Malcolm Bligh Turnbull (born 24 October 1954) is an Australian politician who is the 29th and current Prime Minister of Australia, in office since September 2015. He first served as Leader of the Liberal Party and as Opposition Leader from 2008 to 2009, and again became party leader (and thus prime minister) after defeating Tony Abbott at the 2015 leadership spill. The Turnbull Government was re-elected at the 2016 federal election with a one-seat majority.
|29th Prime Minister of Australia
15 September 2015
|Governor-General||Sir Peter Cosgrove|
|Preceded by||Tony Abbott|
|Leader of the Liberal Party|
14 September 2015
|Preceded by||Tony Abbott|
16 September 2008 – 1 December 2009
|Preceded by||Brendan Nelson|
|Succeeded by||Tony Abbott|
|Minister for Agriculture and Water Resources|
27 October 2017 – 20 December 2017
|Preceded by||Barnaby Joyce|
|Succeeded by||David Littleproud|
|Minister for Communications|
18 September 2013 – 14 September 2015
|Prime Minister||Tony Abbott|
|Preceded by||Anthony Albanese|
|Succeeded by||Mitch Fifield|
|Leader of the Opposition|
16 September 2008 – 1 December 2009
|Prime Minister||Kevin Rudd|
|Preceded by||Brendan Nelson|
|Succeeded by||Tony Abbott|
|Minister for the Environment and Water|
30 January 2007 – 3 December 2007
|Prime Minister||John Howard|
|Preceded by||Ian Campbell|
|Succeeded by||Peter Garrett|
|Member of the Australian Parliament
9 October 2004
|Preceded by||Peter King|
|Chairman of the Australian Republican Movement|
1 April 1993 – 26 January 2000
|Preceded by||Thomas Keneally|
|Succeeded by||Michael Keating|
|Chairman of the Republic Advisory Committee|
13 March 1993 – 6 November 1999
|Appointed by||Paul Keating|
|Preceded by||Position established|
|Succeeded by||Nick Greiner|
|Born||Malcolm Bligh Turnbull
24 October 1954
Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
|Spouse(s)||Lucy Hughes (m. 1980)|
|Education||Vaucluse Public School
St Ives Preparatory School
Sydney Grammar School
|Alma mater||University of Sydney
Brasenose College, Oxford
(Goldman Sachs; Whitlam Turnbull & Co Ltd)
(Australian Consolidated Press)
Turnbull attended Sydney Grammar School before going to the University of Sydney, where he graduated with Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Laws degrees. He then attended Brasenose College, Oxford as a Rhodes Scholar, taking the degree of Bachelor of Civil Law. For over two decades prior to entering politics, Turnbull worked in personal and managerial positions as a journalist, lawyer, merchant banker, and venture capitalist. A multi-millionaire, he purchased a stake of internet service provider Ozemail in 1994 for $500,000 and sold his stake just months before the dot com bubble burst in 1999 for $57 million, paving the way to his current estimated net worth of above $200 million with entries in the BRW Rich 200 list. Turnbull became a public figure as chairman of the Australian Republican Movement from 1993 to 2000. He was one of the leaders of the unsuccessful "Yes" campaign in the 1999 republic referendum.
Turnbull unsuccessfully contested Liberal preselection for the Division of Wentworth (in New South Wales) at a 1981 by-election and the 2001 federal election. He was finally successful in the lead-up to the 2004 federal election, and was subsequently elected to the House of Representatives. Elevated to the Howard Cabinet in January 2007, he briefly served as Minister for the Environment and Water until the defeat of the Liberal government at the 2007 election. Turnbull declared himself a candidate in the subsequent leadership election, but lost to Brendan Nelson by three votes. Following a period of poor opinion polling, Turnbull challenged and defeated Nelson by four votes in September 2008, thus becoming Leader of the Opposition.
Because of his views on issues like climate change, republicanism, abortion and same-sex marriage (which was legalised on 9 December 2017 during his administration), Turnbull is considered part of the moderate wing of the Liberal Party. His support of the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme proposed by the Rudd Government in late 2009 caused a split with the conservative wing, and Tony Abbott subsequently challenged and defeated him for the leadership by a single vote. Initially intending to leave politics, Turnbull remained in parliament and became Minister for Communications in the Abbott Government following the Coalition victory at the 2013 federal election. On 14 September 2015, citing consistently poor opinion polling for the government, Turnbull resigned from cabinet and challenged Abbott to a leadership ballot, which he won by ten votes. He was sworn in as prime minister the following day and formed the Turnbull Government.
