Democratic Unionist Party
The Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) is a unionist political party in Northern Ireland. Ian Paisley founded the DUP in 1971, during the Troubles, and led the party for the next 37 years. Now led by Arlene Foster, it is the party with the most seats in the Northern Ireland Assembly and the fifth-largest party in the House of Commons. Following the 2017 general election, the party has agreed to support a Conservative minority government on a case-by-case basis on matters of mutual concern.
|Deputy Leader||Nigel Dodds|
|Founded||30 September 1971|
|Preceded by||Protestant Unionist Party|
91 Dundela Avenue |
Belfast, County Antrim, Northern Ireland
|Political position||Centre-right to right-wing|
|European Parliament group||Non-Inscrits|
|House of Commons|
10 / 18
|House of Lords||
4 / 791
1 / 3
27 / 90
|Local government in Northern Ireland||
132 / 462
The DUP evolved from the Protestant Unionist Party and has historically strong links to the Free Presbyterian Church of Ulster, the church Paisley founded. During the Troubles, the DUP opposed attempts to resolve the conflict that would involve sharing power with Irish nationalists or republicans, and rejected attempts to involve the Republic of Ireland in Northern Irish affairs. It campaigned against the Sunningdale Agreement of 1973, the Anglo-Irish Agreement of 1985, and the Good Friday Agreement of 1998. In the 1980s, the party was involved in setting up the paramilitary movements Third Force and Ulster Resistance.
It is right-wing and socially conservative, being anti-abortion and opposing same-sex marriage. The DUP sees itself as defending Britishness and Ulster Protestant culture against Irish nationalism. The party is Eurosceptic and during the UK European Union (EU) referendum it supported the UK's withdrawal from the EU.
For most of the DUP's history, the Ulster Unionist Party was the largest unionist party in Northern Ireland, but by 2004 the DUP had overtaken the UUP in terms of seats in the Northern Ireland Assembly and Parliament. Following the St Andrews Agreement in 2006, the DUP agreed to enter into power-sharing devolved government in Northern Ireland with Sinn Féin. Despite reports of divisions within the party, a majority of the party executive voted in favour of power-sharing in 2007. However, the DUP's sole Member of the European Parliament (MEP), Jim Allister, and seven DUP councillors left the party in opposition to its plans to share power with Sinn Féin, founding the Traditional Unionist Voice. Peter Robinson became DUP leader in 2008.
The Democratic Unionist Party evolved from the Protestant Unionist Party, which itself grew out of the Ulster Protestant Action movement. The DUP was founded on 30 September 1971 by Ian Paisley, leader of the Protestant Unionist Party, and Desmond Boal, formerly of the Ulster Unionist Party. Paisley, a well-known Protestant fundamentalist minister, was the founder and leader of the Free Presbyterian Church of Ulster. He would lead both the DUP and the Free Presbyterian Church for the next 37 years, and his party and church would be closely linked. When the DUP formed, Northern Ireland was in the midst of an ethnic-nationalist conflict known as the Troubles, which began in 1969 and would last for the next thirty years. The conflict began amid a campaign to end discrimination against the Catholic/Irish nationalist minority by the Protestant/unionist government and police force. This protest campaign was opposed, often violently, by unionists who viewed it as an Irish republican front. Paisley had led the unionist opposition to the civil rights movement. The DUP were more hardline or loyalist than the UUP and its founding arguably stemmed from worries of the Ulster Protestant working class that the UUP was not paying them enough heed.
The DUP opposed the Sunningdale Agreement of 1973. The Agreement was an attempt to resolve the conflict by setting up a new assembly and government for Northern Ireland in which unionists and Irish nationalists would share power. The Agreement also proposed the creation of a Council of Ireland, which would facilitate co-operation between the governments of Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. The DUP won eight seats in the 1973 election to the Assembly. Along with other anti-Agreement unionists, the DUP formed the United Ulster Unionist Council (UUUC) to oppose the Agreement. In the February 1974 UK election, the UUUC won 11 out of 12 Northern Ireland seats, while the pro-Agreement unionists failed to win any. On 15 May 1974, anti-Agreement unionists called a general strike aimed at bringing down the Agreement. The strike coordinating committee included DUP leader Paisley, the other UUUC leaders, and the leaders of the loyalist paramilitary groups. The strike lasted fourteen days and brought Northern Ireland to a standstill. Loyalist paramilitaries helped enforce the strike by blocking roads and intimidating workers. On the third day of the strike, loyalists detonated four car bombs in Dublin and Monaghan, killing 33 civilians. The strike led to the downfall of the Agreement on 28 May.
Following the downfall of the Agreement, in 1975 the British government set up a Constitutional Convention, an elected body of unionists and nationalists which would seek agreement on a political settlement for Northern Ireland. In the election to the Convention, the UUUC (which included the DUP) won 53% of the vote. The UUUC opposed a power-sharing government and recommended only a return to majority rule (i.e. unionist rule). As this was unacceptable to nationalists, the Convention was dissolved.
The DUP opposed UK membership of the European Economic Community (EEC). In June 1979, in the first election to the European Parliament, Paisley won one of the three Northern Ireland seats. He topped the poll, with 29.8% of the first preference votes. He retained that seat in every European election until 2004, when he was replaced by Jim Allister, who resigned from the DUP in 2007 while retaining his seat.
