Cambodian People's Party

The Cambodian People's Party (CPP; Khmer: គណបក្សប្រជាជនកម្ពុជា, Keănăpăk Prâchéachón Kămpŭchéa, pronounced [kĕənapak prɑciəcun kampuciə]) has been the ruling political party of Cambodia since 1979.

Cambodian People's Party
គណបក្សប្រជាជនកម្ពុជា
AbbreviationCPP (since 1991)
KPRP (1951–1991)
PresidentHun Sen
Vice PresidentsSay Chhum
Sar Kheng
Founded28 June 1951; 70 years ago (1951-06-28)[1]
Preceded byIndochinese Communist Party
Headquarters203 Norodom Boulevard, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Youth wingCPP Youth
Membership (2020)Increase 6,000,000[2]
Ideology
Political positionSince 1991:
Big tent[8][9][10]
1951–1991:
Left-wing to far-left
International affiliationCentrist Democrat International
Colors  Sky blue
Slogan"Independence, Peace, Freedom, Democracy, Neutrality and Social Progress"
Anthem"Anthem of the CPP"
Senate
58 / 62
National Assembly
125 / 125
Commune chiefs
1,645 / 1,646
Commune councillors
11,051 / 11,572
District councillors[11]
4,034 / 4,114
Website
cpp.org.kh

Founded in 1951, it was originally known as the Kampuchean People's Revolutionary Party (KPRP; Khmer: គណបក្សប្រជាជនបដិវត្តន៍កម្ពុជា, Keănăpăk Prâchéachón Pădĕvoăt Kămpŭchéa, pronounced [kĕənapak prɑciəcun padeʋɔət kampuciə]). Adopting a more revisionist view of Marxism, it allied itself with Vietnam and the Soviet Union in contrast to the pro-Chinese Communist Party of Kampuchea led by Pol Pot.[7] After toppling the Khmer Rouge regime with the Vietnamese-backed liberation of Phnom Penh, it became the ruling party of the People's Republic of Kampuchea (1979–1989), which was later renamed the State of Cambodia (1989–1991). The party's current name was adopted during the final year of the State of Cambodia, when the party abandoned the one-party system and Marxism–Leninism.

Originally rooted in communist and Marxist–Leninist ideologies, the party took on a more reformist outlook in the mid-1980s under Heng Samrin. In 1991, the CPP officially dropped its commitment to socialism, and has since embraced a free market economy, although its authoritarian tendencies remain.

HistoryEdit

Forerunner organizations and early historyEdit

Nationalists in Cambodia, Vietnam and Laos held the belief that to successfully liberate themselves from France they needed to work together; the nationalists formed the supranational Indochinese Communist Party (ICP) to oppose the French in 1930.

However, the triumph of the Japanese during the early stage of World War II crippled French rule and helped to nurture nationalism in all three Indochinese countries. Consequently, the idea of an Indochinese-wide party was submerged in the rhetoric of fierce nationalism. In Cambodia, growing nationalist sentiment and national pride married historical mistrust and fear of neighbouring countries, which turned out to be a stumbling block for the ICP. On 28 June 1951, the Cambodian nationalists who struggled to free Cambodia from French colonial rule split from the ICP to form the Kampuchean People's Revolutionary Party (KPRP).

In 1955, the KPRP established a subsidiary party named the People's Party in order to run in the national election that year. The name of the party was changed to the Workers' Party of Kampuchea (WPK) on 28 September 1960 and then to the Communist Party of Kampuchea (CPK) in 1966. Members of the CPK moved the party's headquarters to Ratanak Kiri province, where they were termed "the Khmer Rouge" by Prince Norodom Sihanouk.

Pen Sovan's leadership (1979–1981)Edit

In early 1979, the Cambodian communists who overthrew the Khmer Rouge's regime to end the genocide held a congress. At this gathering, they declared themselves the true successors of the original KPRP founded in 1951 and labelled the congress as the Third Party Congress, thus not recognizing the 1963, 1975 and 1978 congresses of CPK as legitimate. The party considered 28 June 1951 as its founding date. A national committee led by Pen Sovan and Roh Samai was appointed by the Congress. The women's wing of the party, the National Association of Women for the Salvation of Kampuchea, was also established in 1979 with a vast national network of members that extended to the district level.

The existence of the party was kept secret until its 4th congress in May 1981, when it appeared publicly and assumed the name KPRP. The name-change was stated to be carried out "to clearly distinguish it from the reactionary Pol Pot party and to underline and reassert the continuity of the party's best traditions".