Opinion polling indicated that Turnbull enjoyed a "honeymoon period" of several months after becoming prime minister, but from around April 2016 both his personal satisfaction ratings and the Coalition's two-party polling lead had evaporated. At the July 2016 federal election, the Turnbull Government retained majority government by just a single seat, the smallest majority since the 1961 election. In the days of uncertainty following the election, Turnbull had negotiated with the crossbench and secured confidence and supply support from Bob Katter, Andrew Wilkie and Cathy McGowan in the event of a hung parliament and potential need for minority government.
Early life and educationEdit
Malcolm Bligh Turnbull was born in Sydney on 24 October 1954, the only child of Bruce Bligh Turnbull and Coral Magnolia Lansbury. His father was a hotel broker, while his mother was a radio actor, writer, and academic, and a second cousin of the British film and television actress, Angela Lansbury. His maternal grandmother, May Lansbury (née Morle), was born in England, while his other grandparents were Australian-born. Turnbull suffered asthma as a young child. His parents separated when he was nine, with his mother leaving first for New Zealand and then the United States. Turnbull was then raised by his father.
Turnbull is of direct paternal Scottish descent; his great-great-great grandfather John Turnbull (1751–1834) arrived on the Coromandel in 1802 in New South Wales and became a tailor. In an interview in 2015, Turnbull said that his middle name "Bligh" is a tradition for generations, named after Governor Bligh who was much admired. During his childhood, he practised Presbyterianism; he converted to Roman Catholicism upon marriage.
Turnbull spent his first three years of school at Vaucluse Public School. He then attended the St Ives preparatory school at Sydney Grammar School as a boarder. In senior school he was a boarder at the former Randwick campus of the school while attending classes at the main College Street campus on a partial scholarship. He was senior school co-captain in 1972, as well as winning the Lawrence Campbell Oratory Competition, excelling particularly in the literary subjects such as English and history. However, contrary to certain sources, Turnbull was not the dux of his graduating year at Sydney Grammar. In 1987, in memory of his late father, he set up the Bruce Turnbull means-tested scholarship at Sydney Grammar, which offers full remission of fees to a student unable to afford them.
In 1973, Turnbull attended the University of Sydney and graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree (majoring in political science) in 1977 and a Bachelor of Laws degree in 1978. During his studies, he was involved in student politics, serving as board director of the University of Sydney Union. He also worked as a political journalist for Nation Review, Radio 2SM and Channel 9 covering state politics.
In 1978, Turnbull won a Rhodes Scholarship and attended Brasenose College, Oxford, where he studied for a Bachelor of Civil Law degree from 1978 to 1980, graduating with honours. While at Oxford, he worked for The Sunday Times and contributed to newspapers and magazines in the United States and Australia. While at Oxford, a university don wrote of Turnbull that he was "always going to enter life's rooms without knocking".
After graduating from Oxford, Turnbull returned to Australia and began working as a barrister. He left the bar in 1983. Firstly he attempted preselection in the safe Liberal seat of Mosman. However, he lost to Phillip Smiles. Then he chose to become general counsel and secretary for Australian Consolidated Press Holdings Group, from 1983 to 1985.
During this time he defended Kerry Packer against the "Goanna" allegations made by the Costigan Commission. Turnbull attempted to use the press to goad the counsel assisting the commission, Douglas Meagher QC, into suing him and Packer for the withering public attack both undertook to sully Meagher's and Costigan's names. Turnbull accused Meagher and Costigan of being "unjust, capricious, dishonest and malicious". Turnbull led Packer to sue Meagher for defamation, an action that was struck down by Justice David Hunt as being an abuse of process, and that Turnbull had managed "to poison the fountain of justice". The "Scorched Earth" tactic made Turnbull enemies in the NSW Bar Association, something that led to Turnbull leaving the Bar Association.
