marriage plebisciteEdit

Prior to Turnbull becoming Prime Minister, the parliamentary Liberal Party voted to resolve the issue of same-sex marriage by putting the question to Australians voters via a plebiscite. Enabling legislation was rejected twice by the Senate, and so the government decided to adopt a postal plebiscite option, which will involve the Australian Bureau of Statistics conducting a nationwide survey asking voters whether they would like to see a change in the definition of marriage. Ballots will begin to be sent out on 12 September 2017, as attempts to prevent the survey through a High Court challenge have failed.

Personal lifeEdit

 
Turnbull and his wife Lucy Turnbull, 2003–04 Sydney Lord Mayor, in January 2012

Turnbull is married to prominent businesswoman and 2003–04 Sydney Lord Mayor Lucy Turnbull AO, née Hughes. They married on 22 March 1980 at Cumnor, Oxfordshire, near Oxford by a Church of England priest while Turnbull was attending the University of Oxford.[123] They live in the eastern suburbs of Sydney.[124]

Turnbull and Lucy have two adult children, Alex and Daisy, and as of July 2016, two grandchildren.[124][125]

The use of Bligh as a male middle name is a tradition in the Turnbull family. It is also Turnbull's son's middle name. One of Turnbull's ancestors was colonist John Turnbull, who named his youngest son William Bligh Turnbull in honour of deposed Governor William Bligh at the time of the Rum Rebellion.[126]

ReligionEdit

Raised Presbyterian, Turnbull converted to Roman Catholicism "by mid-2002"; his wife's family is Roman Catholic.[127][128] However, he has found himself at odds with the church's teaching on abortion, stem cell research and same-sex marriage.[129][130] Turnbull supported legislation relaxing restrictions on abortion pill RU486 and he also voted for the legalisation of somatic cell nuclear transfer.[131][132][133] He did so despite the vocal public opposition to both proposals by Cardinal George Pell, the then-Archbishop of Sydney.[134][135]

Personal wealthEdit

In 2005, the combined net worth of Malcolm and Lucy Turnbull was estimated at A$133 million,[136] making him Australia's richest parliamentarian[137] until the election of billionaire Clive Palmer in the 2013 election.[138][139]

Turnbull made the BRW Rich 200 list for the second year running in 2010, and although he slipped from 182 to 197, his estimated net worth increased to A$186 million, and he continued to be the only sitting politician to make the list.[140] Turnbull was not listed in the 2014 list of the BRW Rich 200.[141] As of 2015, his estimated net worth is in excess of A$200 million.[142]

HonoursEdit

Published worksEdit

Turnbull has written several books on the republican debate, as well as his experiences during the Spycatcher trial. Notable examples of his writings include:

  • Turnbull, Malcolm (1988). The Spycatcher Trial. William Heinemann Australia. ISBN 978-0-85561-239-9. 
  • Turnbull, Malcolm (1993). The Reluctant Republic. William Heinemann Australia. ISBN 978-0-85561-372-3.  - his wife's uncle; and
  • Turnbull, Malcolm (1999). Fighting for the Republic: The Ultimate Insider's Account. Hardie Grant. ISBN 978-1-86498-107-0. 

AncestryEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Party representation - 2016 Tally Room: AEC". 
  2. ^ a b Massola, James (8 July 2016). "'Back within the year': Bill Shorten predicts second election". 
  3. ^ a b "Biography – Coral Magnolia Lansbury – Australian Dictionary of Biography". anu.edu.au. Retrieved 15 September 2015. 
  4. ^ "Will privilege drown his message?". The Sydney Morning Herald. 17 September 2008. 
  5. ^ "Obituary – Coral Magnolia Lansbury – Obituaries Australia". anu.edu.au. 
  6. ^ Fowler, Glenn (4 April 1991). "obituary". New York Times. Retrieved 27 April 2010. 
  7. ^ a b Paddy Manning. "The lonely childhood of Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 14 December 2015. 
  8. ^ a b c d Clune, Richard (1 March 2013). "GQ&A with Malcolm Turnbull". GQ. 
  9. ^ a b Ackland, Richard (17 October 2003). "A sureness that weakens Turnbull's case". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 10 September 2007. 
  10. ^ Lee, Sandra (3 December 2006). "A leader in waiting?". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 11 September 2007. 
  11. ^ "Turnbull battles for Wentworth". The 7.30 Report. ABC TV. 8 November 2006. Retrieved 9 November 2007. 
  12. ^ "Born to Rule: The unauthorised biography of Malcolm Turnbull by Paddy Manning – Books – Random House Books Australia". Random House Australia. Retrieved 25 October 2015. 
  13. ^ Malcolm Turnbull - Extended Interview Transcript - PROGRAM TRANSCRIPT: Monday, 21 September, 2015 Malcolm Turnbull interview with Belinda Hawkins
  14. ^ Interview: Malcolm Turnbull - faith
  15. ^ "Biography". Malcolm Turnbull MP. 
  16. ^ a b c "Panellist: Malcolm Turnbull". Q&A. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 
  17. ^ a b Overington, Caroline; Madden, James (17 September 2008). "I'm no silvertail, says new leader Malcolm Turnbull". The Australian. News Limited. 
  18. ^ Tovey, Josephine (16 December 2013). "HSC results: Malcolm Turnbull recalls the day he received his results as wait for NSW students is almost over". Turf Craft. 
  19. ^ McNicoll, D. D. (19 September 2008). "Dux-hunting season". The Australian. 
  20. ^ "Malcolm Turnbull's Life and Career at a Glance". Retrieved 20 June 2016. 
  21. ^ a b c "The rise and rise of Malcolm Turnbull – National – smh.com.au". Retrieved 20 June 2016. 
  22. ^ Fell, Liz (2011). "Malcolm Turnbull: A feisty interview with the Shadow Minister". Telecommunications Journal of Australia. 61 (1): 2.1–2.10. 
  23. ^ Andrews, Kirsten (16 September 2013). "University of Sydney welcomes alumni to Cabinet" (Press release). University of Sydney. 
  24. ^ Jonscher, Samantha (22 September 2015). "Peculiar Turnbullisms: Malcolm At Sydney Uni – Honi Soit". Honi Soit. Retrieved 14 December 2015. 
  25. ^ Liz Hannan. "Presidency a predictor of future political success". Smh.com.au. Retrieved 14 December 2015. 
  26. ^ "The rise and rise of Malcolm Turnbull". The Sydney Morning Herald. 16 September 2008. 
  27. ^ "Rhodes scholars". University of Sydney. 
  28. ^ Daley, Paul (21 September 2008). "Team Kevin rattled as Malcolm eyes the middle". The Age. Melbourne. Retrieved 27 April 2010. 
  29. ^ "Politics in Australia", economist.com
  30. ^ John Lyons (16 September 2014). "Raging Turnbull". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 15 April 2017. 
  31. ^ Ferguson, Sarah (25 August 2008). "My Brilliant Career" (transcript). Four Corners. ABC TV. Retrieved 10 September 2008. 
  32. ^ M. Turnbull, "The Spycatcher Trial" (1988), 195.
  33. ^ "Panama Papers: Malcolm Turnbull's path to Siberia and back". Financial Review. Retrieved 27 May 2016. 
  34. ^ "A Former Logger Becomes Australian Federal Opposition Leader". Solomon Times. 21 September 2008. 
  35. ^ Randhawa, Sonia (26 September 2008). "Turnbull's logging background raises questions". ABC Radio Australia. Archived from the original on 16 December 2008. Retrieved 27 July 2014. 
  36. ^ Colley, Andrew (28 March 2012). "OzEmail trio presses delete on 18-year association". After listing on the NASDAQ in 1996 with Turnbull's help, OzEmail purchased a 50 per cent stake in web hosting company, WebCentral. Three years later, the trio split $240m between them when MCI Worldcom bought OzEmail for $520m (Howard walked away with $120m, and Turnbull and Kennedy took $60m each). News Corp. The Australian. Retrieved 31 May 2016. 
  37. ^ "Top 20 Shareholders Chaosmusic Limited". Australian Securities Exchange. 14 December 1999. Retrieved 27 April 2010. 
  38. ^ "Turnbull fights HIH liquidator claims" (transcript). Lateline. Australia: ABC TV. 22 February 2006. Retrieved 27 April 2010. 
