List of political parties in France

France has a multi-party political system: one in which the number of competing political parties is sufficiently large as to make it almost inevitable that in order to participate in the exercise of power any single party must be prepared to negotiate with one or more others with a view to forming electoral alliances and/or coalition agreements.

The dominant French political parties are also characterised by a noticeable degree of intra-party factionalism, making each of them effectively a coalition in itself.

Up until recently, the government of France had alternated between two rather stable coalitions:

This was the case until the 2017 presidential election, when Emmanuel Macron of the centrist La République En Marche! defeated Marine Le Pen of the right-wing National Rally in the second round. This was the first time in which a third party had won the presidency, as well as the first time that neither of the major coalitions had appeared in the second round of a presidential election. This was followed shortly by a significant victory for LREM in the 2017 legislative election, winning a majority of 350 seats. Both the traditional coalitions suffered major defeats.

In the 2022 presidential election, the same scenario repeated, with Emmanuel Macron being again victorious. Both traditional parties (Socialist Party and The Republicans) scored less than 5% each, with Jean-Luc Mélenchon's La France Insoumise emerging as the dominant left-wing party, ranking third in the first round.

The National Rally (previously known as the National Front before a name change in 2018) has also experienced significant successes in other elections. Since 2014, the party has established itself as a major party in France, finishing in first place in the 2014 and 2019 European elections as well as in the 2015 local elections,[1] though the party failed to win government in any regions due to the last-ditch alliance between the centre-left and the centre-right coalitions in Hauts-de-France and Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur.[2]

Elected partiesEdit

Major nationwide represented partiesEdit

Name Abbr. National
coalition
Leader or chair Députés Senators MEPs Presidency of
regional councils
Presidency of
departmental councils
Political
position
Ideology
La République En Marche! LREM Ensemble! Stanislas Guerini
153 / 577
23 / 348
7 / 74
2 / 17
1 / 101
Centre[3] Liberalism,
Pro-Europeanism
The Republicans LR UDC Christian Jacob
58 / 577
138 / 348
7 / 74
7 / 17
44 / 101
Centre-right to right-wing Christian democracy,
Gaullism
National Rally RN RN group Marine Le Pen
88 / 577
2 / 348
20 / 74
0 / 17
0 / 101
Far-right Right-wing populism
Socialist Party PS NUPES Olivier Faure
27 / 577
63 / 348
2 / 74
5 / 17
27 / 101
Centre-left Social democracy
La France Insoumise FI NUPES Jean-Luc Mélenchon
69 / 577
0 / 348
5 / 74
0 / 17
0 / 101
Left-wing to far-left Left-wing populism