1980s and 1990sEdit
During 1981, the DUP opposed the then-ongoing talks between British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and Taoiseach Charles Haughey. That year, Paisley and other DUP members attempted to create a Protestant loyalist volunteer militia—called the (Ulster) Third Force—which would work alongside the police and army to fight the Irish Republican Army (IRA). They organized large rallies where men were photographed in military formation waving firearms certificates. Paisley declared: "This is a small token of the men who are placed to devastate any attempt by Margaret Thatcher and Charles Haughey to destroy the Union". The DUP helped organize a loyalist 'Day of Action' on 23 November 1981, to pressure the British government to take a harder line against the IRA. Paisley addressed a Third Force rally in Newtownards, where thousands of masked and uniformed men marched before him. He declared: "My men are ready to be recruited under the crown to destroy the vermin of the IRA. But if they refuse to recruit them, then we will have no other decision to make but to destroy the IRA ourselves!" In December, Paisley claimed that the Third Force had 15,000–20,000 members. James Prior, Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, replied that private armies would not be tolerated.
The Anglo-Irish Agreement was signed by the British and Irish governments in November 1985, following months of talks between the two. The Agreement confirmed there would be no change in the status of Northern Ireland without the consent of a majority of its citizens, and proposed the creation of a new power-sharing government. It also gave the Irish government an advisory role on some matters in Northern Ireland. Both the DUP and UUP mounted a major protest campaign against the Agreement, dubbed "Ulster Says No". Both unionist parties resigned their seats in the British House of Commons, suspended district council meetings, and led a campaign of mass civil disobedience. There were strikes and mass protest rallies.
On 23 June 1986, DUP politicians occupied the Stormont Parliament Building in protest at the Agreement, while 200 supporters protested outside and clashed with police. The DUP politicians were forcibly removed by police the next day. On 10 July, Paisley and deputy DUP leader Peter Robinson led 4,000 loyalist supporters in a protest in which they 'occupied' the town of Hillsborough. Hillsborough Castle is where the Agreement had been signed. On 7 August, Robinson led hundreds of loyalist supporters in an invasion of the village of Clontibret, in the Republic of Ireland. The loyalists marched up and down the main street, vandalised property, and attacked two Irish police officers (Gardaí) before fleeing back over the border. Robinson was arrested and convicted for unlawful assembly.
On 10 November 1986, a rally was held in which DUP politicians Paisley, Robinson and Ivan Foster announced the formation of the Ulster Resistance Movement (URM). This was a loyalist paramilitary group whose purpose was to "take direct action as and when required" to bring down the Agreement and defeat republicanism. Recruitment rallies were held in towns across Northern Ireland and thousands were said to have joined. The following year, the URM helped smuggle a large shipment of weapons into Northern Ireland, which were shared out between the URM, the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) and the Ulster Defence Association (UDA). Most, but not all, of the weaponry was seized by police in 1988. In 1989, URM members attempted to trade Shorts' missile blueprints for weapons from the apartheid South African regime. Following these revelations, the DUP said that it had cut its links with the URM in 1987.
In the mid-1980s, the Irish republican party Sinn Féin began to contest and win seats in local council elections. In response, the DUP fought elections under the slogan "Smash Sinn Féin" and vowed to exclude Sinn Féin councillors from all council business. Their 1985 manifesto said "The Sinn Féiners must be ostracised and isolated" at all local government bodies. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, DUP councillors attempted to exclude Sinn Féin councillors by ignoring them, boycotting their speeches, or drowning them out by making as much noise as possible – such as by heckling and banging tables.
In early January 1994, the Ulster Defence Association released a document calling for the repartition of Ireland with the goal of making Northern Ireland wholly Protestant. The plan was to be implemented should the British Army withdraw from Northern Ireland. The Irish Catholic/nationalist-majority areas would be handed over to the Republic, and those left in the rump state would be "expelled, nullified, or interned". Sammy Wilson, then a DUP press officer and a future Stormont minister and MP, spoke positively of the document, calling it a "valuable return to reality" and lauded the UDA for "contemplating what needs to be done to maintain our separate Ulster identity".
During the Northern Ireland peace process of the 1990s, the DUP was initially involved in the negotiations under former United States Senator George J. Mitchell that led to the Good Friday Agreement of 1998, but withdrew in protest when Sinn Féin, an Irish republican party with links to the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA), was allowed to participate while the IRA kept its weapons. The DUP opposed the Agreement in the Good Friday Agreement referendum, in which the Agreement was approved with 71.1% of the electorate in favour.
The DUP's opposition was based on a number of reasons, including:
- The early release of paramilitary prisoners
- The mechanism to allow Sinn Féin to hold government office despite ongoing IRA activity (of which it was the political wing)
- The lack of accountability of ministers in the Northern Ireland Executive
- The lack of accountability of the North/South Ministerial Council and North/South Implementation Bodies
The DUP contested the 1998 Northern Ireland Assembly election that resulted from the Good Friday Agreement, winning 20 seats, the third-highest of any party. It then took up two of the ten seats in the multi-party power-sharing Executive. While serving as ministers, they refused to sit at meetings of the Executive Committee in protest at Sinn Féin's participation. The Executive ultimately collapsed over an alleged IRA espionage ring at Stormont (see Stormontgate).