In partnership with Bruce McWilliam, he established his own law firm, Turnbull McWilliam. During 1986, Turnbull defended Peter Wright, a former MI5 official who wrote the book Spycatcher, and successfully stopped the British government's attempts to suppress the book's publication in Australia. Turnbull later wrote a book on the trial.
"The fact of the matter is that nothing is achieved in this world, particularly politically, other than with persistence, and persistence involves repetition and it involves argument and re-argument... The public interest in free speech is not just in truthful speech, in correct speech, in fair speech... The interest is in the debate. You see, every person who has ultimately changed the course of history has started off being unpopular." Turnbull's closing submissions, 18 December 1986
In 1987, Turnbull established an investment banking firm, Whitlam Turnbull & Co Ltd, in partnership with Neville Wran (a former Labor Premier of New South Wales) and the former State Bank of New South Wales chief executive, Nicholas Whitlam (son of Gough Whitlam, a former Labor prime minister). Whitlam parted company with the others in 1990 and the firm operated as Turnbull & Partners Ltd from then until 1997, when Turnbull moved to become a managing director and later a partner of Goldman Sachs.
Turnbull was a director of FTR Holdings Ltd (1995–2004), chair and managing director of Goldman Sachs Australia (1997–2001) and a partner with Goldman Sachs and Co (1998–2001).
In the 1990s, Turnbull was chairman of Axiom Forest Resources, which conducted logging in the Solomon Islands under the trading name Silvania Forest Products. The latter's work was described by the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau as a "clear-felling operation", and the then Solomon Islands Prime Minister Solomon Mamaloni reportedly threatened to close it down for "constant breaches of logging practices", according to a critical article in the Solomon Times.
Turnbull purchased a stake of internet service provider Ozemail in 1994 for $500,000 and sold his stake just months before the dot com bubble burst in 1999 for $57 million to then-telecommunications giant MCI Worldcom. In the same year he used his software and investment company FTR Holdings Ltd to take positions in a number of Internet businesses including WebCentral and Chaos.com.
In May 2002, Turnbull appeared before the HIH Insurance royal commission and was questioned on Goldman Sachs's involvement in the possible privatisation of one of the acquisitions of the collapsed insurance company. The Royal Commissioner's report made no adverse findings against him or Goldman Sachs, however, Turnbull was one of nine defendants who settled later litigation over the collapse in undisclosed payments, thought to be worth as much as $500m.
Early political involvementEdit
Turnbull first showed interest in entering the Australian Parliament in 1981. He stood for Liberal Party preselection for the seat of Wentworth in the eastern suburbs of Sydney in the 1981 Wentworth by-election; however he was beaten by Peter Coleman. He attempted preselection in the safe seat of Mosman in 1983, but lost to Phillip Smiles. He let his membership of the Liberal Party lapse in the 1980s, and rejoined in late 2000. Turnbull was Federal Treasurer of the Liberal Party and a member of the party's federal and New South Wales executives from 2002 to 2003, and was also a director of the Menzies Research Centre, the Liberal Party's research centre.
In 1993 he was appointed by Paul Keating as Chairman of the Republic Advisory Committee, charged with exploring ways of moving Australia to an overtly republican form of government by removing the Queen from Australian government.
Australian Republican MovementEdit
From 1993 to 2000, Turnbull was the chairman of the Australian Republican Movement. He was an elected delegate at the Australian Constitutional Convention 1998 in Canberra in February. At the Convention, Turnbull cautioned against mixing the roles of president and prime minister, advocating a parliamentary republic, and supported the bi-partisan appointment republican model adopted by the convention.
Turnbull was active in the unsuccessful 1999 referendum campaign to establish an Australian republic as chairman of the Yes Committee. He published a book on the campaign, called Fighting for the Republic. When the referendum failed, Turnbull accused incumbent Prime Minister and Monarchist John Howard of "breaking the nation's heart".
In 2000 Turnbull retired as chairman of the Australian Republican Movement. Turnbull left the board of Ausflag in 1994 after being asked for his resignation and in 2004 joined the Australian National Flag Association.