Other nationwide represented partiesEdit

Party Abbr. National
coalition
Leader or chair Députés Senators MEPs Presidency of
regional councils
Presidency of
departmental councils
Political
position
Ideology
Democratic Movement MoDem Ensemble! François Bayrou
48 / 577
5 / 348
6 / 74
0 / 17
1 / 101
Centre to centre-right Liberalism, social liberalism, Christian democracy
Horizons Ensemble! Édouard Philippe
29 / 577
4 / 348
2 / 74
0 / 17
0 / 101
Centre-right Conservative liberalism
Left Party PG NUPES Eric Coquerel,
Danielle Simonnet
25 / 577
0 / 348
2 / 74
0 / 17
0 / 101
Left-wing Democratic socialism, left-wing populism, environmentalism, alter-globalisation, soft Euroscepticism
Europe Ecology – The Greens EELV NUPES Julien Bayou
16 / 577
7 / 348
9 / 74
0 / 17
0 / 101
Centre-left to left-wing Green politics
French Communist Party PCF GDR, NUPES Pierre Laurent
12 / 577
14 / 348
0 / 74
0 / 17
1 / 101
Left-wing to far-left Communism, soft Euroscepticism
UDI UDI UDC Jean-Christophe Lagarde
6 / 577
42 / 348
0 / 74
0 / 17
8 / 101
Centre to centre-right Centrism, social liberalism, pro-Europeanism, Christian democracy
Ensemble! FI group, NUPES
5 / 577
0 / 348
0 / 74
0 / 17
0 / 101
Left-wing Socialism, eco-socialism, anti-globalisation
Radical Party RAD Ensemble!, LT Laurent Hénart,
Sylvia Pinel
4 / 577
10 / 348
1 / 74
0 / 17
0 / 101
Centre Liberalism, pro-Europeanism
Génération.s NUPES Benoît Hamon
4 / 577
1 / 348
0 / 74
0 / 17
1 / 101
Centre-left to left-wing Social democracy, democratic socialism
En Commun EC Ensemble! Philippe Hardouin
4 / 577
0 / 348
0 / 74
0 / 17
0 / 101
Centre-left Green politics
The Centrists LC LT, UDC Hervé Morin
2 / 577
6 / 348
1 / 74
0 / 17
0 / 101
Centre to centre-right Centrism, conservative liberalism, Christian democracy
Soyons libres SL LR, UDC Valérie Pécresse
2 / 577
2 / 348
0 / 74
1 / 17
1 / 101
Centre-right Liberal conservatism, Gaullism, economic liberalism, pro-Europeanism
Ecology Generation GE NUPES Delphine Batho
2 / 577
0 / 348
0 / 74
0 / 17
0 / 101
Centre Green politics, integral ecology, eco-feminism
Radical Party of the Left PRG Guillaume Lacroix [fr]
1 / 577
2 / 348
0 / 74
0 / 17
2 / 101
Centre-left Social liberalism, Pro-Europeanism
The New Democrats ND EELV Aurélien Taché
Émilie Cariou
1 / 577
0 / 348
0 / 74
0 / 17
0 / 101
Centre-left Social liberalism, Social democracy, Environmentalism
Ecologist Party PE LREM François de Rugy
1 / 577
1 / 348
0 / 74
0 / 17
0 / 101
Centre-left Green politics, green liberalism, environmentalism, social-liberalism, European federalism
Debout la France DLF None Nicolas Dupont-Aignan
1 / 577
0 / 348
0 / 74
0 / 17
0 / 101
Right-wing to far-right French nationalism, national conservatism, Gaullism, Republicanism, souverainism, social conservatism, Euroscepticism
Independent Workers' Party FI group, NUPES
1 / 577
0 / 348
0 / 74
0 / 17
0 / 101
Left-wing

Marxism

Reconquête R! None Éric Zemmour
0 / 577
0 / 348
4 / 74
0 / 17
0 / 101
Far-right National conservatism, Anti-immigration, Gaullism, Soft Euroscepticism
Democratic European Force FED UDI, UDC Jean-Christophe Lagarde
0 / 577
4 / 348
0 / 74
0 / 17
0 / 101
Centre-right Centrism, social liberalism, pro-Europeanism, Christian democracy
Centrist Alliance AC LaREM Philippe Folliot
0 / 577
3 / 348
0 / 74
0 / 17
0 / 101
Centre Centrism, liberalism
The Patriots LP Florian Philippot
0 / 577
2 / 348
0 / 74
0 / 17
0 / 101
Right-wing to far-right Euroscepticism, souverainism, Gaullism, populism, statism, animal rights
La Force du 13 LFD13 None Jean-Noël Guérini
0 / 577
2 / 348
0 / 74
0 / 17
0 / 101
Left-wing Social democracy
Mouvement des citoyens MDC SOC, FGR[4] Jean-Marie Alexandre
0 / 577
1 / 348
0 / 74
0 / 17
0 / 101
Left-wing Social democracy, souverainism
Movement of Progressives MdP EDS Robert Hue
0 / 577
1 / 348
0 / 74
0 / 17
0 / 101
Left-wing Democratic socialism
Modern Left LGM UDI Jean-Marie Bockel
0 / 577
1 / 348
0 / 74
0 / 17
0 / 101
Centre Social liberalism
Génération citoyens GC Jean-Marie Cavada
0 / 577
1 / 348
0 / 74
0 / 17
0 / 101
Centre to right-wing Social liberalism
Démocratie et République
0 / 577
1 / 348
0 / 74
0 / 17
0 / 101
Mouvement libéral et modéré MLM Philippe Adnot
0 / 577
1 / 348
0 / 74
0 / 17
0 / 101
Republican and Socialist Left GRS FI group, FGR Emmanuel Maurel,
Marie-Noëlle Lienemann
0 / 577
1 / 348
1 / 74
0 / 17
0 / 101
Left-wing Socialism, Euroscepticism, economic interventionism, statism
Place Publique PP NUPES Raphaël Glucksmann
0 / 577
0 / 348
2 / 74
0 / 17
0 / 101
Centre-left Social democracy, Pro-Europeanism
Cap Ecology Cap écologie LREM Corinne Lepage
0 / 577
0 / 348
1 / 74
0 / 17
0 / 101
Centre to centre-left Environmentalism, Green liberalism, Green politics
New Deal ND NUPES Arnaud Lelache & Aline Mouquet
0 / 577
0 / 348
1 / 74
0 / 17
0 / 101
Centre-left to left-wing Progressivism, Keynesianism, European federalism
Freedom Ecology Fraternity LEF LT
0 / 577
0 / 348
0 / 74
0 / 17
0 / 101
Centre-left Green politics
Citizen and Republican Movement MRC NG, FGR Jean-Luc Laurent
0 / 577
0 / 348
0 / 74
0 / 17
0 / 101
Left-wing Left-wing Gaullism, souverainism, democratic socialism, soft Euroscepticism, protectionism
Résistons! None Jean Lassalle
0 / 577
0 / 348
0 / 74
0 / 17
0 / 101
Centre Ruralism, humanism, localism, sovereignty
Initiative démocratique de gauche
0 / 577
0 / 348
0 / 74
0 / 17
0 / 101
Centre-left Social democracy

