Komeito (公明党 Kōmeitō), formerly New Komeito (abbreviated NKP), is a political party in Japan founded by lay members of the new religious movement Soka Gakkai. Komeito became a partner of the current coalition government in 2012.
|Councillors leader||Yuichiro Uozumi|
|Founded||November 17, 1964|
|Merger of||Kōmeitō (1962)|
New Peace Party
|Headquarters||17 Minamimoto-machi, Shinjuku, Tokyo 160-0012, Japan|
|Newspaper||Komei Shimbun (ja)|
|Political position||Centre to centre-right|
|Slogan||Taishū to tomo ni|
(lit. "With the public")
29 / 465
25 / 242
|Prefectural assembly members|
206 / 2,614
|Municipal assembly members|
2,735 / 30,101
After the 2012 general election, the party held 31 seats in the lower house and 19 seats in the upper house. The number of lower house seats increased to 35 after the 2014 general election and to 25 seats in the upper house after winning 14 in the 2016 general election. In the July 2017 Tokyo Metropolitan Assembly election, the Komeito garnered a total of 23 seats, 1 up from the previously held 22 seats. The party lost 6 seats, down to 29 seats in the lower house after the 2017 general election.
- 1 Platform
- 2 History
- 3 Leaders
- 4 Election results
- 5 See also
- 6 Literature
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Komeito's declared mission is to pioneer "people-centered politics, a politics based on a humanitarianism that treats human life with the utmost respect and care". On April 24. 2019, joint task force efforts with its coalition partner resulted in the passing of a bill mandating reparations and having the coalition government issue a formal apology to sterilization victims of the defunct Eugenics Protection Act, thus to advance human rights awareness in the wake of lawsuits related to the history of Eugenics in Japan. Domestically, the party proposals also include reduction of the central government and bureaucracy, increased transparency in public affairs, and increased local (prefectural) autonomy with the private sector playing an increased role. In accordance with its public affairs transparency platform, it was reported that since September 2016, the Komeito conducted independent analyses for possible environmental contamination of the proposed Toyosu market site. The Komeito officially raised its environmental concerns later regarding Toyosu market during the October 5, 2016 Tokyo Metropolitan Assembly Session. In response, newly appointed Tokyo Governor, Yuriko Koike cited possible disciplinary action towards those responsible for the Toyosu project. With regard to foreign policy, the Komeito wishes to eliminate nuclear arms and armed conflict in general. However, in July 2015, Komeito backed prime minister's Shinzō Abe's push for expanded military powers although playing a moderating insider role in this development. Religious scholar and political analyst Masaru Satō explains that in postwar Japan there were two major parties, the Liberal Democratic Party representing financial interests and large corporations and the Japan Socialist Party largely advocating the interests of labor unions. There was no single party that represented people who belonged to neither such as shop owners, housewives, etc. Until the appearance of the Komeito Party, such people were left on the sidelines.
Relationship with Soka GakkaiEdit
Komeito regards the Soka Gakkai as a "major electoral constituency", having formally separated from the religious group and revised both its platform and regulations in 1970 to reflect a "secular orientation.":117 Observers continue to describe Komeito as the Soka Gakkai's "political arm", however, and critics contend the relationship violates the separation of religion and politics enshrined in Article 20 of the Japanese Constitution. The leadership and financing of the two groups are currently said to be independent.:123–27 Both groups report having occasional liaison meetings, characterizing them as informational and "open to the media." Numerous Japanese religious groups have established political parties in Japan, but statistics scholar Petter Lindgren states that "None have however been more successful than Soka Gakkai." "In spite of how many authors reiterate the 1960s-era image of Komeito as a party of Gakkai members only (e.g. Baerwald, 1986; Stockwin, 1989; Richardson, 1998; Curtis, 1999; Yoshikawa, 1999; Sado, 2005), scholars who look more closely at the Gakkai and Komeito know that the popular image of the party's exclusivity is inaccurate. Komeito partisans account for about half of the party's electoral support."