Selection of political partyEdit
Turnbull had a long affiliation with the Liberal Party of Australia throughout his career. During his time at the head of the Australian Republican Movement, he had considered running for a seat as a Labor candidate. In 2015, it was revealed that Turnbull had held talks with John Della Bosca during this time on a possible switch and that he had harboured aspirations in his youth to head the Australian Workers' Union, which has a strong connection with Labor. The actuation, made by former Labor Foreign Minister Bob Carr, has since been used by Labor leader Bill Shorten in relation to the Royal Commission into trade union governance and corruption.
First years in parliament (2004–2006)Edit
In 2000, Turnbull sought Liberal preselection for Wentworth but did not contest after being convinced that Liberal incumbent Peter King had the numbers in Wentworth's Liberal branches. In 2003, Turnbull announced that he was again seeking Liberal preselection in Wentworth, and in 2004 defeated King. During the bitter pre-selection campaign, King accused Turnbull of branch stacking, by having local members transferring their membership to a branch that would decide the pre-selection, what King referred to as "branch stripping". Following his preselection loss, King stood for the seat at the 2004 election as an independent candidate. As a result, the traditionally Liberal electorate was turned into an electoral wildcard, with the contest for the seat becoming a three-person race between Turnbull, King and Labor candidate David Patch. During the campaign, Turnbull spent over A$600,000 on the campaign. While the Liberal primary vote fell 10.3 percent to 41.8 percent, King received 18 percent of the primary vote with a 57/43 Liberal/Labor preference split which brought Turnbull over the line, but on a reduced 55.5 percent two-party vote after a 2.4 percent swing it made Wentworth a marginal seat on paper for the first time since the 1993 election.
Front Bench (2006–2007)Edit
Announcing his cabinet reshuffle on 24 January 2006, the prime minister, John Howard, promoted Turnbull from the backbench to parliamentary secretary, with special responsibility for water, at the height of the 2000s Australian drought. In this new capacity he reported directly to the prime minister. On 26 September 2006, Howard announced the creation, within the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, of a new Office of Water Resources to address the problem of drought in Australia. Turnbull was given charge of this office until he was elevated by Howard as Minister for the Environment and Water Resources in January 2007.
In his position as Environment Minister, Turnbull approved a proposed A$1.7 billion Bell Bay Pulp Mill in Tasmania's north, near Launceston. Turnbull's approval of the Bell Bay Pulp Mill project of Gunns Ltd came on 4 October 2007 and followed a report by the Government's chief scientist Jim Peacock on the project's potential environmental impact, which requires the project to meet 48 "strict environmental" conditions.
In February 2007, Turnbull was criticised for claiming a government allowance of A$175 a night and paying it to his wife as rent while living in a townhouse owned by her in Canberra.
During the 2007 election campaign, Turnbull announced that the then Government would contribute A$10 million to the investigation of an untried Russian technology that aims to trigger rainfall from the atmosphere, even when there are no clouds. The Australian Rain Corporation presented research documents written in Russian, explained by a Russian researcher who spoke to local experts in Russian. Although Turnbull claimed that Australian Rain Corporation was Australian-based, investigations revealed that it was 75 per cent Swiss-owned. It was also revealed that a prominent stakeholder in the Australian Rain Corporation, Matt Handbury, is a nephew of Rupert Murdoch. Turnbull has refused to answer questions regarding Handbury's contribution to the Wentworth Forum, the main fund-raising organisation for Turnbull's 2007 election campaign.
In 2007, Turnbull promised that his government, if elected, would grant same-sex couples death benefits in Commonwealth superannuation schemes, a promise similar to one made three years earlier, during the 2004 election campaign.
2007 election and aftermathEdit
With no electoral competition from former incumbent MP Peter King, as there had been in 2004, Turnbull retained his seat at the 2007 election gaining a two-party vote 1.3 percent swing in Wentworth, despite a 5.6 percent swing away from the coalition in the state, and a 5.4 percent swing nationwide. Prime Minister Howard had lost his own seat of Bennelong, and on 25 November 2007, Liberal deputy leader Peter Costello announced he would not seek the party leadership. Turnbull declared his candidacy later the same day, and was considered a favourite by many. He narrowly lost to Brendan Nelson at the 2007 Liberal leadership ballot on 29 November by three votes. Nelson in turn appointed him Shadow Treasurer.