Heng Samrin's leadership (1981–1991)Edit

As of 1990, members of the Politburo were Heng Samrin (General Secretary), Chea Sim, Hun Sen, Chea Soth, Math Ly, Tea Banh, Men Sam An, Nguon Nhel, Sar Kheng, Bou Thang, Ney Pena, Say Chhum and alternate members included Sing Song, Sim Ka and Pol Saroeun. Members of the Secretariat were Heng Samrin, Say Phouthang, Bou Thang, Men Sam An and Sar Kheng.

Hun Sen's leadership (1991–present)Edit

In 1991, the party was renamed Cambodian People's Party (CPP) during a United Nations-sponsored peace and reconciliation process. Politburo and the Secretariat to enter into the new Standing Committee, Chea Sim as President and Hun Sen as Vice-president. Despite being rooted in socialism, the CPP was not ideologically blind. In fact, it has always adopted a pragmatic approach in order to keep power. For instance, the CPP played an indispensable role in Cambodian peace negotiation process, which led to the signing of the Paris Peace Accords on 23 October 1991 and the creation of the second Kingdom of Cambodia. The CPP ousted Nodorom Ranariddh in a coup in 1997, leaving the party with no serious opposition. Thirty-two people died in the coup.

Under the leadership of the CPP, Cambodia has been transformed from a war-torn country to a lower-middle-income economy in 2016. It aims to turn Cambodia into a higher-middle-income country by 2030 and high-income country by 2050. Ideologically, an increasing number of CPP senior leaders claim that the Cambodian ruling party has adopted a centrist democracy. They believe that it is the middle path between extreme capitalism and extreme socialism, with the emphasis on the values and principles of social market economy in which free market economy goes hand in hand with social and environmental protection, and the promotion of humanism guided by Buddhist teaching. However, academics such as John Ciorciari have observed that the CPP still continues to maintain its communist-era party structures and that many of its top-ranking members were derived from KPRP. Also, despite Hun Sen being only the deputy leader of the party until 2015, he had de facto control of the party. Prime Minister Hun Sen has continued to lead the party to election victories after the transition to democracy.

It won 64 of the 123 seats in the National Assembly in the 1998 elections, 73 seats in the 2003 elections and 90 seats in the 2008 elections, winning the popular vote by the biggest margin ever for a National Assembly election with 58% of the vote. The CPP also won the 2006 Senate elections. The party lost 22 seats in the 2013 elections, with opposition gained. Since 2018, the party commands all 125 seats in the National Assembly, and 58 of 62 seats in the Senate. Hun Sen, the Prime Minister of Cambodia, has served as the party's President since 2015.

Party leadership (1979–1993)Edit

  • Heng Samrin: General Secretary of the KPRP (1981–1991); Chairman of the Revolutionary Council (later the Council of State) (1979–1992)
  • Chea Sim: Minister of the Interior (1979–1981); President of the National Assembly (1981–92), Chairman of the Council of State (1992–1994)
  • Pen Sovan: Minister of Defense (1979–1981); General Secretary of the KPRP (1979–81); Prime Minister (1981)
  • Hun Sen: Minister of Foreign Affairs (1979–1986; 1987–1990); Deputy Prime Minister (1981–85), Prime Minister (1985–1993)
  • Chan Sy: Minister of defense (1981–1982), Prime Minister (1981–1984)
  • Say Phouthang: Vice President of the State Council (1979–1993)
  • Chea Soth: Minister of Planning (1982–1986), Deputy Prime Minister (1982–1992)
  • Bou Thang: Deputy Prime Minister (1982–1992), Minister of Defense (1982–1986)
  • Math Ly: Vice President of the National Assembly
  • Kong Korm: Minister of Foreign Affairs (1986–1987)
  • Hor Namhong: Minister of Foreign Affairs (1990–1993)

List of party leadersEdit

  KPRP (General Secretary)   CPP (President)

Portrait Name From Until Length Offices held
  Pen Sovan 5 January 1979 5 December 1981 2 years, 334 days Prime Minister (1981)
Minister of Defence (1979–1981)
  Heng Samrin 5 December 1981 17 October 1991 9 years, 316 days Chairman of the People's Revolutionary Council (1979–1992)
  Chea Sim 17 October 1991 8 June 2015 (died) 23 years, 234 days Chairman of the National Assembly (1981–1993)
Chairman of the Council of State (1992–1993)
President of the Senate (1999–2015)
  Hun Sen 20 June 2015 incumbent 6 years, 125 days Prime Minister (1985–present)

OrganizationEdit

The party is headed by a 34-member Permanent Committee, commonly referred to as the Politburo (after its former Communist namesake). The current members are (with their party positions in brackets):