Opposition before 1993Edit
Komeito began as the Political Federation for Clean Government in 1961, but held its inaugural convention as Komeito on 17 November 1964. The three characters 公明党 have the approximate meanings of "public/government" (公 kō), "light/brightness" (明 mei), and "political party" (党 tō). The combination "kōmei" (公明) is usually taken to mean "justice" or "fairness". Komeito's predecessor party, Kōmeitō, was formed in 1962, but it had begun in 1954 as the Kōmei Political League. It lasted until 1998.
In 1957, a group of Young Men's Division members campaigning for a Soka Gakkai candidate in an Osaka Upper House by-election were arrested for distributing money, cigarettes, and caramels at supporters' residences, in violation of election law, and on July 3 of that year, at the beginning of an event memorialized as the "Osaka Incident," Daisaku Ikeda was arrested in Osaka. He was taken into custody in his capacity as Soka Gakkai's Youth Division Chief of Staff for overseeing activities that constituted violations of election law. He spent two weeks in jail and appeared in court forty-eight times before he was cleared of all charges in January 1962.
In 1968, fourteen of its members were convicted of forging absentee ballots in Shinjuku, and eight were sentenced to prison for electoral fraud. In the 1960s it was widely criticized for violating the separation of church and state, and in February 1970 all three major Japanese newspapers printed editorials demanding that the party reorganize. It eventually broke apart based on promises to segregate from Soka Gakkai.
In the 1980s Shimbun Akahata discovered that many Soka Gakkai members were rewarding acquaintances with presents in return for Komeito votes, and that Okinawa residents had changed their addresses to elect Komeito politicians.
Anti-LDP coalition government: 1993–1994Edit
Kōmeitō joined the Hosokawa and Hata anti-LDP coalition cabinets in 1993 and 1994. After the collapse of the anti-LDP and anti-JCP governments (非自民・非共産連立政権) and the electoral and campaign finance reforms of 1994, the Kōmeitō split in December 1994: The "New Kōmei Party" (公明新党 Kōmei Shintō) joined the New Frontier Party (NFP) a few days later in an attempt to unify the splintered opposition. The other group, Kōmei (公明), continued to exist as a separate party. After the dissolution of the NFP in December 1997, former Kōmeitō members from the NFP founded two new groups: the "New Peace Party" (新党平和 Shintō Heiwa) and the Reimei Club (黎明クラブ, "Dawn Club") in the House of Councillors, but some ex-Kōmeitō politicians such as Shōzō Azuma followed Ichirō Ozawa into the Liberal Party. The Reimei Club merged into the New Peace Party a few weeks later in January 1998. Finally, in November 1998, Kōmei and New Peace Party merged to re-establish Kōmeitō (referred to in English now as "New Komeito" – the party's name is just Kōmeitō as before the 1994 split).
The Japan Echo alleged in 1999 that Soka Gakkai distributed fliers to local branches describing how to abuse the jūminhyō residence registration system in order to generate a large number of votes for Komeito candidates in specific districts.
Coalition with the Liberal Democratic Party since 1999Edit
The current conservative, more moderate and centrist party was formed in 1998, in a merger of Kōmei and the New Peace Party. Since then it has joined coalition with the ruling Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), which need Komeito to maintain majority in the Diet, and did well in the 2000 and 2001 parliamentary elections.
The LDP-Liberal coalition expanded to include the New Komeito Party in October 1999. New Komeito has been (and continues to be) a coalition partner in the Government of Japan since 1999 (excluding 2009–2011 when the Democratic Party of Japan was in power). As such, New Komeito supported a (temporary) change to Japan's "no-war constitution" in order for Japan to support the 2003 invasion of Iraq.
