The Cambodian People's Party (CPP)[a] is a Cambodian political party which has ruled the country since 1979. Founded in 1951, it was originally known as the Kampuchean People's Revolutionary Party (KPRP).[b]
KPRP (before 1991)
|Vice Presidents||Say Chhum|
Men Sam An
|Founders||Sơn Ngọc Minh|
|Founded||28 June 1951|
|Split from||Indochinese Communist Party|
|Headquarters||203 Norodom Boulevard, Phnom Penh, Cambodia|
|Youth wing||CPP Youth|
|Political position||Big tent|
|National affiliation||Solidarity Front for Development of the Cambodian Motherland|
|International affiliation||Centrist Democrat International|
|Slogan||"ឯករាជ្យ សន្តិភាព សេរីភាព ប្រជាធិបតេយ្យ អព្យាក្រឹត និងវឌ្ឍនភាពសង្គម"|
("Independence, Peace, Freedom, Democracy, Neutrality and Social Progress")
("Anthem of the Cambodian People's Party")
58 / 62
120 / 125
1,648 / 1,652
9,376 / 11,622
|Provincial, municipal, town and district councillors|
4,034 / 4,114
25 / 25
During the Cold War it allied itself with Vietnam and the Soviet Union, in contrast to the pro-Chinese Communist Party of Kampuchea led by Pol Pot. After toppling the Khmer Rouge's Democratic Kampuchea regime with the Vietnamese-backed liberation of Phnom Penh, it became the ruling party of the People's Republic of Kampuchea (1979–1989), which was later renamed the State of Cambodia (1989–1991). The party's current name was adopted during the final year of the State of Cambodia, when the party abandoned the one-party system and Marxism–Leninism.
Originally rooted in communist and Marxist–Leninist ideologies, the party took on a more reformist outlook in the mid-1980s under Heng Samrin. In 1991, the CPP officially dropped its commitment to socialism, and has since embraced a mixed economy. Along with some major parties of the European centre-right, the CPP is a member of the Centrist Democrat International.
Forerunner organizations and early history edit
Nationalists in Cambodia, Vietnam and Laos held the belief that to successfully liberate themselves from France they needed to work together; the nationalists formed the supranational Indochinese Communist Party (ICP) to oppose the French in 1930.
However, the triumph of the Japanese during the early stage of World War II crippled French rule and helped to nurture nationalism in all three Indochinese countries. Consequently, the idea of an Indochinese-wide party was submerged in the rhetoric of fierce nationalism. In Cambodia, growing nationalist sentiment and national pride married historical mistrust and fear of neighbouring countries, which turned out to be a stumbling block for the ICP. On 28 June 1951, the Cambodian nationalists who struggled to free Cambodia from French colonial rule split from the ICP to form the Kampuchean People's Revolutionary Party (KPRP).
In 1955, the KPRP established a subsidiary party named the Pracheachon in order to run in the national election that year. The name of the party was changed to the Workers' Party of Kampuchea (WPK) on 28 September 1960 and then to the Communist Party of Kampuchea (CPK) in 1966. Members of the CPK moved the party's headquarters to Ratanakiri Province, where they were termed "Khmer Rouge" by Prince Norodom Sihanouk.
Pen Sovan's leadership (1979–1981) edit
In early 1979, the Cambodian communists who overthrew the Khmer Rouge's regime to end the genocide held a congress. At this gathering, they declared themselves the true successors of the original KPRP founded in 1951 and labelled the congress as the Third Party Congress, thus not recognizing the 1963, 1975 and 1978 congresses of CPK as legitimate. The party considered 28 June 1951 as its founding date. A national committee led by Pen Sovan and Roh Samai was appointed by the Congress. The women's wing of the party, the National Association of Women for the Salvation of Kampuchea, was also established in 1979 with a vast national network of members that extended to the district level.
The existence of the party was kept secret until its 4th congress in May 1981, when it appeared publicly and assumed the name KPRP. The name-change was stated to be carried out "to clearly distinguish it from the reactionary Pol Pot party and to underline and reassert the continuity of the party's best traditions".
Heng Samrin's leadership (1981–1991) edit
As of 1990, members of the Politburo were Heng Samrin (General Secretary), Chea Sim, Hun Sen, Chea Soth, Math Ly, Tea Banh, Men Sam An, Nguon Nhel, Sar Kheng, Bou Thang, Ney Pena, Say Chhum and alternate members included Sing Song, Sim Ka and Pol Saroeun. Members of the Secretariat were Heng Samrin, Say Phouthang, Bou Thang, Men Sam An and Sar Kheng.