Election resultsEdit

National Assembly electionEdit

Election Party leader Votes Seats Position Government
# % ± # ±
1981 Pen Sovan 2,898,709 90.3 New
117 / 117
New   1st KPRP
1993 Hun Sen 1,533,471 38.2   52.1
51 / 120
  66   2nd FUNCINPEC–CPP–BLDP
1998 2,030,790 41.4   3.2
64 / 122
  13   1st CPP–FUNCINPEC
2003 2,447,259 47.3   5.9
73 / 123
  9   1st CPP–FUNCINPEC
2008 3,492,374 58.1   10.8
90 / 123
  17   1st CPP–FUNCINPEC
2013 3,235,969 48.8   9.3
68 / 123
  22   1st CPP
2018 4,889,113 76.8   28.0
125 / 125
  57   1st CPP

Communal electionsEdit

Election Party leader Votes Chiefs Councillors Position
# % ± # ± # ±
2002[12] Hun Sen 2,647,849 60.9 New
1,598 / 1,621
New
7,552 / 11,261
New   1st
2007[13] 3,148,533 60.8   0.1
1,591 / 1,621
  7
7,993 / 11,353
  441   1st
2012[14] 3,631,082 61.8   1.0
1,592 / 1,633
  1
8,292 / 11,459
  299   1st
2017[15] 3,540,056 50.8   11.0
1,156 / 1,646
  436
6,503 / 11,572
  1,789   1st

Senate electionsEdit

Election Party leader Votes Seats Position Outcome
# % ± # ±
2006 Chea Sim 7,854 69.2
45 / 57
  14   1st Supermajority
2012 8,880 77.8   8.6
46 / 57
  1   1st Supermajority
2018 Say Chhum 11,202 95.9   18.1
58 / 58
  12   1st Supermajority

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ Niem, Chheng (26 June 2019). "CPP set to mark anniversary, vows to maintain public trust". The Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
  2. ^ "Ruling Party's New Headquarters Funded by Members and Costs $40M: CPP Spokesperson". VOA. 7 May 2020. Retrieved 8 May 2020.
  3. ^ Quackenbush, Casey (7 January 2019). "40 Years After the Fall of the Khmer Rouge, Cambodia Still Grapples With Pol Pot's Brutal Legacy". Time. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
  4. ^ Aflaki, Inga N. (2016). Entrepreneurship in the Polis. Routledge.
  5. ^ Ven, Rathavong (5 June 2018). "CPP determined to maintain Kingdom's peace and development". Khmer Times. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
  6. ^ a b Vickery, Michael (1 January 1994). "The Cambodian People's Party: Where Has It Come From, Where Is It Going?". Southeast Asian Affairs. 21: 102. doi:10.1355/SEAA94G.
  7. ^ a b Chandler, David P.; C., D. P. (1983). "Revising the Past in Democratic Kampuchea: When Was the Birthday of the Party?". Pacific Affairs. 56 (2): 288–300. doi:10.2307/2758655. JSTOR 2758655. Retrieved 2 July 2021.
  8. ^ Diamond, Larry (April 2002). "Elections Without Democracy: Thinking About Hybrid Regimes" (PDF). Journal of Democracy. 13 (2): 31, 32. doi:10.1353/jod.2002.0025. S2CID 154815836. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
  9. ^ McCargo, Duncan (October 2005). "Cambodia: Getting Away with Authoritarianism?" (PDF). Journal of Democracy. 16 (4): 98. doi:10.1353/jod.2005.0067. S2CID 154881536. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
  10. ^ Hughes, Caroline (January–February 2009). "Consolidation in the Midst of Crisis" (PDF). Asian Survey. 49 (1): 211–212. doi:10.1525/as.2009.49.1.206. ISSN 1533-838X. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
  11. ^ Khorn, Savi (11 June 2019). "Ministry: Councillors to be appointed by next Monday". The Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
  12. ^ "Report on the Commune Council Elections – 3 February 2002" (PDF). comfrel.org. Committee for Free and Fair Elections in Cambodia (COMFREL). March 2002. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
  13. ^ "Final Assessment and Report on 2007 Commune Council Elections" (PDF). comfrel.org. Committee for Free and Fair Elections in Cambodia (COMFREL). 1 April 2007. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
  14. ^ "Final Assessment and Report on 2012 Commune Council Elections" (PDF). comfrel.org. Committee for Free and Fair Elections in Cambodia (COMFREL). October 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
  15. ^ "Final Assessment and Report on 2017 Commune Council Elections" (PDF). comfrel.org. Committee for Free and Fair Elections in Cambodia (COMFREL). October 2017. Retrieved 4 September 2018.

BibliographyEdit

  • Guo, Sujian (2006). The Political Economy of Asian Transition from Communism. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 0754647358.

External linksEdit