In the 2003 and 2004 Diet elections, the NKP did well, thanks to an extremely committed and well organized voter base coming from Soka Gakkai. The party shares its support base with the LDP, made up of white collar bureaucrats and rural populations, but also gains support from religious leaders. However, on 27 July 2005, NKP's Secretary General said that his party would consider forming a coalition government with the Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) if the DPJ gained a majority in the House of Representatives. On 8 August 2005, then-Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi dissolved the Lower House and called for a general election, due to the rejection on some of the members of LDP for efforts to privatize Japan Post. The incumbent LDP-New Komeito coalition won a large majority in the 2005 general election.
Natsuo Yamaguchi became the party's leader on 8 September 2009 after the party and their coalition partner LDP suffered a major defeat in the 2009 general election and became an opposition party since 1999. New Komeito lost ten seats, including that of party leader Akihiro Ota and general secretary Kazuo Kitagawa. On 8 September 2009, Yamaguchi replaced Ota as president of New Komeito.
On 16 December 2012 general elections, the LDP/New Komeito coalition secured Supermajority back into Government; former party chief Akihiro Ota (Ohta) is currently Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. The party had also gained seats in general elections. In September 2014 the party changed its English name from New Komeito back to Komeito.
In July 2015, Komeito backed prime minister Shinzō Abe's push to change the constitution to "give Japan’s military limited powers to fight in foreign conflicts for the first time since World War II".[attribution needed] This legislation, supported by the United States, would allow the "Self-Defense Forces to cooperate more closely with the U.S. by providing logistical support and, in certain circumstances, armed backup in international conflicts" and "complements guidelines in a bilateral agreement governing how Japanese and United States forces work together, which was signed by the two nations" earlier in 2015.
On March 11, 2019, a project team of Komeito submitted proposals to Foreign Minister Taro Kono for an international agreement to regulate robotic weapons, calling on Japan to build global consensus for a “political declaration or a code of conduct, within the framework of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons”.
|No.||Name||Term of office|
|Took Office||Left Office|
|1||Kōji Harashima||17 November 1964||9 December 1964|
|2||Takehisa Tsuji||9 December 1964||13 February 1967|
|3||Yoshikatsu Takeiri||13 February 1967||5 December 1986|
|4||Junya Yano||5 December 1986||21 May 1989|
|5||Kōshirō Ishida||21 May 1989||5 December 1994|
|New Komei Party|
|1||Kōshirō Ishida||5 December 1994||9 December 1994|
|1||Tomio Fujii||5 December 1994||18 January 1998|
|2||Toshiko Hamayotsu||18 January 1998||7 November 1998|
|New Peace Party|
|1||Takenori Kanzaki||4 January 1998||7 November 1998|
|1||Kazuyoshi Shirahama||4 January 1998||18 January 1998|
|1||Takenori Kanzaki||7 November 1998||30 September 2006|
|2||Akihiro Ota||30 September 2006||8 September 2009|
|3||Natsuo Yamaguchi||8 September 2009||25 September 2014|
|1||Natsuo Yamaguchi||25 September 2014||Incumbent|
General election resultsEdit
PR Block votes
PR Block votes
25 / 486
47 / 486
29 / 491
55 / 511
57 / 511
33 / 511
58 / 511
56 / 512
45 / 512
51 / 511
|5,114,351||8.14%||Governing coalition (until 1994)|
|Opposition (since 1994)|
|New Frontier Party Komei faction era|
42 / 511
|see New Frontier Party||Opposition (until 1998)|
|Governing coalition (since 1998)|
|New Komeito era|
31 / 480
34 / 480
31 / 480
21 / 480
31 / 480
35 / 475
29 / 465
Councillors election resultsEdit
|Election||Leader||# of seats total||# of seats won||# of National votes