  39. ^ Elisabeth Sexton (7 July 2009). "Creditors to settle $500m FAI claim". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 15 April 2017. 
  40. ^ Wright, Lincoln (22 December 2000). "PM backs republican Turnbull for spot on think-tank board". The Canberra Times. p. 3. 
  41. ^ Vizard, Steve (1998). Two Weeks in Lilliput: Bear Baiting and Backbiting At the Constitutional Convention. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-027983-0. 
  42. ^ "The Age and Sydney Morning Herald – Australia's Constitutional Convention 1998". Pandora. National Library of Australia. Archived from the original on 10 December 1999. Retrieved 31 July 2012. 
  43. ^ a b "Australia's new PM: Liberal party stands back to watch the 'Malcolm experiment' – The Guardian 15 September 2015". The Guardian Australia. 27 November 2014. Retrieved 14 December 2015. 
  44. ^ "Malcolm Turnbull joins the Australian National Flag Association". Ausflag. Archived from the original on 7 April 2007. 
  45. ^ "How young Malcolm Turnbull dreamt of being a union leader and nearly ran for Labor". Retrieved 20 June 2016. 
  46. ^ "Bill Shorten Claims Malcolm Turnbull Wanted To Be Secretary of the AWU". The Huffington Post. 12 November 2015. 
  47. ^ "Lateline – 14/10/2003: Turnbull sets sights on Wentworth. Australian Broadcasting Corp". Retrieved 20 June 2016. 
  48. ^ Linda Mottram (14 October 2003). "King criticises Turnbull's branch stacking tactics". ABC. Retrieved 15 April 2017. 
  49. ^ "Candidate electoral return for the election held on 9 October 2004" (PDF). Australian Electoral Commission. 2004. Retrieved 28 August 2007. 
  50. ^ Commission, Australian Electoral. "Division Distribution of Preferences". Retrieved 20 June 2016. 
  51. ^ Jenentt, Greg (14 September 2015). "Malcolm Turnbull: From international case-winning barrister to struggling opposition leader, 'Mr Broadband'". ABC. Retrieved 14 September 2015. 
  52. ^ Harrison, Dan (4 October 2007). "Turnbull approves Tasmanian pulp mill". The Age. Melbourne. Retrieved 19 November 2007. 
  53. ^ "Turnbull defends using travel allowance to pay rent at wife's house". ABC News. Australia. 25 February 2007. Archived from the original on 7 December 2007. Retrieved 28 August 2007. 
  54. ^ a b "Turnbull pumps $10m into rainmaking gamble". ABC News. Australia. 20 November 2007. Retrieved 21 November 2007. 
  55. ^ Stafford, Annabel; Schubert, Misha (9 November 2007). "Gay activists remind parties of promises". The Age. Melbourne. Retrieved 9 November 2007. 
  56. ^ "House of Representatives Division First Preferences". Australian Electoral Commission. 18 December 2007. Retrieved 13 June 2010. 
  57. ^ "Two Part Preferred by State". Australian Electoral Commission. Retrieved 27 April 2010. 
  58. ^ "Media gather at Turnbull's residence". The Age. Melbourne. 25 November 2007. Retrieved 25 November 2007. 
  59. ^ "Nelson wins Lib leadership". The Age. Melbourne. 29 November 2007. 
  60. ^ "Turnbull criticises Minchin for gibe". ABC News. Australia. 8 February 2008. Retrieved 27 April 2010. 
  61. ^ Maiden, Samantha (8 February 2008). "Minchin used f-word in Turnbull stoush". The Australian. Retrieved 27 April 2010. 
  62. ^ "Turnbull accuses Swan of 'voodoo economics'". ABC News. Australia. 14 May 2008. Retrieved 14 May 2008. 
  63. ^ "Turnbull mulls a misspent youth". The Sydney Morning Herald. 26 September 2008. 
  64. ^ "Turnbull appoints new right-hand man". Sydney Morning Herald. 7 January 2009. 
  65. ^ "Turnbull responds to budget". The Sydney Morning Herald. 15 May 2009. Retrieved 27 April 2010. 
  66. ^ "PM refers OzCar allegations to inquiry". AM. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 20 June 2009. Retrieved 25 November 2009. 
  67. ^ "Grech 'wrote fake email'". The Age. Melbourne. 4 August 2009. Retrieved 25 November 2009. 
  68. ^ Saulwick, Jacob (4 August 2009). "Rudd, Swan cleared over OzCar scandal". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 25 November 2009. 
  69. ^ Coorey, Phillip (29 June 2009). "Malcolm Turnbull and Utegate | Liberal Party". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 27 April 2010. 
  70. ^ Franklin, Matthew (26 November 2009). "Malcolm Turnbull sharpens the knife". The Australian. Retrieved 27 April 2010. 
  71. ^ Coorey, Phillip (25 November 2009). "Three quit as Turnbull survives". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 25 November 2009. 
  72. ^ Rodgers, Emma (26 November 2009). "Senior Liberals desert Turnbull". ABC News. Australia. Retrieved 27 April 2010. 
  73. ^ "Shock win for Abbott in leadership vote". ABC News. Australia. 1 December 2009. 
  74. ^ Nine Morning News, 1 December 2009.