Regional parties with national representationEdit

Territory Party Abbr. National
coalition
Leader or chair Députés Senators MEPs Presidency of
regional councils
Presidency of
departmental councils
Political
position
Ideology
  Corsica Femu a Corsica Femu LT Gilles Simeoni
2 / 4
1 / 2
1 / 74
1 / 1
Centre Corsican nationalism, Corsican autonomism
  New Caledonia Caledonia Together CE UDI Philippe Gomès
2 / 2
1 / 2
0 / 74
0 / 1
Centre-right Anti-separatism, progressivism, protectionism, environmentalism, Christian democracy
  French Polynesia Tapura Huiraatira TH Ensemble Citoyens Édouard Fritch
0 / 3
2 / 2
0 / 74
1 / 1
Centre-right Liberalism, autonomism, anti-independence
  Guadeloupe United Guadeloupe, Solidary and Responsible GUSR LREM Guy Losbar
0 / 4
1 / 3
0 / 74
1 / 1
Centre-left Social democracy, social liberalism, autonomism
  French Guiana Guiana Rally GR LREM Rodolphe Alexandre
0 / 2
1 / 2
0 / 74
0 / 1
Centre
  Réunion For Réunion PLR GDR, NUPES Huguette Bello
2 / 7
0 / 348
0 / 74
1 / 1
Left-wing Post-Marxism, social democracy, regionalism
  Saint Pierre and Miquelon Cap sur l'avenir LREM Annick Girardin
0 / 4
0 / 1
0 / 74
0 / 1
Centre-left Classical radicalism
  French Polynesia Tavini Huiraatira TH GDR Oscar Temaru
3 / 3
0 / 2
0 / 74
0 / 1
Left-wing French Polynesian independence, social democracy, democratic socialism, progressivism
  Corsica Party of the Corsican Nation PNC LT Jean-Christophe Angelini
1 / 4
0 / 2
0 / 74
0 / 1
Left-wing Corsican nationalism, left-wing nationalism, social democracy
  Martinique Build the Martinique Country SOC Pierre Samot
0 / 4
0 / 348
0 / 74
0 / 1
Left-wing Post-Marxism, Separatism
  Martinique Péyi-A GDR Jean-Philippe Nilor, Marcelin Nadeau
2 / 4
0 / 348
0 / 74
0 / 1
Left-wing Post-Marxism, separatism
  Réunion Rézistans Equality 974 RÉ974 FI group, NUPES Jean-Hugues Ratenon
1 / 7
0 / 348
0 / 74
0 / 1
Left-wing Social democracy, regionalism
  Picardy[a] Picardie debout FI group, NUPES François Ruffin
1 / 10
0 / 348
0 / 74
0 / 1
0 / 3
Far-left Anti-capitalism, protectionism, left-wing souverainism, left-wing populism, participatory democracy, eco-socialism
  Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur League of the South LS RN group Jacques Bompard
1 / 20
0 / 348
0 / 74
0 / 1
0 / 5
Far-right National conservatism, souverainism, identitarian, anti-globalization, regionalism, patriotism, localism, Poujadism, liberal conservatism
  Saint Pierre and Miquelon Archipelago Tomorrow AD RDSE Gérard Grignon
0 / 1
1 / 1
0 / 74
0 / 1
Centre-right Christian democracy, Social conservatism

