Paleoconservatism's concerns overlap those of the Old Right that opposed the New Deal in the 1930s and 1940s. According to the international relations scholar Michael Foley, "paleoconservatives press for restrictions on immigration, a rollback of multicultural programs, the decentralization of federal policy, the restoration of controls upon free trade, a greater emphasis upon economic nationalism and noninterventionism in the conduct of American foreign policy".
Political theorist Paul Gottfried states that the term originally referred to various Americans, such as conservative and traditionalist Catholics and agrarian Southerners, who turned to anti-communism during the Cold War.
- 1 Terminology
- 2 Ideology
- 3 Prominent people
- 4 Notable organizations and outlets
- 5 See also
- 6 Notes
- 7 References
The prefix "paleo" derives from the Greek root παλαιός, meaning "ancient" or "old". It is somewhat tongue-in-cheek and refers to the paleoconservatives' claim to represent a more historic, authentic conservative tradition than that found in neoconservatism. Adherents of paleoconservatism often describe themselves simply as "paleo". Neoconservative Rich Lowry of National Review claims the prefix "is designed to obscure the fact that it is a recent ideological creation of post–Cold War politics".
Samuel T. Francis, Thomas Fleming and some other paleoconservatives de-emphasized the "conservative" part of the "paleoconservative" label, saying that they do not want the status quo preserved. Fleming and Paul Gottfried called such thinking "stupid tenacity" and described it as "a series of trenches dug in defense of last year's revolution". Francis defined authentic conservatism as "the survival and enhancement of a particular people and its institutionalized cultural expressions".
Paleoconservatives support restrictions on immigration, decentralization, trade tariffs and protectionism, economic nationalism, isolationism and a return to traditional conservative ideals relating to gender, ethnicity, and race. Paleoconservatism differs from neoconservatism in opposing free trade and promoting Republicanism in the United States. Paleoconservatives see neoconservatives as empire-builders and themselves as defenders of the republic.
Human nature, tradition and reasonEdit
Paleoconservatives believe tradition is a better guide than reason. For example, Mel Bradford wrote that certain questions are settled before any serious deliberation concerning a preferred course of conduct may begin. This ethic is based in a "culture of families, linked by friendship, common enemies, and common projects". So a good conservative keeps "a clear sense of what Southern grandmothers have always meant in admonishing children, 'we don't do that'".
Pat Buchanan argues that a good politician must "defend the moral order rooted in the Old and New Testament and Natural Law"—and that "the deepest problems in our society are not economic or political, but moral". On the other hand, Samuel T. Francis complained that the Christian right focuses on certain social issues and neglects other civilizational crises.
According to historian Paul V. Murphy, paleoconservatives developed a focus on "states' rights" and political localism. From the mid-1980s onward, Chronicles promoted a Southern traditionalist worldview focused on national identity, regional particularity, and skepticism of abstract theory and centralized power. According to Hague, Beirich, and Sebesta (2009), the antimodernism of the paleoconservative movement defined the neo-confederate movement of the 1980s and 1990s. During this time, notable paleoconservative argued that desegregation, welfare, tolerance of gay rights, and church-state separation had been damaging to local communities, and that these issues had been imposed by federal legislatures and think tanks. Paleoconservatives also claimed the Southern Agrarians as forebearers in this regard.
The Alt-right movement emerged out of the younger generation of paleoconservatives. The movement was founded in 2010 by a former paleoconservative, American white nationalist Richard B. Spencer who launched AlternativeRight.org to disseminate his ideas after working as an editor for a number of paleoconservative outlets. The Alt-right was influenced by paleoconservatism, the Dark Enlightenment, and the Nouvelle Droite. Unlike paleoconservatism it is an explicitly white-supremicist movement.
- Steve Bannon (born 1953), former White House Chief Strategist (2017)
- Pat Buchanan (born 1938), White House Communications Director (1985–1987), 1992 and 1996 Republican presidential candidate, 2000 Reform Party presidential nominee
Philosophers and scholarsEdit
- Mel Bradford (1934–1993)
- Paul Gottfried (born 1941)
- E. Christian Kopff (born 1946)
- William S. Lind (born 1947)
- Clyde N. Wilson (born 1941)
Notable organizations and outletsEdit
Periodicals and websitesEdit
- American nationalism
- Anti-globalization movement
- Criticism of multiculturalism
- Cultural conservatism
- Liberal conservatism
- Libertarian conservatism
- National conservatism
- National liberalism
- Old Right
- Radical right
- Traditionalist conservatism in the United States
- Raimondo 1993.
- Foley 2007, p. 318.
- Gottfried 2006.
- Lowry, Richard (2005). "Reaganism v. Neo-Reaganism". The National Interest. No. 79. Center for the National Interest. pp. 35–41. ISSN 1938-1573. JSTOR 42897547. Retrieved January 27, 2018.