  75. ^ Balogh, Stefanie (6 April 2010). "Malcolm Turnbull to leave politics at next election". The Courier-Mail. Retrieved 27 April 2010. 
  76. ^ "Turnbull reverses decision to quit". The Age. Melbourne. 1 May 2010. Retrieved 1 May 2010. 
  77. ^ "House of Representatives Division First Preferences". Australian Electoral Commission. 15 September 2010. Retrieved 20 September 2010. 
  78. ^ Hudson, Phillip (14 September 2010). "Tony Abbott promotes Malcolm Turnbull in new shadow ministry". Herald Sun. Retrieved 20 September 2010. 
  79. ^ Turnbull, Malcolm (October 2012). Free at last or freedom lost? Liberty in the digital age (Speech). 2012 Alfred Deakin Lecture. Malcolm Turnbull. [self-published source?]
  80. ^ Taylor, Josh (8 October 2012). "Turnbull has grave misgivings about data retention proposal". ZDNet. 
  81. ^ Peatling, Stephanie (7 July 2012). "Turnbull under fire for gay marriage stance". The Age. Melbourne. Retrieved 30 September 2013. 
  82. ^ "All that glitters … Abbott and 'Mr Broadband' hawk the copper option". The Sydney Morning Herald. 
  83. ^ a b Kohler, Alan (10 April 2013). "How Malcolm Turnbull saved the NBN". ABC News. Australia. 
  84. ^ Knott, Matthew; Timson, Lia (27 August 2014). "Malcolm Turnbull: NBN plan won't change despite massive cost for rural coverage". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  85. ^ Ferguson, Adele (15 December 2014). "Malcolm Turnbull to make NBN better, faster, stronger". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 24 December 2014. 
  86. ^ "NBN cost blows out by up to $15b; Malcolm Turnbull says final cost could be up to $56b". ABC News. 24 August 2015. Retrieved 15 September 2015. 
  87. ^ ABC News 9 February 2015. Accessed 9 February 2015.
  88. ^ Leslie, Tim (9 February 2015). "Liberal leadership spill: as it happened". ABC. Retrieved 14 September 2015. 
  89. ^ "Liberal leadership: Tony Abbott confident he will beat Malcolm Turnbull in ballot". ABC News. Retrieved 15 September 2015. 
  90. ^ "Turnbull and Bishop request Liberal Party leadership ballot". ABC News. Retrieved 14 September 2015. 
  91. ^ "Turnbull demands leadership spill". Retrieved 14 September 2015. 
  92. ^ Pamela Wilson, "How to stage a coup", The Australian, 20 October 2015.
  93. ^ "Liberal leadership spill: Malcolm Turnbull to become prime minister after toppling Tony Abbott". ABC News. Retrieved 15 September 2015. 
  94. ^ "Malcolm Turnbull sworn in as Australia's 29th Prime Minister". ABC News. 15 September 2015. Retrieved 15 September 2015. 
  95. ^ Dan Conifer and James Glenday (15 September 2015). "Malcolm Turnbull to be sworn in as PM after ousting Tony Abbott as Liberal leader". Retrieved 15 September 2015. 
  96. ^ Condie, Stuart (16 September 2015). "Why Malcolm Turnbull will end up disappointing many voters: News.com.au 16 September 2015". News.com.au. Retrieved 14 December 2015. 
  97. ^ Lenore Taylor (16 September 2015). "Turnbull's so-called $4bn bribe to Nationals more wishes than fulfilment: The Guardian 16 September 2015". The Guardian Australia. Retrieved 14 December 2015. 
  98. ^ "Malcolm Turnbull's $4 billion deal with the Nationals to guarantee Coalition unity", Daily Telegraph, 15 September 2015.
  99. ^ "Hunt goes in energy-environment merger, climate denier to head resources". Renew Economy.com.au. 18 July 2016. Retrieved 18 July 2016. 
  100. ^ "Malcolm Turnbull recalls Parliament for April 18 sitting ahead of early election". The Sydney Morning Herald. 21 March 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2016. 
  101. ^ "It's official: Malcolm Turnbull confirms Australia will go to the polls on July 2". Ninemsn. 8 May 2016. 
  102. ^ "Exclusive: Malcolm Turnbull facing 10% swing in Wentworth as his popularity plummets". Retrieved 20 June 2016. 
  103. ^ Keany, Francis (17 June 2016). "Malcolm Turnbull regrets hosting homophobic Islamic cleric Sheikh Shady Alsuleiman at Kirribilli". ABC News. Retrieved 23 June 2016. 
  104. ^ "'It's vital this parliament works': Turnbull claims election win". 10 July 2016. 
  105. ^ Turnbull admits donating $1.75 million to election campaign ABC News 1 February 2017
  106. ^ Davidson, Helen (27 August 2016). "Thousands call for Nauru and Manus camps to close in rallies across Australia" – via The Guardian. 
  107. ^ Farrell, Paul; Evershed, Nick; Davidson, Helen (10 August 2016). "The Nauru files: cache of 2,000 leaked reports reveal scale of abuse of children in Australian offshore detention" – via The Guardian. 
  108. ^ Holpuch, Amanda (26 July 2016). "US partners with Costa Rica to protect Central American refugees" – via The Guardian. 