The Good Friday Agreement relied on the support of a majority of unionists and a majority of nationalists in order for it to operate. During the 2003 Northern Ireland Assembly election, the DUP argued for a "fair deal" that could command the support of both unionists and nationalists. After the results of this election the DUP argued that support was no longer present within unionism for the Good Friday Agreement. They went on to publish their proposals for devolution in Ireland entitled Devolution Now. These proposals have been refined and re-stated in further policy documents including Moving on and Facing Reality.
In the 2003 Northern Ireland Assembly election, the DUP won 30 seats, the most of any party. In January 2004, it became the largest Northern Ireland party at Westminster, when MP Jeffrey Donaldson joined after defecting from the UUP. In December 2004, English MP Andrew Hunter took the DUP whip after earlier withdrawing from the Conservative Party, giving the party seven seats, in comparison to the UUP's five, Sinn Féin's four, and the Social Democratic and Labour Party's (SDLP) three.
In the 2005 UK general election, the party reinforced its position as the largest unionist party, winning nine seats, making it the fourth largest party in terms of seats in the British House of Commons behind Labour, the Conservatives and the Liberal Democrats. In terms of votes, the DUP was the fourth largest party on the island of Ireland.
At the local government election of 2005, the DUP emerged as the largest party at local government level with 182 councillors across Northern Ireland's 26 district councils. The DUP had a majority of the members on Castlereagh Borough Council, which had long been a DUP stronghold and was home to party leader Peter Robinson, also in Ballymena Borough Council, home to the party's founder Ian Paisley, and finally Ards Borough Council. As well as outright control on these councils, the DUP was also the largest party in eight other councils – Antrim Borough Council, Ballymoney Borough Council, Banbridge District Council, Belfast City Council, Carrickfergus Borough Council, Coleraine Borough Council, Craigavon Borough Council and Newtownabbey Borough Council.
On 11 April 2006, it was announced that three DUP members were to be elevated to the House of Lords: Maurice Morrow, Wallace Browne, the former Lord Mayor of Belfast, and Eileen Paisley, a vice-president of the DUP and wife of DUP Leader Ian Paisley. None, however, sit as DUP peers.
On 27 October 2006, the DUP issued a four-page letter in the Belfast Telegraph newspaper asking "Are the terms of Saint Andrew's a basis of moving forward to devolution?", with responses to be received to its party headquarters by 8 November. It was part of the party's policy of consultation with its electorate before entering a power-sharing government.
On 24 November 2006, Ian Paisley refused to nominate himself as First Minister of Northern Ireland designate. There was confusion between all parties whether he actually said that if Sinn Féin supported policing and the rule of law that he would nominate himself on 28 March 2007 after the Assembly elections on 7 March 2007. The Assembly meeting was brought to an abrupt end when the building had to be evacuated because of a security breach. Paisley later released a statement through the press office stating that he did in fact imply that if Sinn Féin supported policing and the rule of law, he would go into a power-sharing government with them. This was following a statement issued by 12 DUP MLAs stating that what Ian Paisley had said in the chamber could not be interpreted as a nomination.
In February 2007, the DUP suggested that it would begin to impose fines up to £20,000 on members disobeying the party whip on crucial votes. On 24 March 2007 the DUP party executive overwhelmingly endorsed a resolution put to them by the party officers that did not agree to an establishment of devolution and an executive in Northern Ireland by the Government's deadline of 26 March, but did agree to setting up an executive on 8 May 2007.
On 27 March 2007, the party's sole Member of the European Parliament (MEP), Jim Allister, resigned from the party, in opposition to the decision to enter a power-sharing government with Sinn Féin. He retained his seat as an independent MEP as leader of his new hard-line anti-St Andrews Agreement splinter group that he formed with other disaffected members who had left the DUP over the issue, Traditional Unionist Voice, a seat which he retained until Diane Dodds won the seat back for the DUP in 2009. MP Gregory Campbell warned on 6 April 2007 that his party would be watching to see if benefits flow from its agreement to share power with Sinn Féin.
On 31 May 2008, the party's central Executive Committee met at the offices of Castlereagh Borough Council where Ian Paisley formally stepped down as party leader and Peter Robinson was ratified as the new leader, with Nigel Dodds as his deputy.
On 11 June 2008, the party supported the government's proposal to detain terrorist suspects for up to 42 days as part of the Counter-Terrorism Bill, leading The Independent newspaper to dub all of the party's nine MPs as part of "Brown's dirty dozen". The Times reported that the party had been given "sweeteners for Northern Ireland" and "a peerage for the Rev Ian Paisley", amongst other offers, to secure the bill.
Members of the DUP were lambasted by the press and voters, after MPs' expenses reports were leaked to the media. Several newspapers referred to the "Swish Family Robinson" after Peter Robinson, and his wife Iris, claimed £571,939.41 in expenses with a further £150,000 being paid to family members. Further embarrassment was caused to the party when its deputy leader, Nigel Dodds, had the highest expenses claims of any Northern Ireland MP, ranking 13th highest out of all UK MPs. Details of all MPs' expenses claims since 2004 were published in July 2009 under the Freedom of Information Act 2000.
In January 2010, Peter Robinson was at the centre of a high-profile scandal relating to his 60-year-old MP/MLA wife Iris Robinson's infidelity with a 19-year-old man, and alleged serious financial irregularities associated with the scandal.