Shortly afterwards, fellow opposition front bencher Nick Minchin suggested that Turnbull's failure to consult with party colleagues before declaring his opinion to the media on such issues as an apology to the Stolen Generations cost him the leadership. This led to a disagreement between the two and culminated in Minchin privately telling Turnbull that he was "too f***ing sensitive." In May 2008, Turnbull attacked the 2008 Australian federal budget, concerned by increased taxes on luxury cars and certain alcoholic drinks, citing possible increased inflation.
Leader of the Opposition (2008–2009)Edit
Turnbull defeated Brendan Nelson at the 2008 Liberal leadership ballot on 16 September by four votes. The same month, he confessed that he had smoked marijuana in his younger days, becoming the first Liberal leader to make such an admission. He said he now thought it was a very bad idea because the drug could be damaging. In early 2009 Turnbull appointed Chris Kenny, a former Downer staffer and Advertiser journalist, as his chief of staff.
In May 2009, Turnbull attacked the 2009 Australian federal budget, in particular the means testing of the private health insurance rebate. The following month, Godwin Grech, a Treasury official, alleged that a car dealer with links to the Labor Party had received preferential treatment under the OzCar program, sparking the 'OzCar affair'. That day Turnbull stated that Prime Minister Rudd and Treasurer Wayne Swan had "used their offices and taxpayers' resources to seek advantage for one of their mates and then lied about it to the Parliament" and that they needed to explain their actions or resign. On 22 June the e-mail Grech had provided to the Liberal Party to support this allegation was found to have been faked by Grech; later admitted by Grech, and an Australian National Audit Office inquiry on 4 August cleared both Rudd and Swan of any wrongdoing. Turnbull's handling of the OzCar affair led to a large decline in his and the Liberal Party's approval ratings in opinion polls.
On 24 November 2009 a party room meeting was held to discuss the Rudd government's proposed Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme (CPRS). Turnbull instructed the party to support CPRS despite significant disagreement among his colleagues. There was even a suggestion that some Liberal Senators should vote to "guillotine" debate and force an immediate Senate vote on the CPRS bill. (If the Senate rejected the bill, this would have given the government a double dissolution trigger.) In response the next day, MPs Wilson Tuckey and Dennis Jensen made a leadership "spill motion" which if successful Kevin Andrews would have stood to challenge Turnbull for the liberal party leadership. The rebellion continued, though – many front bench Liberals resigned from the shadow cabinet, including Tony Abbott.
Brendan Nelson holds the record for lowest Newspoll "Better Prime Minister" rating of 7 percent (29 February-2 March 2008). Three leaders including Turnbull hold the combined second-lowest rating of 14 percent – Simon Crean (28–30 November 2003), Turnbull (27–29 November 2009) and Bill Shorten (3–6 December 2015).
Turnbull's support for the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme proposed by the Rudd Government split the Coalition opposition, resulting in Tony Abbott defeating Turnbull at the 2009 Liberal leadership ballot on 1 December by a single vote.
After the leadership vote, Turnbull said he would serve out his full term as member for Wentworth. On 6 April 2010, he announced he would not seek re-election. However, on 1 May 2010 he reversed his decision, stating he had been convinced by the former Liberal Prime Minister, John Howard, to remain in parliament.
Shadow Minister (2010–2013)Edit
At the 2010 federal election, Turnbull was re-elected with an 11.01 percent two-party swing and was subsequently brought back to the front bench as shadow communications minister. At the 2012 Alfred Deakin Lecture on digital liberty he spoke out strongly against the Australian government's proposed two-year data retention law.
In July 2012, Turnbull was criticised for saying that civil unions should be accepted as a first step toward same-sex marriage in Australia. Turnbull supports same-sex marriage and a conscience vote for Coalition MPs on the issue. However, Tony Abbott did not allow a conscience vote on the issue. Turnbull said that countries that have allowed same-sex marriage, such as the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Norway, Canada and the United Kingdom first had civil unions.
