Movement for France
The Movement for France (French: Mouvement pour la France, MPF; French pronunciation: [muvmɑ̃ puʁ laˈfʁɑ̃s]) was a conservative, soft Eurosceptic and Gaullist French political party, founded on 20 November 1994, with a marked regional stronghold in the Vendée. It was led by Philippe de Villiers, once communications minister under Jacques Chirac.
|Leader||Philippe de Villiers|
|Founded||20 November 1994|
|Dissolved||28 June 2018|
|Headquarters||16 bis avenue de la Motte-Picquet – 75007 Paris|
|European affiliation||Movement for a Europe of Liberties and Democracy (2011–2015)|
|European Parliament group||Europe of Freedom and Democracy (2009–2014)|
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Constitution of France
Parliament; government; president
The party was considered Eurosceptic, though not to the extent of seeking withdrawal from the European Union. In this way it contrasts with some mainstream Eurosceptic parties such as the UK Independence Party (UKIP). The MPF resists increases in European integration and campaigned successfully for a "no" vote in the French referendum of 2005 on the proposed European Constitution.
In the 1997 legislative election, the MPF joined forces with the National Centre of Independents and Peasants as La Droite Indépendante (LDI). Philippe de Villiers was re-elected, as was one of his allies, who nonetheless left the party soon thereafter.
It contested the 1999 European Parliamentary elections in alliance with the Rassemblement pour la France (RPF) of Charles Pasqua, the combination winning 13 seats, surpassing Nicolas Sarkozy's Rassemblement pour la République (RPR) list. The MPF formed an alliance with the RPF, but Villiers fell out with Pasqua the following year. Standing by itself in the 2004 European elections, the MPF obtained 7.6% of the popular vote and returned three Members of the European Parliament (MEPs). The party was a member of the Independence and Democracy group in the European Parliament.
Villiers declared his candidacy for the 2007 presidential election and appointed a secretary-general, Guillaume Peltier, then ranked second in the party. He ranked sixth out of twelve candidates, obtaining 2.23% (818,407 votes), down almost 2% from his previous candidacy in 1995. His best scores came in Pays de la Loire with 4.99% and Poitou-Charentes with 3.58%. Unlike in 1995, he failed to win in his department of Vendée, where he obtained 11.28% (over 20% in 1995).
In the 2007 legislative election, MPF candidates ran nationwide, but only one candidate was elected – Véronique Besse in Vendée's 4th constituency by the first round. Former MPF member Joël Sarlot was also elected by the first round in the Vendée's 5th constituency. Sarlot subsequently lent support to the victorious Union for a Popular Movement (UMP) in the National Assembly. Sarlot's election was invalidated in 2007 and Dominique Souchet, a Villierist won the ensuing by-election easily. Other candidates, mostly in the south of France obtained important scores. Jacques Bompard, in the 4th constituency of Vaucluse won over 20%.
In the 2009 European Parliament election, the party ran with Hunting, Fishing, Nature, Tradition under the umbrella of the Libertas political movement led by Irish businessman Declan Ganley. It won 4.8% and only Philippe de Villiers was re-elected: Patrick Louis was defeated. The MPF was the only Libertas affiliated party throughout the whole of the European Union to elect MEPs in 2009. The party was member of the Europe of Freedom and Democracy (EFD) group during the 7th European Parliament.
In August 2009, Philippe de Villiers announced that the MPF would join the Liaison Committee for the Presidential Majority, which co-ordinates the member parties of the majority supporting the policies of President Nicolas Sarkozy.
The party was dissolved in 2018.
Popular support and electoral recordEdit
The MPF had little electoral clout and most of its support was concentrated in Philippe de Villiers' department of Vendée, his electoral stronghold. While most of his support drew on his status as a favourite son, Vendée is also a strongly Traditionalist Catholic department which maintains a sense of pride in the monarchist counter-revolution and the Chouans during the French Revolution. In the 2009 European election, Villiers' list won the department with 32.96% while polling only 4.8% nationally. In the 2004 European election the MPF won 38.63% and it won 31.9% in the 1999 elections and 34.75% in 1994. However, the MPF is weaker in the department in national elections – such as presidential votes. Philippe de Villiers, who had won 22.02% in his department in the 1995 presidential election (he also got first place) came in fourth place with 11.28% in the 2007 presidential election. His electoral base in the department is his constituency – Vendée's 4th constituency – in which he consistently does better than in the department as a whole.
His influence waned, however: through considered to be pro-EU in general, the department voted against the Maastricht Treaty in 1992 due to Villiers' influence, but it voted for the European Constitution in 2005. It was the only department to switch between a NO vote in 1992 and a YES vote in 2005.