In the 2010 general election, the party suffered a major upset when its leader, Peter Robinson, lost his Belfast East seat to Naomi Long of the APNI on a swing of 22.9%. However, the party maintained its position elsewhere, fighting off a challenge from the Ulster Conservatives and Unionists – New Force in Antrim South and Strangford and from Jim Allister's Traditional Unionist Voice in Antrim North.
The DUP were strongly criticised after the Red Sky scandal in which DUP ministers attempted to influence a decision at a meeting of the Northern Ireland Housing Executive. The decision related to a £8 million contract of east Belfast firm Red Sky. The Housing Executive cancelled Red Sky's contract after a BBC Spotlight investigation into the company, which was shown to be overcharging taxpayers. The DUP cited "sectarian bias" in relation to the decision. The party suspended DUP councillor Jenny Palmer, who sat on the Executive board, after she confessed that DUP special adviser Stephen Brimstone pressured her into changing her vote at the meeting.
In the 2015 general election, when the result was expected to be a hung parliament, the issue of DUP and the UK Independence Party forming a coalition government with the UK Conservative Party was considered by Nigel Farage (leader of UKIP). The then Deputy Prime Minister and leader of the Liberal Democrats, Nick Clegg, warned against this "Blukip" coalition, with a spoof website highlighting imagined policies from this coalition – such as reinstating the death penalty, scrapping all benefits for under 25s and charging for hospital visits. Additionally, issues were raised about the continued existence of the BBC (as the DUP, UKIP and Conservatives had made a number of statements criticising the institution) and support for same-sex marriage. However, in an interview with BBC Radio 5 Live deputy leader of the DUP Nigel Dodds told BBC Newsline that the DUP was "against discrimination based on religion ... or sexual orientation".
Arlene Foster became leader of the DUP on 17 December 2015, and served as First Minister of Northern Ireland from January 2016 to January 2017.
Two days before the UK Brexit referendum, held on 23 June 2016, the DUP paid £282,000 for a four-page glossy wrap-around to the free newspaper Metro, which is distributed in major towns and cities in the British mainland, but not Northern Ireland, advocating a 'Leave' vote.
On 4 October 2016, First Minister Arlene Foster and DUP MPs held a champagne reception at the Conservative Party conference, marking what some have described as an "informal coalition" or an "understanding" between the two parties to account for the Conservatives' narrow majority in the House of Commons. In October 2017, DUP held a similar reception at the Conservative Party conference, which was attended by leading Conservative figures including First Secretary of State Damian Green, Brexit Secretary David Davis, then-Chief Whip Gavin Williamson, and party chairman Patrick McLoughlin. This was reciprocated in November, when Damian Green and Conservative Chief Whip Julian Smith attended the DUP's conference, with Smith giving a keynote address. Prominent Conservative Ministers and ex-Ministers such as Environment Secretary Michael Gove and former International Development Secretary Priti Patel also headlined fundraising events for the DUP in September 2017 and February 2018 respectively.
Former UK Independence Party leader Nigel Farage also spoke at a DUP fundraiser in May 2018, with his main financial backer, Arron Banks, stating that he would support a bid by Farage to seek office as a DUP candidate after the end of his tenure as Member of the European Parliament in 2019.
In her capacity as Minister of Enterprise, Trade and Investment in 2012, Foster oversaw the establishment of a green energy scheme, which led to the Renewable Heat Incentive scandal. The scheme gave a perverse incentive to use more energy and increase their carbon footprint to those who signed up to it since they could claim £1.60 for every £1 spent on heating with, for example, wood pellets. With no cost controls, it could cost the public purse up to £490 million.
Foster refused to resign or step aside during any inquiry into her role in the scheme, which in January 2017 led Martin McGuinness to resign and the Northern Ireland Executive to collapse. A snap election followed after Sinn Féin refused to re-nominate a deputy First Minister. In this Northern Ireland Assembly election, held in March 2017, the DUP lost 10 seats, leaving them only one seat and 1,200 votes ahead of Sinn Féin, a result described by the Belfast Telegraph as "catastrophic". The withdrawal of the party whip from Jim Wells in May 2018 left the DUP on 27 seats, the same number as Sinn Féin.
In the UK 2017 general election, the DUP had 10 seats overall, 3 seats ahead of Sinn Féin. With no party having received an outright majority in the UK Parliament, the DUP entered into an agreement to support government by the Conservative Party. A DUP source said: "The alternative is intolerable. For as long as Corbyn leads Labour, we will ensure there’s a Tory PM."
Policies and viewsEdit
The Democratic Unionist Party are Ulster unionists, which means that they support Northern Ireland remaining part of the United Kingdom and are opposed to a united Ireland. The party sees itself as defending Britishness and Ulster Protestant culture against Irish nationalism and republicanism. For example, it supports marching rights for the loyalist Orange Order, which many DUP members are members of, and is in favour of flying the British Union Flag from government buildings all year round. The DUP assert that "Irish and Gaelic culture should not be allowed to dominate funding" in Northern Ireland, and have blocked proposed laws that would promote and protect the Irish language. The DUP are staunch supporters of the British security forces and their role in the Northern Ireland conflict. The party wants to prevent British soldiers and police officers from being prosecuted for killings committed during the conflict.
