Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs

The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) is the government department responsible for environmental protection, food production and standards, agriculture, fisheries and rural communities in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Concordats set out agreed frameworks for co operation, between it and the Scottish Government,[2] Welsh Government[3] and Northern Ireland Executive,[4] which have devolved responsibilities for these matters in their respective nations.

Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs logo.svg
Department overview
Formed2001; 20 years ago (2001)
Preceding agencies
JurisdictionUnited Kingdom
Headquarters2 Marsham Street, London
Annual budget£2.2 billion (current) & £400 million (capital) for 2011-12[1]
Minister responsible
Department executive
Child agencies

Defra also leads for the United Kingdom on agricultural, fisheries and environmental matters in international negotiations on sustainable development and climate change, although a new Department of Energy and Climate Change was created on 3 October 2008 to take over the last responsibility; later transferred to the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy following Theresa May's appointment as Prime Minister in July 2016.


The department was formed in June 2001, under the leadership of Margaret Beckett, when the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) was merged with part of the Department of Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR) and with a small part of the Home Office.

It was created after the perceived failure of MAFF, to deal adequately with an outbreak of Foot and Mouth disease. The department had about 9,000 core personnel, as of January 2008.[5]

In October 2008, the climate team at Defra was merged with the energy team from the Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform (BERR), to create the Department of Energy and Climate Change, then headed by Ed Miliband.[6]


The Defra Ministers are as follows:[7][8]

Minister Rank Portfolio
The Rt Hon. George Eustice MP Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs Strategy and overall responsibility for departmental policy; Budget and finances; Legislative programme; Emergencies; international relations.
The Rt Hon. The Lord Goldsmith of Richmond Park Minister of State for Pacific and the Environment[9] (jointly with FCDO) House of Lords Minister for Environment, including Environment Bill; international climate change, environment and conservation, biodiversity; oceans; Oceania; Blue Belt; COVID-19 issues related to animal welfare; agri-food trade (for negotiations); forestry policy: domestic and international; International Whaling Commission; international oceans; illegal wildlife trade; animal welfare; green recovery; trade including standards, market access and exports, geographical indicators; Ministerial lead for Forestry Commission.
The Hon. Victoria Prentis MP Minister of State for Farming, Fisheries and Food Overall lead Minister for the agri-food chain, and lead Minister for the Union and Levelling Up relating to Defra issues; fisheries; farming; food; trade and pesticides.
The Rt Hon. The Lord Benyon Parliamentary Under Secretary of State for Rural Affairs and Biosecurity All Defra parliamentary business in the House of Lords; Rural affairs, namely rural productivity and connectivity, rural life opportunities (childcare, education, skills and health); Animal health and traceability; Bee health and National Pollinator Strategy; Biosecurity, including endemic and exotic plant and animal disease, invasive alien species; Landscapes, including National Parks and AONBs; Access including rights of way and coastal paths; Animal and plant health; Domestic green finance and finance markets for nature and the environment; Ministerial lead for RBG Kew, Animal and Plant Health Agency, Veterinary Medicines Directorate and Animal Health and Welfare Board for England.
Rebecca Pow MP Parliamentary Under Secretary of State for Nature Recovery and the Domestic Environment Domestic natural environment; 25 Year Environment Plan; Environment Bill; floods and water; Resource and environmental management (including waste, air quality, chemicals, litter); Commercial projects including Covent Garden Market and waste PFI projects; Ministerial lead for Environment Agency and Natural England; Commons Minister for water, international environment, forestry and rural.
Jo Churchill MP Parliamentary Under Secretary of State for Agri-Innovation and Climate Adaption Science and innovation, including gene editing and agri-food innovation; Defra delivery of Net Zero; Delivery of climate change adaptation across government; Environmental management and regulation (chemicals, waste, air quality); Commercial projects; Ministerial lead for COVID-19 relating to Defra issues; Commons Minister for animal welfare, including animal welfare legislation.

The Permanent Secretary is Tamara Finkelstein, who replaced Clare Moriarty in 2019.[10][11]

Shadow ministers portfolios can differ from government departments therefore overlap.


Defra is responsible for British Government policy in the following areas[12]

Some policies apply to England alone due to devolution, while others are not devolved and therefore apply to the United Kingdom as a whole.

Executive agenciesEdit

The department's executive agencies are:[13]

Key delivery partnersEdit

The department's key delivery partners are:[16]

A full list of departmental delivery and public bodies may be found on the Defra website.[19]

Defra in the English regionsEdit

A Countryside Stewardship Scheme sign near a new stile a Cratfield, Suffolk

Policies for environment, food and rural affairs are delivered in the regions by Defra's executive agencies and delivery bodies, in particular Natural England, the Rural Payments Agency, Animal Health and the Marine Management Organisation.

Defra provides grant aid to the following flood and coastal erosion risk management operating authorities:

Aim and strategic prioritiesEdit

Defra's overarching aim is sustainable development, which is defined as "development which enables all people throughout the world to satisfy their basic needs and enjoy a better quality of life without compromising the quality of life of future generations." The Secretary of State wrote in a letter to the Prime Minister that he saw Defra's mission as enabling a move toward what the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) has called "one planet living".[20]

Under this overarching aim, Defra has five strategic priorities:[21]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Budget 2011 (PDF). London: HM Treasury. 2011. p. 48. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 August 2011. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
  2. ^ "Concordat between MAFF and the Scottish Executive". Archived from the original on 8 February 2011.
  3. ^ "Concordat between MAFF and the Cabinet of the National Assembly for Wales". Archived from the original on 23 February 2006.
  4. ^ "Devolution: Subject specific Concordat between MAFF and the Scottish Executive on fisheries". Archived from the original on 20 November 2008.
  5. ^ "Defra departmental report" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 June 2008.
  6. ^ Harrabin, Roger (3 October 2008). "Marrying energy demand and supply". BBC News. Retrieved 22 May 2009.
  7. ^ "Our ministers". GOV.UK. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. Retrieved 1 August 2019.
  8. ^ "Her Majesty's Official Opposition". UK Parliament. Retrieved 17 October 2017.
  9. ^ "Zac Goldsmith (@ZacGoldsmith)". Twitter. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  10. ^ [1], Defra
  11. ^ "Appointment of new Permanent Secretary at Defra". GOV.UK. 19 June 2019. Retrieved 21 June 2019.
  12. ^ "Cabinet Office List of Ministerial Responsibilities, July 2010". 16 September 2010. Retrieved 18 November 2011.
  13. ^ "List of ministerial responsibilities (including Executive Agencies and Non-Ministerial Departments)" (PDF). Retrieved 18 November 2011.
  14. ^ "DEFRA Agencies shake-up", news release by Defra, 29 June 2010 (from the Defra website)
  15. ^ "Launch of Animal Health" Archived 22 April 2007 at the Wayback Machine, news release by Animal Health, 2 April 2007 (from the Defra website)
  16. ^ "Working with others: Defra's delivery partners" Archived 5 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Chapter 6, Departmental Report 2006 (from the Defra website)
  17. ^ "Marine Management Organisation established" Archived 2 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine, press release by Defra, 1 April 2010 (from the Defra website.
  18. ^ "New champion for the environment launches" Archived 10 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine, press release by Natural England, 11 October 2006 (from the Natural England website)
  19. ^ "Delivery Landscape Map". Archived from the original on 29 April 2007.
  20. ^ "My priorities for Defra" Archived 10 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine, David Miliband's letter to the Prime Minister, 11 July 2006
  21. ^ "Delivering the Essentials of Life: Defra’s Five Year Strategy" Archived 6 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Annex B

External linksEdit

Video clipsEdit