Minister for Communications (2013–2015)Edit
On 9 April 2013, Turnbull and Tony Abbott announced their party's alternative National Broadband Network (NBN) plan. The new plan is a modified and scaled-down NBN with "fibre to the node" (FTTN) then last-mile by copper cable. The new policy developed by Turnbull contrasted with the previous Liberal Party position, which had called for the dismantling of the NBN should the Liberal Party win the 2013 federal election. As such, the policy allowed the NBN to continue irrespective of the result of the election, although it did so in an inferior form from what was previously being built. In 2014, Turnbull announced that the Vertigan Report, a cost-benefit analysis of providing fast broadband to regional and rural Australia through wireless and satellite services, revealed that it will cost nearly A$5 billion and was expected to produce only A$600 million in economic benefits – a return of just 10 per cent. In spite of the economic cost, Turnbull stated that subsidising broadband to regional areas is "fiendishly expensive" but said there was no other option.
Turnbull brokered a deal between the government, NBN Co and Telstra in December 2014 whereby NBN Co acquired Telstra's copper network and hybrid-fibre coaxial (HFC) to deliver the NBN. Further, Telstra and NBN Co are to work together on the FTTN trial involving 200,000 premises. In August 2015, Turnbull revealed that the overall end cost of the network build would likely expand up to an additional $15 billion, with NBN Co likely to take on the additional expenditure as debt. Though still cheaper than the original Labor Party NBN policy, which would have delivered much faster connection speeds, the peak funding requirement under the current model is between $46 billion and $56 billion.
February 2015 leadership spill motionEdit
Following persistent leadership tensions, the 2015 Liberal leadership spill motion on 9 February was moved against incumbent Tony Abbott. Although the spill motion was defeated 61 votes to 39, Turnbull had been thought to be considering a leadership run if the spill motion had succeeded, telling reporters before the vote that "if for whatever reason the leadership of a political party is vacant then anyone, any member of the party can stand, whether they be a minister or a backbencher, without any disloyalty to the person whose leadership has been declared vacant."
Prime Minister of Australia (2015–present)Edit
September 2015 leadership spill motionEdit
Despite the defeat of the spill motion, questions over Abbott's leadership continued, with the Government consistently performing poorly in opinion polls. On 14 September 2015, after 30 consecutive Newspolls had put the Liberals far behind Labor, Turnbull resigned from the Cabinet and announced he would challenge Abbott for the leadership of the Liberal Party. Turnbull stated that Abbott "was not capable of providing the economic leadership we need" and that the Liberal Party needs a "style of leadership that respects the people's intelligence." Turnbull defeated Abbott by 54 votes to 44 at the 2015 Liberal leadership ballot on 14 September. He was sworn in as the 29th Prime Minister of Australia the following day.
Turnbull announced an extensive reshuffle on 20 September 2015 to form the First Turnbull Ministry. Notably, he increased the number of female Cabinet Ministers from two to five and appointed Marise Payne as Australia's first female Minister for Defence. The number of Cabinet Ministers rose from 19 to 21. On Turnbull's key policy differences with Abbott, particularly climate change, republicanism and same-sex marriage, he stated that there would be no immediate change before any election. The Nationals successfully negotiated a total of $4 billion worth of deals from Turnbull, as well as control of the water portfolio, in exchange for a continued Coalition agreement. Turnbull has stated that he would not lead a government that did not take climate change seriously.
On 21 March 2016, Turnbull announced that Parliament would consider bills to reinstate the Australian Building and Construction Commission (ABCC) for a third time. Turnbull said that if the Senate again rejected the bill, he would advise the Governor-General to call a double dissolution of Parliament and a federal election for 2 July. Turnbull also brought forward the delivery of the federal budget from 10 May to 3 May to facilitate this. On 18 April, the Senate once again rejected the bills to reinstate the ABCC. On 8 May, Turnbull visited Government House to advise the Governor-General to issue the writs for a double dissolution on 9 May; this confirmed the date of the election as 2 July 2016.
During the 2016 election campaign, a ReachTEL opinion poll of 626 Wentworth voters conducted on 31 May predicted a two-party swing against Turnbull for the first time since his election to Wentworth – revealing a reduced 58 percent two-party vote from a large 10.9 percent two-party swing.
During June 2016, the president of the Australian National Imams Council, Sheikh Shady Alsuleiman participated in an Iftar dinner at Kirribilli House. The Prime Minister said he would not have invited Alsuleiman if he had known of his position regarding homosexuals.