- Francis 1994.
- Foer, Franklin (July 22, 2002). "Home Bound". The New Republic. Archived from the original on October 1, 2009. Retrieved January 27, 2018.
- Gottfried & Fleming 1988, p. xv.
- Francis, Samuel (July 1992). "The Buchanan Revolution" (PDF). Chronicles. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 23, 2004. Retrieved January 27, 2018 – via SamFrancis.net.
- Francis, Samuel (March 2004). "(Con)fusion on the Right". Chronicles. Archived from the original on April 4, 2007. Retrieved January 27, 2018.
- Matthews, Dillon. "The alt-right is more than warmed-over white supremacy. It's that, but way way weirder". Vox. Vox Media Inc. Retrieved August 4, 2019.
- Chu, Jeff (August 20, 2006). "10 Questions for Pat Buchanan". Time. New York. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved May 21, 2010.
- Fleming, Thomas (September 8, 2005). "Ethics 01A.1: Gay Marriage, Democracy". Chronicles. Rockford, Illinois: Rockford Institute. Archived from the original on September 27, 2006. Retrieved August 27, 2006. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Francis, Samuel (October 15, 2003). "Gun Control: The Final Blow". Chronicle. Archived from the original on March 13, 2005. Retrieved September 1, 2006. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Bradford, M. E. (1990). The Reactionary Imperative: Essays Literary and Political. Peru, Illinois: Sherwood Sugden. p. 129. Quoted in Murphy 2001, p. 233.
- Bradford, M. E. (1990). The Reactionary Imperative: Essays Literary and Political. Peru, Illinois: Sherwood Sugden. pp. 119, 121. Quoted in Murphy 2001, p. 233.
- Pat Buchanan Responds To Lenora Fulani's Resignation – Buchanan Campaign Press Releases – theinternetbrigade – Official Web Site Archived October 5, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
- "samfrancis.net" (PDF). samfrancis.net. Retrieved January 24, 2014.
- Murphy 2001, p. 218.
- Hague, Euan; Beirich, Heidi; Sebesta, Edward H. (2009). Neo-Confederacy: A Critical Introduction. University of Texas Press. pp. 25–27. ISBN 9780292779211. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
- CQ Researcher (2017). Issues in Race and Ethnicity: Selections from CQ Researcher. SAGE Publications. pp. 4–6. ISBN 978-1-5443-1635-2.
- "Considering Bannon". Chronicles Magazine. March 2, 2017.
- Dueck 2010, p. 258.
- Hawley 2017; Newman & Giardina 2011, p. 50.
- Clark 2016, p. 77; Dueck 2010, p. 258; Hawley 2017; Newman & Giardina 2011, p. 50.
- Ansell 1998, p. 34.
- Robertson, Derek. "The Canadian Psychologist Beating American Pundits at Their Own Game". Politico. Capitol News Company. Retrieved August 6, 2019.
- Newman & Giardina 2011, p. 50; Wilson 2017.
- Dueck 2010, p. 258; McDonald 2004, p. 216.
- Nash 2006, p. 568; Newman & Giardina 2011, p. 50.
- Clark 2016, p. 77.
- "InfoWars' Alex Jones Stole Over 1,000 Articles From Kremlin-Backed Russia Today". New York Observer. November 9, 2017.
- Newman & Giardina 2011, p. 50.
- Schneider 2009, p. 212.
- Clark 2016, p. 77; Hawley 2017; Schneider 2009, p. 170.
- Ansell, Amy Elizabeth (1998). Unraveling the Right: The New Conservatism in American Thought and Politics. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. ISBN 978-0-8133-3146-1.
- Bradford, M. E. (1994) . A Better Guide than Reason: Federalists and Anti-Federalists. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-1-4128-1601-4.
- Buchanan, Patrick J. (2006). State of Emergency: The Third World Invasion and Conquest of America. New York: Thomas Dunne Books. ISBN 978-0-312-37436-5.
- Burke, Edmund (1790). Reflections on the Revolution in France. London: J. Dodlsey. Retrieved January 27, 2018.
- Clark, Barry (2016). Political Economy: A Comparative Approach (3rd ed.). Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-4408-4326-6.
- Dueck, Colin (2010). Hard Line: The Republican Party and U.S. Foreign Policy Since World War II. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-14182-4.
- Edwards, Lee (2003). Educating for Liberty: The First Half-Century of the Intercollegiate Studies Institute. Washington: Regnery Publishing. ISBN 978-0-89526-093-2.
- Francis, Samuel T. (1994). Beautiful Losers: Essays on the Failure of American Conservatism. Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri Press. Retrieved January 27, 2018.
- Foley, Michael (2007). American Credo: The Place of Ideas in US Politics. New York: Oxford University Press.