The party has also been described as right-wing populist and containing extremist tendencies. The party has historic links with the far-right in Northern Ireland, and is linked to the Ulster loyalist faction of unionism, which has been identified as a form of ethnic nationalism. The DUP was also recently endorsed at the 2017 general election by the Loyalist Communities Council, an umbrella group of loyalist paramilitary groups, which are proscribed terrorist organisations. However, the party leadership strongly rejected the endorsement, with party leader Arlene Foster stating: "We did not seek that statement, we did not seek endorsement from any paramilitary organisation and indeed I fundamentally reject an endorsement from anyone that’s involved with paramilitarism or criminality."
The DUP is socially conservative and has strong links to the Free Presbyterian Church of Ulster, the small church founded by Reverend Ian Paisley. The vast majority of DUP members are evangelical Christians and, on average, 65% of it's representatives since the party was founded have been Free Presbyterians. The party also has links with the Caleb Foundation, a Protestant fundamentalist pressure group.
The DUP has opposed LGBT rights in Northern Ireland. Party leaders—as well as many prominent party members—have condemned homosexuality, and a 2014 survey found that two-thirds of party members believe homosexuality is wrong. The DUP campaigned against the legalisation of homosexual acts, which it believed to be a "harmful deviance" linked to paedophilia, in Northern Ireland through the "Save Ulster from Sodomy" campaign between 1977-82, and the party has vetoed the legalisation of same-sex marriage in Northern Ireland since 2015, making Northern Ireland the only region of the UK where same-sex marriage is not permitted. Former DUP minister Jim Wells called the issue a "red line" for power-sharing talks, adding that "Peter will not marry Paul in Northern Ireland". The party attempted to introduce a "conscience clause" into law in Northern Ireland, which would let businesses refuse to provide a service if it went against their religious beliefs. This came after a Christian-owned bakery was taken to court for refusing to make a cake bearing a pro-gay marriage slogan. Opponents argued that the clause would allow discrimination against LGBT people.
The party maintains that it is "pro-life" and members have campaigned strongly against any extension of abortion rights to Northern Ireland, unanimously opposing a bill by Labour MP Diana Johnson to protect women in England and Wales from criminal prosecution if they ended a pregnancy using pills bought online. They have opposed extra funding for international family planning programmes.
Some DUP politicians have called for creationism to be taught in schools, and for museums to include creationism in their exhibits. In 2007, a DUP spokesman confirmed that these views were in line with party policy.
Economic policies and BrexitEdit
The DUP is Eurosceptic and was the only party in the Northern Ireland Executive to back a "Leave" vote during the Brexit campaign. The party opposes a hard Irish border, and wishes to maintain the Common Travel Area. East Antrim MP Sammy Wilson caused controversy in March 2016 during a BBC Spotlight episode discussing the implications of the EU referendum, when he was recorded agreeing with a member of the public who said that they wanted to leave the European Union and "get the ethnics out". Wilson stated "You are absolutely right". Wilson claimed he was agreeing with the desire to leave the European Union, not the "ethnics out" call. Wilson was criticised by the Polish consul in Northern Ireland and various other political parties.
Founder Ian Paisley led the party from its foundation in 1971 onwards, and retired as leader of the party in spring 2008.
The following are the terms of office as party leader and as First Minister of Northern Ireland:
|Leader||Period||Constituency||Years as First Minister|
|Ian Paisley||1971–2008||MP for Bannside (1970–72)
MP for North Antrim (1970–2010)
MEP for Northern Ireland (1979–2004)
MLA for North Antrim (1998–2011)
(Executive of the 3rd Assembly)
|Peter Robinson||2008–2015||MP for Belfast East (1979–2010)
MLA for Belfast East (1998–2016)
(Executive of the 3rd and 4th Assembly)
|Arlene Foster||2015–present||MLA for Fermanagh and South Tyrone (2003–present)||2016–2017|
(Executive of the 4th Assembly)
|William Beattie||1971–1980||MP for South Antrim (1970–72)|
|Peter Robinson||1980–2008||MP for Belfast East (1979–2010)|
MLA for Belfast East (1998–2016)
|Nigel Dodds||2008–present||MLA for Belfast North (1998–2010)|
MP for Belfast North (2001–present)
Northern Ireland Executive MinistersEdit
|First Minister||Arlene Foster|
|Junior Minister (nominated by First Minister)||Alastair Ross|
- Party leaders at Westminster
|Ian Paisley||1974–2008||North Antrim|
|Peter Robinson||2008–2010||Belfast East|
|Nigel Dodds||2010–present||Belfast North|
- Party spokespersons at Westminster
Parliament of the United KingdomEdit
Members of the House of Commons following 8 June 2017 general election:
- Gregory Campbell – East Londonderry
- Jeffrey Donaldson – Lagan Valley
- Nigel Dodds – Belfast North
- Paul Girvan – South Antrim gained from UUP on 8 June 2017