  109. ^ David Wroe (21 Sep 2016). "'Northern Triangle' of death: Australia-bound refugees fleeing a brutal gang conflict". Sydney Morning Herald. 
  110. ^ Press, Associated. "Some Refugees Held in Australian Island Camps to Be Resettled in US". 
  111. ^ "PM unveils 'one-off' refugee resettlement deal with US". 13 November 2016. 
  112. ^ "Subscribe - theaustralian". 
  113. ^ "‘This deal will make me look terrible’: Full transcripts of Trump’s calls with Mexico and Australia". Washington Post. 
  114. ^ "‘This was the worst call by far’: Trump badgered, bragged and abruptly ended phone call with Australian leader". 
  115. ^ "Trump slams 'dumb deal' to take Australia's 'illegal' refugees". 2 February 2017. 
  116. ^ "Refugee swap still on, but some will miss out". 30 April 2017. 
  117. ^ "Exclusive: Australia to accept first Central American refugees under U.S. deal - sources". 25 July 2017 – via Reuters. 
  118. ^ "Blame game over rolling blackouts". The Advertiser. 10 February 2017. 
  119. ^ "The great gas robbery". ABC News. 17 March 2017. 
  120. ^ "Federal Government to pour 2 billion into major Snowy Hydro expansion". Australian Financial Review. 15 March 2017. 
  121. ^ "Government to restrict gas exports to shore up domestic supply". ABC News. 27 April 2017. 
  122. ^ "Gas Industry hits back at Canberra's plan to reduce the wholesale price of gas". The Australian. 27 April 2017. 
  123. ^ Turnbull, Malcolm (3 August 2009). "Malcolm Turnbull Interview". Australian Story (transcript). Interview with Belinda Hawkins. Australia: ABC TV. Retrieved 26 December 2014. 
  124. ^ a b "About Malcolm". Malcolm Turnbull. 2016. Retrieved 1 July 2016. 
  125. ^ "Malcolm Turnbull announces safe arrival of grandson Jack on Twitter". News.com.au. News Corp Australia. 19 September 2013. Retrieved 22 September 2013. 
  126. ^ Captain Bligh's Other Mutiny. Sydney: Random House Australia. 2007. pp. 84–85. ISBN 978-1-74166-798-1. 
  127. ^ Williams, Roy. "The faith story of Malcolm Turnbull". Tma.melbourneanglican.org.au. Retrieved 14 December 2015. 
  128. ^ "Malcolm Turnbull interview with Belinda Hawkins". ABC Australia. 3 August 2009. 
  129. ^ "Catholic MPs to defy Pell over bill". The Sydney Morning Herald. 6 June 2007. 
  130. ^ Turnbull, Malcolm (9 July 2012). "Artistic Politics" (transcript). Q&A (television panel interview). Interview with Virginia Trioli. Australia: ABC TV. Retrieved 26 December 2014. 
  131. ^ Misha Schubert; Jewel Topsfield (15 February 2006). "Cardinal Pell enters RU486 debate". The Sydney Morning Herald. 
  132. ^ "Therapeutic Goods Amendment (Repeal of Ministerial Responsibility for Approval of Ru486) Bill 2005". 16 February 2006. 
  133. ^ "Parliament Hansard – Malcolm Turnbull". 5 December 2006. 
  134. ^ Schubert, Misha; Topsfield, Jewel (15 February 2006). "Cardinal Pell enters RU486 debate". The Age. Canberra. Retrieved 29 June 2017. 
  135. ^ Smith, Alexandra; Morris, Linda. "Catholic MPs to defy Pell over bill". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 29 June 2017. 
  136. ^ Murphy, Katharine; Grattan, Michelle (18 September 2008). "All a bit rich as wealthy worlds collide in the battle for the battlers". The Age. Melbourne. Retrieved 2 June 2014. 
  137. ^ "The politics of envy and the actions of greed". Live News. 24 September 2008. Retrieved 27 April 2010. 
  138. ^ Thomson, James (9 September 2013). "Clive Palmer joins elite club of rich-list politicians, but his fortune's under pressure". BRW. 
  139. ^ Griffiths, Emma (2 December 2013). "Clive Palmer calls for company tax changes in maiden speech to Parliament". Yahoo!7. 
  140. ^ Zappone, Chris (26 May 2010). "Politicians' wealth revealed as Malcolm Turnbull makes rich list again". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 26 May 2010. 
  141. ^ "BRW Rich 200". BRW. 27 June 2014. Retrieved 26 December 2014. 
  142. ^ John Stensholt (17 September 2015). "Malcolm Turnbull: the member for Net Worth". Australian Financial Review. Retrieved 14 December 2015. 
  143. ^ Its an Honour: Centenary Medal, AustralianGovernment, retrieved 14 September 2015 
  144. ^ Turnbull, Frederick Bligh (Fred) (1893–1968)
  145. ^ The lonely childhood of Prime Minister - Malcolm Turnbull
  146. ^ Turnbull, William Bligh (1808–1892)
  147. ^ William Bligh Turnbull (1809 - 1892)
  148. ^ Brown, Archibald - (1835–1891)
  149. ^ Brown, May - (1831–1918)
  150. ^ Snodgrass, James - (1812–1902)
  151. ^ "Biography - Mary Snodgrass - People Australia". peopleaustralia.anu.edu.au. 
  152. ^ Turnbull, Malcolm Bligh (1954–)
  153. ^ Malcolm Turnbull’s famous family connections
  154. ^ Smith, John Joseph - (1829–1883)
  155. ^ Smith, Eliza - (1831–1883)
  156. ^ Lansbury, May - (1887–1968)