Hun Sen's leadership (1991–present) edit
This section possibly contains original research. (June 2021)
In 1991, the party was renamed to the Cambodian People's Party (CPP) during a United Nations-sponsored peace and reconciliation process. Politburo and the Secretariat to enter into the new Standing Committee, Chea Sim as President and Hun Sen as Vice-president. Despite being rooted in socialism, adopted a pragmatic approach in order to keep power. For instance, the CPP played a major role in Cambodian peace negotiation process, which led to the signing of the Paris Peace Accords on 23 October 1991 and the creation of the second Kingdom of Cambodia. The CPP ousted Nodorom Ranariddh in a coup in 1997, leaving the party with no serious opposition. Thirty-two people died in the coup.
Under CPP rule, Cambodia transitioned into a lower-middle-income economy in 2016. The party aims to turn Cambodia into a higher-middle-income country by 2030 and high-income country by 2050. Ideologically, an increasing number of CPP senior leaders claim that the Cambodian ruling party has adopted a centrist position. They believe that the CPP presents a middle path between capitalism and communism, with emphasis on the values and principles of social market economy along with social and environmental protection, and Buddhist humanism. However, academics such as John Ciorciari have observed that the CPP still continues to maintain its communist-era party structures and that many of its top-ranking members were derived from KPRP. Also, despite Hun Sen being only the deputy leader of the party until 2015, he had de facto control of the party.
It won 64 of the 123 seats in the National Assembly in the 1998 elections, 73 seats in the 2003 elections and 90 seats in the 2008 elections, winning the popular vote by the biggest margin ever for a National Assembly election with 58% of the vote. The CPP also won the 2006 Senate elections. The party lost 22 seats in the 2013 elections, with opposition gained. Since 2018 Cambodian general election, the party commands all 125 seats in the National Assembly, and 58 of 62 seats in the Senate. The main opposition, the Cambodia National Rescue Party (CNRP), was banned before the election. Hun Sen, the former Prime Minister of Cambodia, has served as the CPP's President since 2015.
Party leadership (1979–1993) edit
- Heng Samrin:
- General Secretary of the KPRP (1981–1991)
- Chairman of the Revolutionary Council (later the Council of State) (1979–1992)
- Chea Sim:
- Minister of the Interior (1979–1981)
- President of the National Assembly (1981–92),
- Chairman of the Council of State (1992–1994)
- Pen Sovan:
- Minister of Defense (1979–1981);
- General Secretary of the KPRP (1979–81);
- Prime Minister (1981)
- Hun Sen:
- Minister of Foreign Affairs (1979–1986; 1987–1990);
- Deputy Prime Minister (1981–85),
- Prime Minister (1985–1993)
- Chan Sy:
- Minister of defense (1981–1982),
- Prime Minister (1981–1984)
- Say Phouthang:
- Vice President of the State Council (1979–1993)
- Chea Soth:
- Minister of Planning (1982–1986),
- Deputy Prime Minister (1982–1992)
- Bou Thang:
- Deputy Prime Minister (1982–1992),
- Minister of Defense (1982–1986)
- Math Ly:
- Vice President of the National Assembly
- Kong Korm:
- Minister of Foreign Affairs (1986–1987)
- Hor Namhong:
- Minister of Foreign Affairs (1990–1993)
List of party leaders edit
|President of the Cambodian People's Party|
|Seat||Phnom Penh, Cambodia|
|Formation||28 June 1951|
|First holder||Tou Samouth|
as General Secretary
KPRP (General Secretary) CPP (President)
|Term of office||Office held|
|21 September 1951||30 September 1960||9 years, 9 days||―|
|5 January 1979||5 December 1981||2 years, 334 days||Minister of Defence (1979–1981)
Prime Minister (1981)
|5 December 1981||17 October 1991||9 years, 316 days||Chairman of the People's Revolutionary Council (1979–1981), President of the Council of State (1981–1992), President of the National Assembly (2006–2023)|
|17 October 1991||8 June 2015†||23 years, 234 days||Chairman of the National Assembly (1981–1993),|
|20 June 2015||Present||8 years, 166 days||Minister of Foreign Affairs (1979–1986, 1988–1990),
Prime Minister (1985–2023)
The party is headed by a 34-member Permanent Committee, commonly referred to as the Politburo (after its former Communist namesake). The current members are (with their party positions in brackets):