- Ian Paisley Jr. – North Antrim
- Emma Little-Pengelly – Belfast South gained from SDLP on 8 June 2017
- Gavin Robinson – Belfast East
- Jim Shannon – Strangford
- David Simpson – Upper Bann
- Sammy Wilson – East Antrim
Members of the House of Lords
- Wallace Browne, Baron Browne of Belmont
- William Hay, Baron Hay of Ballyore
- Maurice Morrow, Baron Morrow of Clogher Valley
- William McCrea, Baron McCrea of Magherafelt and Cookstown
Northern Ireland AssemblyEdit
Members of the Northern Ireland Assembly elected in May 2016:
- Sydney Anderson – Upper Bann
- Jonathan Bell – Strangford
- Maurice Bradley – East Londonderry
- Paula Bradley – Belfast North
- Joanne Bunting – Belfast East
- Keith Buchanan – Mid Ulster
- Thomas Buchanan – West Tyrone
- Pam Cameron – South Antrim
- Trevor Clarke – South Antrim
- Sammy Douglas – Belfast East
- Gordon Dunne – North Down
- Alex Easton – North Down
- Arlene Foster – Fermanagh and South Tyrone
- Paul Frew – North Antrim
- Paul Girvan – South Antrim
- Paul Givan – Lagan Valley
- Brenda Hale – Lagan Valley
- Simon Hamilton – Strangford
- David Hilditch – East Antrim
- William Humphrey – Belfast North
- Carla Lockhart – Upper Bann
- William Irwin – Newry and Armagh
- Phillip Logan – North Antrim
- Gordon Lyons – East Antrim
- Nelson McCausland – Belfast North
- Michelle McIlveen – Strangford
- Adrian McQuillan – East Londonderry
- Gary Middleton – Foyle
- Lord Borrow – Fermanagh and South Tyrone
- Robin Newton – Belfast East
- Emma Little-Pengelly – Belfast South
- Edwin Poots – Lagan Valley
- George Robinson – East Londonderry
- Christopher Stalford – Belfast South
- Alastair Ross – East Antrim
- Mervyn Storey – North Antrim
- Peter Weir – North Down
- Jim Wells – South Down
Members elected in 2014
General election resultsEdit
|Election||House of Commons||Share of votes||Seats||±||Government|
1 / 12
1 / 12
3 / 12
3 / 17
3 / 17
3 / 17
2 / 18
5 / 18
9 / 18
8 / 18
8 / 18
10 / 18
Northern Ireland Assembly election resultsEdit
|Election||Northern Ireland Assembly||Total Votes||Share of votes||Seats||+/-||Government|
8 / 78
12 / 78
|4||Fourth largest party|
21 / 78
24 / 110
|24||Second largest party|
20 / 108
|4||Junior party in coalition|
30 / 108
|10||Largest party, direct rule|
36 / 108
38 / 108
38 / 108
28 / 90
- "Unionist bid to be UK 'kingmakers' unsettles some in Northern Ireland". Reuters. Retrieved 11 July 2015.
- Nordsieck, Wolfram (2017). "Northern Ireland/UK". Parties and Elections in Europe. Retrieved 28 September 2018.
- Mirow, Wilhelm (2016). Strategic Culture, Securitisation and the Use of Force: Post-9/11 Security Practices of Liberal Democracies. Routledge. p. 105.
- Ingle, Stephen (2008). The British Party System: An Introduction. Routledge. p. 156.
- General election 2017: Tories and DUP 'still in discussions'. BBC NEWS. Published 11 June 2017. Retrieved 1 August 2017.
- Marcus, Ruth. "Gender aside, the fall of Irish politician Iris Robinson is the same old sex scandal", Washington Post, 14 January 2010
- DUP to recommend leaving EU to voters. BBC NEWS. Published 20 Februruary 2016. Retrieved 2 October 2017.
- Devenport, Mark (9 June 2017). "Could the DUP be Westminster kingmakers?". BBC News. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
- "Everything you need to know about the DUP, the party supporting the new Tory government". Business Insider. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
- Anttiroiko, Ari-Veikko; Mälkiä, Matti (2007). Encyclopedia of Digital Government. Idea Group Inc (IGI). p. 394. ISBN 978-1-59140-790-4.
- "It will be ‘difficult’ for May to survive, says N Ireland’s DUP", By Vincent Boland & Robert Wright. Financial Times. 9 June 2017. Retrieved 10 June 2017
- "Who Are The DUP? The Democratic Unionist Party Explained", LBC. 9 June 2017. Retrieved 10 June 2017.
- "Local Council Political Compositions". Open Council Date UK. 7 January 2018. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
- "Conservatives agree pact with DUP to support May government". BBC News. 26 June 2017. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
- "DUP confirms it will campaign for Brexit in Leave/Remain referendum". Belfast Telegraph. Belfast Telegraph. 20 February 2016. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
The Democratic Unionist Party has formally announced its intention to campaign for a Brexit.
- Jamie Merrill (9 June 2017). "What is the DUP position on Brexit?". The Essential Daily Briefing. iNews. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
No-one wants to see a ‘hard’ Brexit, what we want to see is a workable plan to leave the European Union, and that’s what the national vote was about – therefore we need to get on with that.
- "DUP 'would share power in May'". BBC News Online. BBC. 24 March 2007. Retrieved 7 April 2007.
- "Allister quits power-sharing DUP". BBC News Online. BBC. 27 March 2007. Retrieved 27 March 2007.
- "Seventh councillor leaves the DUP". BBC News Online. BBC. 5 April 2007. Retrieved 7 April 2007.
- "New unionist group to be launched". BBC News.
- Richard English. The State: Historical and Political Dimensions, Charles Townshend, 1998, Routledge, p. 96; ISBN 0-41515-477-4.
- Dominic Bryan. Orange Parades: The Politics of Ritual, Tradition and Control, Pluto Press (2000), p. 94; ISBN 0-74531-413-9.