Opinion polling prior to the 2016 federal election indicated a honeymoon period which lasted for several months until the beginning of April, when Turnbull entered net negative satisfaction rating territory and the Coalition's two-party polling lead had evaporated, right through to the knife-edge 2016 election. In the following days of uncertainty, Turnbull negotiated with the crossbench and secured confidence and supply support from Bob Katter, Andrew Wilkie and Cathy McGowan in the event of a hung parliament and resulting minority government.
After close exit polling and electorates reporting through the night, it became obvious that the election was too close to call. However, it became obvious as negotiations between Crossbenchers and power brokers that the Coalition had kept onto their majority. Consequently, it was the closest federal majority result since the 1961 election, with the Liberal/National Coalition retaining majority government by a single seat.
In February 2017, Turnbull confirmed he had donated $1.75 million to the Liberal Party's election campaign.
Asylum seeker policyEdit
Asylum seeker policy is a contentious wedge issue in Australian politics, especially since the Tampa affair. Continuing the bipartisan stance of Operation Sovereign Borders has been at the forefront the Coalition's asylum seeker policy. Around 1,250 asylum seekers remain in the offshore processing centres on Manus Island and Nauru. In August 2016 protestors called for the closure of camps on Manus and Nauru after The Guardian released leaked incident reports alleging "routine dysfunction and cruelty" on Nauru.
In July 2016 the Obama administration set up a refugee center in Costa Rica in response to a Central American migration crisis. In November, Turnbull and Peter Dutton announced that Australia would accept 1,250 refugees from Central America, in exchange for the U.S. accepting refugees on Nauru and Manus.
Turnbull and President Donald Trump held a phone conversation on 28 January 2017, the transcript of which later leaked to the Washington Post. On 2 February 2017, Trump tweeted that Obama's deal was "dumb". US Vice-President Mike Pence later confirmed that the United States would honour the deal, subject to 'extreme vetting' of asylum seekers. Australia began receiving Central American asylum seekers in July 2017.
Since the 2016 election, the Turnbull government has followed prior Coalition government energy policies. This involves the wholesale dismissal of renewable energy targets and emissions intensity schemes. This only hardened when South Australia faced large blackouts which Turnbull had blamed on the state's 'ambitious' renewable energy target. In response to the gas and energy crisis that occurred in March 2017, Malcolm Turnbull announced a 50% increase in the capacity of Snowy Hydro through 'pumped hydro' technology.
In April 2017, Turnbull announced that he would use the Commonwealth government's powers to place export restrictions on the nation's liquified natural gas ("LNG") industry. He announced that these changes were in response to the high wholesale gas prices that were a result of a shortage of gas in the domestic gas market and that it was 'unacceptable' that domestic prices were so high, indicating a consequence of these restrictions would be a decrease in the wholesale gas price. The multinational gas companies and the gas industry association heavily criticised the policy saying that it would neither increase supply nor reduce the wholesale price of gas.
Same-sex marriage plebisciteEdit
Prior to Turnbull becoming Prime Minister, the parliamentary Liberal Party voted to resolve the issue of same-sex marriage by putting the question to Australians voters via a plebiscite. Enabling legislation was rejected twice by the Senate, and so the government decided to adopt a postal plebiscite option, which will involve the Australian Bureau of Statistics conducting a nationwide survey asking voters whether they would like to see a change in the definition of marriage. Ballots will begin to be sent out on 12 September 2017, as attempts to prevent the survey through a High Court challenge have failed. The survey ended 7 November 2017 and results released 15 November the same year. It returned with a total of 7,817,247 (61.6%) "Yes" responses and 4,873,987 (38.4%) "No" responses.
Following the vote, after four days of debates regarding amendments which included proposals to increase religious protections to refuse services to same-sex couples, on the 7 December 2017 same-sex marriage was legalised through a parliamentary vote by the House of Representatives. The first same-sex marriages in Australia occurred as a result of the law change from 9 January 2018.
Parliamentary eligibility crisisEdit
Members of Turnbull's government were among those embroiled in the parliamentary eligibility crisis that arose in 2017, which disqualified several parliamentarians who held dual citizenship in accordance with subsection 44(i) of the Australian Constitution. Three Cabinet members were among the "Citizenship Seven" whose cases were heard in the High Court of Australia: the leader and deputy leader of the co-governing National Party, Deputy Prime Minister Barnaby Joyce and Senator Fiona Nash; and Resources Minister Matt Canavan, who resigned from Cabinet after discovering his potential dual citizenship. The High Court ruled that Canavan was eligible, but disqualified dual citizens Joyce and Nash from Parliament.