- Hun Sen (Chairman)
- Heng Samrin (Honorary Chairman)
- Sar Kheng (Deputy Chairman)
- Say Chhum (Chairman of the Standing Committee)
- Say Phouthang
- Bou Thang
- Tea Banh
- Men Sam An
- Nguon Nhel
- Ney Pena
- Sim Ka
- Ke Kim Yan
- Pol Saroeun
- Kong Sam Ol
- Im Chhun Lim
- Dith Munty
- Chea Chanto
- Uk Rabun
- Cheam Yeap
- Ek Sam Ol
- Som Kim Suor
- Khuon Sudary
- Pen Pannha
- Chhay Than
- Hor Nam Hong
- Bin Chhin
- Keat Chhon
- Yim Chhay Ly
- Tep Ngorn
- Kun Kim
- Meas Sophea
- Neth Savoeun
Recent electoral history edit
General election edit
117 / 117
|1993||Chea Sim||Hun Sen||1,533,471||38.2||52.1||
51 / 120
64 / 122
73 / 123
90 / 123
68 / 123
125 / 125
|2023||Hun Sen||Hun Manet||6,398,311||82.3||5.5||
120 / 125
Communal elections edit
|2002||Chea Sim||Hun Sen||2,647,849||60.9||New||
1,598 / 1,621
7,552 / 11,261
1,591 / 1,621
7,993 / 11,353
1,592 / 1,633
8,292 / 11,459
1,156 / 1,646
6,503 / 11,572
1,648 / 1,652
9,376 / 11,622
Senate elections edit
45 / 61
46 / 61
58 / 62
See also edit
- Khmer: គណបក្សប្រជាជនកម្ពុជា, UNGEGN: Kônâbâks Brâchéachôn Kâmpŭchéa, ALA-LC: Gaṇapaks Prajājan Kambujā; Khmer pronunciation: [keanapaʔ prɑciəcɔn kampuciə]
- Khmer: គណបក្សប្រជាជនបដិវត្តន៍កម្ពុជា, UNGEGN: Kônâbâks Brâchéachôn Bâdĕvôttân Kâmpŭchéa, ALA-LC: Gaṇapaks Prajājan Paṭivattan ̊ Kambujā; Khmer pronunciation: [keanapaʔ prɑciəcɔn paɗeʋɔət kampuciə]
- "DPMs Tea Banh and Men Sam An elected as VPs of ruling party". Khmer Times. 24 December 2021. Retrieved 24 December 2021.
- Niem, Chheng (26 June 2019). "CPP set to mark anniversary, vows to maintain public trust". The Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
- "Ruling Party's New Headquarters Funded by Members and Costs $40M: CPP Spokesperson". VOA. 7 May 2020. Retrieved 8 May 2020.
- Aflaki, Inga N. (2016). Entrepreneurship in the Polis. Routledge. p. 196. ISBN 9781472423993.
- Quackenbush, Casey (7 January 2019). "40 Years After the Fall of the Khmer Rouge, Cambodia Still Grapples With Pol Pot's Brutal Legacy". Time. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
- Prak, Chan Thul (2 February 2018). "Cambodian government criminalizes insult of monarchy". Reuters. Retrieved 21 June 2019.
- Hul, Reaksmey (27 October 2018). "Hun Sen, Former Opposition Leader in Row Over 'Loyalty to Royals'". Voice of America. Retrieved 21 June 2019.
- Vickery, Michael (1 January 1994). "The Cambodian People's Party: Where Has It Come From, Where Is It Going?". Southeast Asian Affairs. 21: 102. doi:10.1355/SEAA94G. ProQuest 1308074383.
- Khorn, Savi (11 June 2019). "Ministry: Councillors to be appointed by next Monday". The Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
- Chandler, David P.; C., D. P. (1983). "Revising the Past in Democratic Kampuchea: When Was the Birthday of the Party?". Pacific Affairs. 56 (2): 288–300. doi:10.2307/2758655. JSTOR 2758655.
- Bahree, Megha (24 September 2014). "In Cambodia, A Close Friendship With The PM Leads To Vast Wealth For One Power Couple". Forbes. Archived from the original on 28 October 2014. Retrieved 28 October 2014.
- David Roberts (29 April 2016). Political Transition in Cambodia 1991–99: Power, Elitism and Democracy. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-136-85054-7. Archived from the original on 10 February 2023. Retrieved 12 September 2017. (section XI, "Recreating Elite Stability, July 1997 to July 1998")
- "Cambodian electoral clean-sweep – DW – 08/15/2018". dw.com.
- "Report on the Commune Council Elections – 3 February 2002" (PDF). comfrel.org. Committee for Free and Fair Elections in Cambodia (COMFREL). March 2002. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
- "Final Assessment and Report on 2007 Commune Council Elections" (PDF). comfrel.org. Committee for Free and Fair Elections in Cambodia (COMFREL). 1 April 2007. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
- "Final Assessment and Report on 2012 Commune Council Elections" (PDF). comfrel.org. Committee for Free and Fair Elections in Cambodia (COMFREL). October 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
- "Final Assessment and Report on 2017 Commune Council Elections" (PDF). comfrel.org. Committee for Free and Fair Elections in Cambodia (COMFREL). October 2017. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
- "Provisional Results Give Cambodian Ruling Party Victory in Local Elections". The Diplomat. 7 June 2022. Retrieved 10 June 2022.