The MPF was also strong in other departments, mostly those neighboring Vendée. In 2009, for example, Villiers' list won 14.26% in the Deux-Sèvres, a department which is also strongly Catholic. It also won 12.36% in Charente-Maritime, 10.39% in Maine-et-Loire, 9.79% in Charente, 9.29% in Vienne and 8.56% in Loire-Atlantique. Due to Jacques Bompard, it also polled 6.40% in the southeastern Vaucluse department.
|Election year||Candidate||# of 1st round votes||% of 1st round vote||# of 2nd round votes||% of 2nd round vote|
|1995||Philippe de Villiers||1,443,235||4.74%||—||—|
|2007||Philippe de Villiers||818,407||2.23%||—||—|
|Election year||# of 1st round votes||% of 1st round vote||# of seats|
|Election year||Number of votes||% of overall vote||# of seats won|
The MPF and Villers, mostly due to their views on Islam and Muslim immigration, have been labeled in world news media such as CNN, Der Spiegel, The Wall Street Journal, The Boston Globe, and The San Francisco Chronicle as "far right".
The MPF is a souverainist party which supports the national independence of France within a Europe "of peoples and co-operation". Unlike the United Kingdom Independence Party, it does not support France's withdrawal from the EU but rather a massive overhaul of it. The MPF is a strong critic of what it sees as excessive bureaucracy and technocracy in the EU. Its various proposals include:
- Restore the rule of national law over EU law.
- Ceasing negotiations over the accession of Turkey to the European Union, and begin a process of privileged partnership with Turkey and other Mediterranean countries.
- Allow the countries of Europe to form their own, independent foreign policies.
- Follow a policy of respect of national borders and control of immigration.
- Put the national Parliaments in the middle of European construction and giving them veto power on the vital interests of the people which they represent.
- Put the European Union and the euro at the service of the growth and employment.
- Found a European preference for industry and the services, as for agriculture.
- Opposition to the Lisbon Treaty and halting the ratification process.
- Draft a "fundamental treaty" of the European Union based on a free association of independent nations and peoples.
- Establishing a "European protectionism" with tariffs on external imports. Within France, it is more neoliberal in supporting lower taxes to encourage the growth of industries within France.
- End the 35-hour workweek
- Liberalization of the fixed retirement age (60)
- Maximum rate of taxation at 38%
- Repealing the solidarity tax on wealth (ISF)
- Referendum on the re-establishment of the death penalty
- Forbid the wearing of the hijab in public.
- Establishing a moratorium on constructing mosques in France.
- Abolition of the French Council of the Muslim Faith (CFCM)
- Opposition to same-sex marriage: constitutional amendment establishing marriage as between a man and a woman
- The party supports alternatives to abortion though it does not support forbidding it
- Deputies: Véronique Besse, Dominique Souchet (Non-Inscrits)
- Senators: Bruno Retailleau, Philippe Darniche (RASNAG)
- MEPs: Philippe de Villiers (EFD)
The MPF currently controls one general council, that of Vendée, where Villiers serves as President of the General Council. It has 10 general councillors in Vendée in addition to one in the Morbihan (Quiberon), one in the Meuse (Charny-sur-Meuse) and two in the Vaucluse (Orange). It claims 5 regional councillors, most of which were elected on FN lists in 2004.
- "Mouvement pour la France". Projet Arcadie. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
- Nordsieck, Wolfram (2012). "France". Parties and Elections in Europe. Archived from the original on 11 June 2017.
- "Philippe de Villiers explique les raisons de son ralliement à l'UMP".
- "Ministry of the Interior results page".
- "Ministry of the Interior results page".
- "Results on the CDSP website". Archived from the original on 4 June 2012.
- Results of the Rally for France-MPF common list
- The RPF-MPF list won 13 MEPs, of which 6 were members of the MPF
- Including Paul-Marie Coûteaux, who is not a member of the MPF
- Results of Libertas France, where the MPF was the senior party in a coalition including the stronger Movement for France
- "12 candidates in the running for French president". CNN. 9 April 2007.
- "Paris Airport Bars Muslim Workers". Der Spiegel. 2 November 2006.
- Tom Heneghan (23 April 2006). "Far-right leader decries "Islamisation of France"". The Boston Globe.
- David Marcelis. "Philippe de Villiers". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 4 March 2009.
- Elaine Ganley (2 August 2006). "Paris Shuts Airport Muslim Prayer Rooms". The San Francisco Chronicle.