The Turnbull Government temporarily lost its one-seat majority in the House of Representatives after Joyce's disqualification and the resignation of Liberal Party MP John Alexander, who also held dual citizenship. However, in December 2017 both Joyce and Alexander, having renounced their foreign citizenships, contested and won by-elections in their former seats of New England and Bennelong, thereby retaining Turnbull's governing majority in the House of Representatives.
Turnbull is married to prominent businesswoman and 2003–04 Sydney Lord Mayor Lucy Turnbull AO, née Hughes. They married on 22 March 1980 at Cumnor, Oxfordshire, near Oxford by a Church of England priest while Turnbull was attending the University of Oxford. They live in the eastern suburbs of Sydney.
The use of Bligh as a male middle name is a tradition in the Turnbull family. It is also Turnbull's son's middle name. One of Turnbull's ancestors was colonist John Turnbull, who named his youngest son William Bligh Turnbull in honour of deposed Governor William Bligh at the time of the Rum Rebellion.
Raised Presbyterian, Turnbull converted to Roman Catholicism "by mid-2002"; his wife's family is Roman Catholic. However, he has found himself at odds with the church's teaching on abortion, stem cell research and same-sex marriage. Turnbull supported legislation relaxing restrictions on abortion pill RU486 and he also voted for the legalisation of somatic cell nuclear transfer. He did so despite the vocal public opposition to both proposals by Cardinal George Pell, the then-Archbishop of Sydney.
In 2005, the combined net worth of Malcolm and Lucy Turnbull was estimated at A$133 million, making him Australia's richest parliamentarian until the election of billionaire Clive Palmer in the 2013 election.
Turnbull made the BRW Rich 200 list for the second year running in 2010, and although he slipped from 182 to 197, his estimated net worth increased to A$186 million, and he continued to be the only sitting politician to make the list. Turnbull was not listed in the 2014 list of the BRW Rich 200. As of 2015, his estimated net worth is in excess of A$200 million.
Turnbull has written books on the republican debate, as well as his experiences during the Spycatcher trial:
- Turnbull, Malcolm (1988). The Spycatcher Trial. William Heinemann Australia. ISBN 978-0-85561-239-9.
- Turnbull, Malcolm (1993). The Reluctant Republic. William Heinemann Australia. ISBN 978-0-85561-372-3.
- Turnbull, Malcolm (1999). Fighting for the Republic: The Ultimate Insider's Account. Hardie Grant. ISBN 978-1-86498-107-0.
- "Party representation - 2016 Tally Room: AEC". Archived from the original on 20 July 2016.
- Massola, James (8 July 2016). "'Back within the year': Bill Shorten predicts second election".
- "Obituary – Coral Magnolia Lansbury – Obituaries Australia". anu.edu.au.
- "Biography – Coral Magnolia Lansbury – Australian Dictionary of Biography". anu.edu.au. Retrieved 15 September 2015.
- Fowler, Glenn (4 April 1991). "obituary". New York Times. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
- "Will privilege drown his message?". The Sydney Morning Herald. 17 September 2008.
- Paddy Manning. "The lonely childhood of Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
- Clune, Richard (1 March 2013). "GQ&A with Malcolm Turnbull". GQ.
- Ackland, Richard (17 October 2003). "A sureness that weakens Turnbull's case". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 10 September 2007.
- Lee, Sandra (3 December 2006). "A leader in waiting?". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 11 September 2007.
- "Turnbull battles for Wentworth". The 7.30 Report. ABC TV. 8 November 2006. Retrieved 9 November 2007.
- "Born to Rule: The unauthorised biography of Malcolm Turnbull by Paddy Manning – Books – Random House Books Australia". Random House Australia. Retrieved 25 October 2015.
- Malcolm Turnbull - Extended Interview Transcript Archived 11 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine. - PROGRAM TRANSCRIPT: Monday, 21 September 2015 Malcolm Turnbull interview with Belinda Hawkins
- Interview: Malcolm Turnbull - faith
- "Biography". Malcolm Turnbull MP.
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