from 1983: # of Proportional votes
|% of National vote
from 1983: % of Proportional vote
|# of Prefectural votes||% of Prefectural vote||Majority/minority|
15 / 250
9 / 125
20 / 251
11 / 125
24 / 250
7 / 125
22 / 249
10 / 125
24 / 250
14 / 125
25 / 249
14 / 125
26 / 250
12 / 125
27 / 252
14 / 126
24 / 252
10 / 126
21 / 252
11 / 126
24 / 252
14 / 126
|6,415,503||14.27%||3,550,060||7.82%||Minority (until 1993)|
|Governing minority (1993-1994)|
|Minority (since 1994)|
11 / 252
0 / 126
|Did not participate in election||Minority|
22 / 252
9 / 126
|7,748,301||13.80%||1,843,479||3.30%||Minority (until 1999)|
|Governing majority (since 1999)|
|New Komeito era|
23 / 247
13 / 121
24 / 242
11 / 121
20 / 242
9 / 121
|7,765,329||13.18%||3,534,672||5.96%||Governing minority (until 2009)|
|Minority (since 2009)|
19 / 242
9 / 121
|7,639,432||13.07%||2,265,818||3.88%||Minority (until 2012)|
|Governing minority(since 2012)|
20 / 242
11 / 121
25 / 242
14 / 121
- Ehrhardt, George, Axel Klein, Levi McLaughlin and Steven R. Reed (2014) (Eds.): Kōmeitō – Politics and Religion in Japan. Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley
- Fisker-Nielsen, Anne Mette (2012), Religion and Politics in Contemporary Japan: Soka Gakkai Youth and Komeito, Routledge
- Filus, Dorothea M. (2010), "Interreligious Education and Dialogue in Japan", International Handbook of Inter-religious Education, Part One, Springer, p. 788
- Fisker-Nielsen, Anne Mette (2012), Religion and Politics in Contemporary Japan: Soka Gakkai Youth and Komeito, Routledge, p. 32
- "Overseas Business Risk - Japan".
- "今さら聞けない?! 「保守」「リベラル」ってなんだ？" [Can't you ask them now ?! What are "conservative" and "liberal"?] (in Japanese). Retrieved 27 November 2019.
- Fisker-Nielsen, Anne Mette (2012), Religion and Politics in Contemporary Japan: Soka Gakkai Youth and Komeito, Routledge, p. 86
- Metraux, Daniel A. (1996), "The Soka Gakkai: Buddhism and the Creation of a Harmonious and Peaceful Society", Engaged Buddhism: Buddhist Liberation Movements in Asia, State University of New York Press, p. 386
- "公明党" [Komeito]. komei.or.jp (in Japanese). Retrieved 28 July 2019.
... 結党以来のスローガン『大衆とともに』の精神こそ、 ...
- Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications: Prefectural and local assembly members and governors/mayors by political party as of December 31, 2017
- Matsutani, Minoru (2 December 2008). "Soka Gakkai keeps religious, political machine humming". The Japan Times, Ltd. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
- Yoshida, Reiji (18 Dec 2012). "LDP charges back, vows to regain voter confidence". The Japan Times, Ltd. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
- "Members: Mr. YAMAGUCHI Natsuo". House of Councillors, The National Diet of Japan. House of Councillors, The National Diet of Japan. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
- Kyodo, Staff Report (15 December 2014). "Abe tightens grip on power as ruling coalition wins 325 seats in Lower House election". The Japan Times, Ltd. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- Osaki, Tomohiro (11 July 2016). "LDP-led ruling bloc, allies clear two-thirds majority hurdle in Upper House poll". The Japan Times, Ltd. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "2016 House of Councillors election result infographics". The Mainichi Newspapers. 12 July 2016. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- Sieg, Linda; Funakoshi, Minami (11 July 2016). "Japan's ruling bloc wins landslide in upper house election". Thomson Reuters. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- Sieg, Linda (3 July 2017). "Japan PM's party suffers historic defeat in Tokyo poll, popular governor wins big". Thomson Reuters. Reuters. Retrieved 5 July 2017.
- Osaki, Tomohiro (2 July 2017). "Koike's camp clobbers Abe's LDP in historic Tokyo assembly election". The Japan Times, Ltd. Staff Writer. Retrieved 5 July 2017.