- "Beyond the Sectarian Divide: the Social Bases and Political Consequences of Nationalist and Unionist Party Competition in Ireland" by Geoffrey Evans and Mary Duffy. In British Journal of Political Science, Vol. 27, No. 1. (Jan. 1997), p.58
- David George Boyce and Alan O'Day. Defenders of the Union: a survey of British and Irish unionism since 1801. Routledge, 2001. p.255.
- Tonge, Jonathan. Northern Ireland: Conflict and Change. Pearson Education, 2002. p.119.
- "CAIN: Events: UWC Strike: Anderson, Don. - Chapter from '14 May Days'".
- Oireachtas Sub-Committee report on the Barron Report (2004), p.25
- Dr Martin Melaugh. "Northern Ireland Constitutional Convention – A Summary of Main Events". Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN). Retrieved 9 June 2017.
- A Chronology of the Conflict – 1979. Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN).
- Henry Patterson, Eric P. Kaufmann. Unionism and Orangeism in Northern Ireland Since 1945. Manchester University Press, 2007. p.198-199
- A Chronology of the Conflict – 1981, Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN)
- Hall, Michael. The Death of the Peace Process?: A survey of community perceptions. Island Publications, 1997. p.10
- Anglo-Irish Agreement – Chronology of Events Archived 6 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine.. Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN). Retrieved 12 September 2014.
- "A Chronology of the Conflict – 1986". Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN). Retrieved 9 June 2017.
- "Abstracts of Organisations: U". Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN). Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- "A spectre from the past back to haunt peace". Belfast Telegraph. 10 June 2007. Retrieved 10 June 2017.
- McAuley, James. The politics of identity: a loyalist community in Belfast. Avebury, 1994. p.77
- Wood, Ian S. Crimes of Loyalty: A History of the UDA. Edinburgh University Press, 2006. Pages 184–185.
- Martin Melaugh. "CAIN: Issues: Politics: Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) (2004) Devolution Now: The DUP's Concept for Devolution, 5 February 2004". Cain.ulst.ac.uk. Retrieved 18 June 2010.
- Moving On, Democratic Unionist Party Archived 13 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
- Facing Reality, Democratic Unionist Party Archived 13 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
- "2005 Local Government Election Results". Northern Ireland Elections. ARK.
- "Paisley 'will accept nomination'". BBC News.
- Sunday Times, page 1.10, 4 February 2007
- Noel McAdam (6 April 2007). "Agreement must bring benefits, Congressmen are told". Belfast Telegraph. Retrieved 6 April 2007.[permanent dead link]
- "Twelve good folk and true... or Brown's dirty dozen?". The Independent. London. 15 June 2008. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
- Sharrock, David; Coates, Sam (12 June 2008). "42 day detention: bribes and concessions that got DUP on side". The Times. Retrieved 13 June 2017. (Subscription required (help)).
Sweeteners for Northern Ireland and a peerage for the Rev Ian Paisley, dropping sanctions on Cuba and the governorship of Bermuda were among the offers the Government is thought to have used to secure Gordon Brown’s victory in yesterday’s vote.
- Lucy Ballinger (6 April 2009). "MP couple taking more than £570,000 from taxpayer in salaries and expenses". Daily Mail. London. Retrieved 18 June 2010.
- "Dodds' expenses bill NI's highest". BBC News.
- O'Doherty, Malachi (8 January 2010). "The real Robinson affair". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
- "Tatchell: Robinson is 'two-faced hypocrite'". Morning Star. 8 January 2010. Archived from the original on 10 January 2010. Retrieved 18 June 2010.
- "The DUP's full role in Red Sky row revealed". The Detail.
- Justice, Adam (18 March 2015). "General Election 2015: Ukip could form coalition with Tories and DUP". International Business Times. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
- Wilkinson, Michael (5 May 2015). "Conservative Ukip coalition: what have the parties said". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
- Cromie, Claire (16 April 2015). "Nick Clegg warns of rightwing 'Blukip' alliance of DUP, Ukip and the Conservatives". The Belfast Telegraph. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
- Stone, Jon (28 April 2015). "Tory coalition with DUP and Ukip could spell the end of the BBC as we know it". The Belfast Telegraph. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
- Dunne, Ciara (16 March 2015). "An alliance with the DUP will be a harder bargain than either Labour or the Tories think". New Statesman. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
- Stroude, Will (5 May 2015). "Owen Jones warns of 'homophobic' DUP holding influence over future government". Attitude Magazine. Retrieved 12 January 2016.
- "Statement by First Minister & DUP Leader Peter Robinson MLA". www.mydup.com. Retrieved 10 September 2015.
- "What connects Brexit, the DUP, dark money and a Saudi prince?". The Irish Times. 16 May 2017. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
- Manley, John (14 October 2016). "NI Conservatives' disquiet over DUP love-in to be raised with party HQ". The Irish News.
- Gibbon, Gary (4 October 2016). "Tories look to increase majority with DUP deal". Channel 4.
- "Tory-DUP deal is 'not temporary' says Nigel Dodds". BBC News. 4 October 2017.
- "Dublin accused of hijacking talks". The Times. 25 November 2017.
- "Top Tories speak at £1,500‑a‑table Unionist dinners". The Times. 10 March 2018.
- "Nigel Farage's Ukip backer Arron Banks bolsters his DUP bid". The Times. 13 May 2018.
- "Q&A: What is the Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI) scheme?". BBC News. 13 December 2016.