Region-only partiesEdit

Acronym and Name National coalition Leader or Chairman Territorial councillors Ideology
LMR: Rurality Movement None Eddie Puyjalon Regional:
6 / 1,880
Traditional rural values; refusal of environmental legislation and regulations restricting the right to hunt and fish, conservative, Eurosceptic
MEI: Independent Ecological Movement None Antoine Waechter Regional:
3 / 1,880
Green politics, Centrism, anti-nuclear
NPA: New Anticapitalist Party None Christine Poupin Regional:
2 / 1,880
Anti-capitalism, democratic socialism, eco-socialism, alter-globalisation

Non-elected partiesEdit

Acronym and Name National coalition Leader or Chairman Political Position
AF: French Action None Stéphane Blanchonnet Monarchism, nationalism, conservatism, Euroscepticism,
UPR: Popular Republican Union None François Asselineau French nationalism, Hard Euroscepticism
CJ: Comités Jeanne None Jean-Marie Le Pen Nationalism, Euroscepticism, souverainism
AR: Royal Alliance None Pierre Bernard Monarchism (Orléanism), conservatism, Euroscepticism
NAR: New Royalist Action None Bertrand Renouvin Monarchism, conservatism, Euroscepticism, Gaullism
RD: Democratic Rally None Philippe Cartellier Monarchism, conservatism, Gaullism, Capetism
GE: Ecology Generation None Yves Piétrasanta Green politics, green conservatism, centre-right
GR: Revolutionary Left None Collective Marxism, socialism, Trotskyism
PCOF: Workers' Communist Party of France None Collective Communism, Marxism–Leninism, Hoxhaism, Anti-revisionism
PRCF: Pole of Communist Revival in France None Léon Landini Communism, Marxism-Leninism, Left-wing nationalism
OCML-VP: Marxist–Leninist Communist Organization – Proletarian Way None Collective Communism, Marxism-Leninism-Maoism
PP: Pirate Party None Maxime Rouquet, Guillaume Lecoquierre Intellectual property reform, protection of privacy and individual liberty
LO: Workers' Struggle None Nathalie Arthaud, spokeswoman Trotskyism, internationalism, feminism
FA: Anarchist Federation None Collective Anarchist Synthesist, anarchism without adjectives
PL: Libertarian Party None Guilhem d'Urbal Libertarianism
UCL: Libertarian Communist Union None Collective Anarchist Communism, Anarcha-feminism
JC: New Jacobin Party None Gerald d'Ouvril, acting leader

Maximilien Robespierre, youth leader

Jacobinism, Republicanism
Volt: Volt France None Fabiola Conti, Sven Franck European federalism, Social liberalism, Progressivism, Pro-Europeanism

French RevolutionEdit

Historical partiesEdit

Political parties in French overseas possessionsEdit

Historical partiesEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Elections régionales : le FN vainqueur du premier tour". Le Monde.fr. 6 December 2015.
  2. ^ "Régionales : le PS se retire en PACA et dans le Nord-Pas-de-Calais-Picardie". 6 December 2015.
  3. ^ "Will Macron's Centrism Defeat France's Growing Right Wing?". The New Yorker. 14 April 2022.
  4. ^ "Création de la Fédération de la Gauche Républicaine". 29 April 2022.