- Gottfried, Paul (1993) . The Conservative Movement (rev. ed.). Boston, Massachusetts: Twayne Publishers. ISBN 978-0-8057-9749-7.
- ——— (1999). After Liberalism: Mass Democracy in the Managerial State. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press (published 2001). ISBN 978-1-4008-2289-8.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
- ——— (2006). "Paleoconservatism". In Frohnen, Bruce; Beer, Jeremy; Nelson, Jeffrey O. (eds.). American Conservatism: An Encyclopedia. Wilmington, Delaware: ISI Books. pp. 651–652. ISBN 978-1-61017-103-8.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
- Gottfried, Paul; Fleming, Thomas (1988). The Conservative Movement. Boston, Massachusetts: Twayne Publishers. ISBN 978-0-8057-9723-7.
- Hawley, George (2017). Making Sense of the Alt-Right. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-54600-3.
- Hitchens, Peter (1999). The Abolition of Britain: From Lady Chatterley to Tony Blair. London: Quartet Books.
- Kirk, Russell (1986). The Conservative Mind: From Burke to Eliot (7th ed.). Washington: Regnery Publishing (published 2001). pp. 8–9. ISBN 978-0-89526-171-7.
- ——— (2014) . Eliot and His Age: T. S. Eliot's Moral Imagination in the Twentieth Century. Open Road Integrated Media. ISBN 978-1-4976-3573-9.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
- Kopff, E. Christopher (2006). "Buchanan, Patrick J. (1938–)". In Frohnen, Bruce; Beer, Jeremy; Nelson, Jeffrey O. (eds.). American Conservatism: An Encyclopedia. Wilmington, Delaware: ISI Books. pp. 96–97. ISBN 978-1-61017-103-8.
- Machnik, Barbara (2015). "Paleoconservatism and the Issue of Immigration and Multiculturalism". Ad Americam. 16: 29–40. ISSN 1896-9461.
- McDonald, W. Wesley (1999). "Russell Kirk and the Prospects for Conservatism" (PDF). Humanitas. 12 (1): 56–76. ISSN 1066-7210. Retrieved January 26, 2018.
- ——— (2004). Russell Kirk and the Age of Ideology. Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri Press. ISBN 978-0-8262-6258-5.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
- Murphy, Paul V. (2001). The Rebuke of History: The Southern Agrarians and American Conservative Thought. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0-8078-4960-6.
- Nash, George H. (2006). The Conservative Intellectual Movement in America Since 1945. Wilmington, Delaware: ISI Books. ISBN 978-1-933859-12-5.
- Newman, Joshua I.; Giardina, Michael D. (2011). Sport, Spectacle, and NASCAR Nation: Consumption and the Cultural Politics of Neoliberalism. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. doi:10.1057/9780230338081. ISBN 978-0-230-33808-1.
- Raimondo, Justin (1993). Reclaiming the American Right: The Lost Legacy of the Conservative Movement. Burlingame, California: Center for Libertarian Studies. ISBN 978-1-883959-00-5.
- Röpke, Wilhelm (1998). A Humane Economy: The Social Framework of the Free Market. Wilmington, Delaware: ISI Books.
- Russello, Gerald J. (2004). "Russell Kirk and Territorial Democracy". Publius. 34 (4): 109–124. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.pubjof.a005044. ISSN 1747-7107. JSTOR 20184928.
- Ryn, Claes G. (1998). "Defining Historicism". Humanitas. 11 (2): 86–101. ISSN 1066-7210. Retrieved January 27, 2018.
- Schneider, Gregory L. (2009). The Conservative Century: From Reaction to Revolution. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-7425-4285-3.
- Scotchie, Joseph (2004) . Revolt from the Heartland: The Struggle for an Authentic Conservatism. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-1-4128-3324-0.
- ——— (2017a) . "Introduction: Paleoconservatism as the Opposition Party". In Scotchie, Joseph (ed.). The Paleoconservatives: New Voices of the Old Right. London: Routledge. pp. 1–15. ISBN 978-1-351-47773-4.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
- ——— , ed. (2017b) . The Paleoconservatives: New Voices of the Old Right. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-351-47773-4.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
- Watson, George (1985). The Idea of Liberalism: Studies for a New Map of Politics. London: Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-333-38754-2.
- Williamson, Chilton (2004). The Conservative Bookshelf: Essential Works That Impact Today's Conservative Thinkers.
- Wilson, Clyde (2017) . "Restoring the Republic". In Scotchie, Joseph (ed.). The Paleoconservatives: New Voices of the Old Right. London: Routledge. pp. 179–188. ISBN 978-1-351-47773-4.
- Woltermann, Chris (1993). "What Is Paleoconservatism?". Telos. 1993 (97): 9–20. doi:10.3817/0993097009. ISSN 1940-459X.