- "LDP trailing Koike's Tomin First no Kai in Tokyo Metropolitan Assembly race: poll". The Japan Times Ltd. Kyodo News. 25 June 2017. Retrieved 5 July 2017.
- Mayger, James; Dormido, Hannah; Warren, Hayley; Sam, Cedric; Leung, Adrian; Dodge, Sam; Qiu, Yue (24 October 2017). "Japan's Abe Has Pulled Off a Landslide—But He's Not as Popular as You Might Think [2017 Japan post-election analysis]". Bloomberg L.P. Bloomberg. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
- (New Komeito, 2002)
- "LDP, Komeito mull bill to compensate disabled for forced sterilization under old law". The Mainichi Newspapers. The Mainichi. 21 February 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
- "Victims sterilized under Japan's eugenics law to get ¥3.2 million each under state redress plan". The Japan Times, Ltd. Kyodo News. 14 Mar 2019. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
- "Remorse, Apology to Be Clarified in Relief Bill for Sterilization Victims". Nippon Communications Foundation. Jiji Press. 31 Oct 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
- "Lawsuits over Japan's past forced sterilizations prompt ruling bloc to consider compensation ahead of court rulings". The Japan Times, Ltd. Kyodo News. 29 June 2018. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
- Siripala, Thisanka. "Japan's Forced Sterilization Victims Hit Back With a Wave of Lawsuits". The Diplomat. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
- "Diet passes relief bill for the many victims of forced sterilization". The Asahi Shimbun. 24 April 2019. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
- "Diet passes bill to pay ¥3.2 million each to victims forcibly sterilized under Japan's eugenics law". The Japan Times, Ltd. Kyodo News. 24 April 2019. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
- Rich, Motoko; Inoue, Makiko (25 April 2019). "Japan to Compensate Forcibly Sterilized Patients, Decades After the Fact". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
- Katz, Brigit. "Japan Offers Apology and Compensation to Victims of Forced Sterilization". Smithsonian.com. The Smithsonian. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
- "Tokyo gov't investigating underground water at Toyosu fish market site". GPlusMedia Inc. Japan Today. 16 September 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2017.
- "Koike vows to punish officials who botched Toyosu market". The Asahi Shimbun Company. 6 October 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2017.
- Soble, Jonathan (16 July 2015). "Japan Moves to Allow Military Combat for First Time in 70 Years". Retrieved 19 March 2018 – via NYTimes.com.
- Mette Fisker-Nielsen, Anne (November 1, 2016). "Has Komeito Abandoned its Principles? Public Perception of the Party's Role in Japan's Security Legislation Debate". The Asia Pacific Journal: Japan Focus. 14 (21, #3).
- Sato, Masaru (2017). A Transforming Force. Japan: Daisanbunmei-sha, Inc. p. 30.
- "About Us: On Politics and Religion". Komeito. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
- Aruga, Hiroshi (2000). "Chapter 4: Soka Gakkai and Japanese Politics". In Machacek, David; Wilson, Bryan (eds.). Global Citizens. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-924039-6.
- Métraux, Daniel A. (1994). The Soka Gakkai Revolution. Lanham: University Press of America. pp. 42, 55.
- Okuyama, Michiaki (Spring 2010). "Soka Gakkai As a Challenge to Japanese Society and Politics" (PDF). Politics and Religion. IV (1): 84. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-02-26.
After its religious orientation was criticized by journalists and questioned in the Diet around 1970, Komeito declared that it would follow the constitutional principle of the separation between religion and state, officially separating Soka Gakkai and Komeito. But this issue continues even today as one of the targets of criticism against Soka Gakkai and Komeito.
- Soka Gakkai Annual Report 2015 (Report). Soka Gakkai Public Relations Office. 1 February 2015. p. 72.
協議会では、公明党から、党の方針、態度、決定等について説明があり、それに対して学会が意見、要望を述べる。[At the council, Komeito explains the party's policies, attitudes, decisions, etc., and the Gakkai gives opinions and requests.]