- McAdam, Noel (7 March 2017). "I want one party for unionism, says DUP's Arlene Foster". Belfast Telegraph. Retrieved 13 March 2017.
- Cross, Gareth (10 May 2018). "It's a tie: DUP's Wells says removal of whip gives Sinn Fein equal voting power in Northern Ireland". Belfast Telegraph. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
- "Election results 2017: DUP and Sinn Féin celebrate election gains". BBC News. 9 June 2017. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
- McDonald, Henry; Syal, Rajeecv (9 June 2017). "May reaches deal with DUP to form government after shock election result". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
- James W. McAuley, Graham Spencer. Ulster Loyalism After the Good Friday Agreement. Palgrave Macmillan, 2011. p.124
- "DUP fights back against 'erosion of Britishness'". The News Letter. 25 June 2008.
- Tonge, Jonathan. The Democratic Unionist Party: From Protest to Power. Oxford University Press, 2014. p.151
- Muller, Janet. Language and Conflict in Northern Ireland and Canada: A Silent War. Palgrave Macmillan, 2010. p.122
- "DUP will never agree to Irish language act, says Foster". BBC News. 6 February 2017. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
- "The role of the Irish language in Northern Ireland’s deadlock". The Economist. 12 April 2017. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
- "DUP veterans motion prompts strong Commons support". The News Letter. 23 February 2017. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
- McCulloch, Allison (2014). Power-Sharing and Political Stability in Deeply Divided Societies. Routledge. p. 69. ISBN 978-1-317-68219-6. Retrieved 10 June 2017.
- McGarry, John; O'Leary, Brendan (17 June 2013). The Politics of Ethnic Conflict Regulation: Case Studies of Protracted Ethnic Conflicts. Routledge. p. 135. Retrieved 10 June 2017.
- "The DUP kingmakers who could keep Theresa May in power". Lincolnshire Live. 9 June 2017. Retrieved 10 June 2017.
- "The DUP could form the next government – but who are they?". Leicester Mercury. 9 June 2017. Archived from the original on 9 June 2017. Retrieved 10 June 2017.
- Myall, Steve (10 June 2017). "The DUP are key to Tories keeping power – everything you need to know about them". Daily Mirror.
- Ignatieff, Michael. Blood and Belonging: Journeys into the New Nationalism. Vintage, 1994. p.184.
- Manley, John (7 June 2017). "Arlene Foster urged to make unequivocal rejection of loyalist paramilitary support". The Irish News. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
- Gordon, Gareth (7 June 2017). "DUP 'divorces' from Loyalist endorsement". BBC News. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
- Young, David (7 June 2017). "Arlene Foster rejects paramilitary-linked backing for party". Belfast Telegraph. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
- "Foster: DUP 'fundamentally rejects' endorsement from paramilitary groups". News Letter. Retrieved 13 June 2017.
- "A distant conflict resonates in Northern Ireland". The Economist. Retrieved 4 August 2017.
- Bruce, Steve. Paisley: Religion and Politics in Northern Ireland. Oxford University Press, 2007. p.188
- "Caleb Foundation: The Creationist Bible group and its web of influence at Stormont". Belfast Telegraph. 1 September 2012. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
- Tonge, Jonathan. The Democratic Unionist Party: From Protest to Power. Oxford University Press, 2014. p.155
- "1982: DUP furious at gay law reforms". The News Letter. Belfast, Northern Ireland. 5 January 2013. Retrieved 10 June 2017.
- "Same-sex marriage: Proposal wins assembly majority but fails over DUP block". BBC News. 2 November 2015. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
- Duffy, Nick (22 April 2017). "Northern Ireland's DUP would rather block gay marriage than form a government". PinkNews. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
- "Bid for ‘conscience clause’ after gay marriage cake row". The Irish Times. 8 December 2014. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
- Syal, Rajeev (9 June 2017). "From climate denial to abortion: six DUP stances you should know about". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
- O'Brien, Katherine (9 June 2017). "The DUP are proud to oppose abortion". iNews. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
- Lesley-Anne Henry (26 September 2007). "Tussle of Biblical proportions over creationism in Ulster classrooms". Belfast Telegraph.
- "MLA backs event promoting teaching children creationism". The Irish News. 21 September 2016.
- "McCausland Ulster-Scots and creation in museums call". BBC News. 26 May 2010. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
- "DUP man joins Causeway creationist row". The News Letter. 7 July 2012. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
- Mosley, Tom (11 November 2011). "DUP calls for MPs to debate the death penalty". Belfast Telegraph. Retrieved 10 June 2017.
- "From abortion to evolution: the terrifying views of the DUP you need to know". The Independent. 9 June 2017.
- Taggart, Paul; Szczerbiak, Aleks. "The Party Politics of Euroscepticism in EU Member and Candidate States" (PDF). SEI Working Paper. 51. Sussex European Institute: 11. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 December 2009.
- Hughes, Laura (9 June 2017). "Who are the DUP and will they demand a soft Brexit to prop up the Tories?". The Telegraph. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
- "Sammy Wilson hits back over 'ethnics out' comment". BBC News. 1 March 2016. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
- "Policies – A world class health service – Democratic Unionist Party". www.mydup.com.
- "Bridge between Scotland and Northern Ireland could be built". Metro. 24 January 2018.
- "Who We Are – Democratic Unionist Party". mydup.com.