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit

Non-profit organization positions
Preceded by
Thomas Keneally
Chair of the Australian Republican Movement
1993–2000
Succeeded by
Ian Chappell
Parliament of Australia
Preceded by
Peter King
Member of Parliament
for Wentworth

2004–present
Incumbent
Political offices
Preceded by
Ian Campbell
as Minister for Environment and Heritage
Minister for the Environment and Water Resources
2007
Succeeded by
Peter Garrett
as Minister for Environment, Heritage and the Arts
Preceded by
Wayne Swan
Shadow Treasurer of Australia
2007–2008
Succeeded by
Julie Bishop
Preceded by
Brendan Nelson
Leader of the Opposition
2008–2009
Succeeded by
Tony Abbott
Preceded by
Tony Smith
as Shadow Minister for Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy
Shadow Minister for Communications and Broadband
2010–2013
Succeeded by
Anthony Albanese
as Shadow Minister for Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy
Preceded by
Anthony Albanese
as Minister for Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy
Minister for Communications
2013–2015
Succeeded by
Mitch Fifield
Preceded by
Tony Abbott
Prime Minister of Australia
2015–present
Incumbent
Party political offices
Preceded by
Brendan Nelson
Leader of the Liberal Party
2008–2009
Succeeded by
Tony Abbott
Preceded by
Tony Abbott
Leader of the Liberal Party
2015–present
Incumbent