- Lindgren, Petter Y. (2016). "Komeito's security ideals and collective self-defense: betwixt pacifism and compromises". East Asia (33): 235. doi:10.1007/s12140-016-9256-8.
- Ehrhardt, George (1 April 2009). "Rethinking the Komeito Voter". Japanese Journal of Political Science. 10 (1): 10–11. doi:10.1017/S1468109908003344. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
- "公明 (Komei)". NDL-OPAC (National Diet Library - Online Public Access Catalog). National Diet Library of Japan. Retrieved 2 July 2016.
- 公明新聞. Kōmei shinbun. OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. OCLC 45443281.
- 公明新聞 北海道版 (Komei Shinbun - Hokkaido edition). NDL Search. National Diet Library [of Japan]. 1996. Retrieved 2 July 2016.
- Harano, Jōji (2014-11-25). "Kōmeitō Turns Fifty: A History of Political Twists and Compromises". Nippon.com. The Nippon Communications Foundation. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
- "About Us: History". Komeito. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
- "Commitment to Privacy". Archived from the original on 2014-05-12. Retrieved 2015-02-19.
- Kabashima, Ikuo; Steel, Gill (17 August 2012). Changing Politics in Japan. Cornell University Press. p. 38. ISBN 978-0801457630.
Other smaller parties include Komeito (the party officially became known as New Komeito in 1998), a party that Soka Gakkai formed in 1964 from its precursor, the Komei Political League.
- McCormick, John (2012). Comparative Politics in Transition. Cengage Learning. p. 179. ISBN 978-1111832575.
- Jeffrey Haynes Routledge Handbook of Religion and Politics Page 17 "Talking to young Japanese people one normally gets very little sense of enthusiasm about Buddhism, and few people seem to take seriously the notion that the New Komeito Party is a Buddhist political party. The Komeito or 'Clean Government Party' ..."
- Kira, Yōichi (1986). Jitsuroku: Sōka Gakkai = Nanatsu no daizai (Shohan. ed.). Tōkyō: Shin Nihon Shuppansha. ISBN 4406013881.
- Tun-Jen Cheng, Deborah A. Brown Religious Organizations And Democratization: Case Studies 2006 Page 279 "The demise of the Shinshinto into a variety of new splinter parties, including a revived Komeito (now called "New Komeito"), and increasing public dissatisfaction with the LDP-created political chaos. This situation was compounded by the ..."
- Endou, Kôichi (August 1999). "The Kômeitô: A Virus Infecting the Body Politic". Japan Echo. Archived from the original on May 26, 2000. Retrieved 28 April 2014.
- Politics of Japan#Political Developments since 2000
- Kliman, Daniel M. (2006). Japan's Security Strategy in the Post-9/11 World: Embracing a New Realpolitik (Volume 183 of Praeger Security International Series Volume 183 of Washington papers, ISSN 0278-937X ed.). Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0275990591.
- Ito, Masami (8 September 2009). "Ailing New Komeito taps policy chief as new boss". The Japan Times, Ltd. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
- "Akihiro OHTA (The Cabinet) - Prime Minister of Japan and His Cabinet". www.kantei.go.jp. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
- Staff writer(s)/no by-line (2014-09-28). "New Komeito drops 'New' from its name". Japan Today. Retrieved 2017-04-28.
- "Komeito removes 'New' from party name". The Japan Times, Ltd. Jiji. 2014-09-25. Retrieved 2 February 2017.
- "Japan's Komeito political party seeks international regulations on robotic weapons". The Japan Times, Ltd. Jiji Press. 11 March 2019. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
- Kiyomiya, Ryo (14 March 2019). "Japan to seek global rules on autonomous 'killer robots'". The Asahi Shimbun. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
- "Japan's Komeito political party seeks international regulations on robotic weapons". The Japan Times, Ltd. Jiji. 11 March 2019. Retrieved 21 July 2019.