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Vox (Spanish political party)

Vox (Latin for "voice", often stylized as VOX; Spanish pronunciation: [ˈboks]) is a political party in Spain founded on 17 December 2013, by former members of the People's Party (PP). The party is described variously as right-wing,[16][17] right-wing populist,[2][18][3] or far-right.[19][20][21][22]

Vox
PresidentSantiago Abascal
Secretary-GeneralJavier Ortega Smith
Founded17 December 2013
Split fromPeople's Party
Membership (January 2019)Increase 30,010[1]
IdeologyRight-wing populism[2][3]
Ultranationalism[4][5]
Economic liberalism[6][7][8]
Social conservatism[citation needed]
National conservatism[citation needed]
Soft Euroscepticism[9]
Anti-Islam[10]
Centralism[11][12]
Political positionRight-wing[13][14] to
far-right[15]
European affiliationNone
Colours     Green
Congress of Deputies
0 / 350
Senate
1 / 265
European Parliament
0 / 54
Regional parliaments
13 / 1,268
Mayors in Spain
4 / 8,122
Town councillors
17 / 67,611
Website
www.voxespana.es

Contents

History

 
Javier Ortega Smith giving a speech in 2018 in Vistalegre.
 
Results of Vox (2014 European elections in Spain)

Vox was founded on 17 December 2013,[23] and publicly launched at a press conference in Madrid on 16 January 2014.[24][25] The reasons for this schism seem to be the way the incumbent PP government dealt with the issue of the violence of separatist group ETA, the fiscal policy of the PP, and the desire for a more centralized government in contrast to the current, quasi-federal political system ("State of Autonomies") instituted in 1978. Vox opposes Basque and Catalan separatism in general.[25] VOX have labelled themselves as a right-wing and Christian democratic party. The first provisional chairman was the philosopher José Luis González Quirós [es] (provisional until the party's internal election in late 2014). Other members are Santiago Abascal and José Antonio Ortega Lara (well known for having been kidnapped by ETA for more than a year).

Vox ran for the first time in the 2014 European elections but narrowly failed to win a seat in the European Parliament.[26]

In September 2014 the party elected Santiago Abascal, one of the founders, as new President, and Iván Espinosa de los Monteros, also a founder, as General Secretary. Eleven members of the National Executive Committee were also elected.

In the fall of 2017 the number of members increased 20% in forty days as a consequence of the terrorist attack in Barcelona and the Catalan independence process.[21]

After the Catalan referendum of 2017 and the start of a Spanish constitutional crisis, Vox opted to not participate in the Catalan regional elections of 2017.[27] After the Catalan declaration of independence, the party sued the Parliament of Catalonia and several independentist politicians.[28]

On 10 September 2018 Vox enlisted an independent legislator in the regional parliament of Extremadura (who had dropped out of the PP parliamentary group) as party member.[29] On 2 December 2018 they won 12 parliamentary seats in the Andalusian regional election,[30] entering for the first time in a regional parliament.

Ideology

Vox takes a pro-life stance on abortion and opposes same-sex marriage because they consider the Spanish word for marriage, "matrimonio", to be etymologically inadequate for same sex couples. Vox seeks to create a new type of union, called a "civil union", to replace same-sex marriage.[31]

Starting with a focus in economically liberal stances and recentralization proposals, the focus of their message shifted towards stances compatible with European right-wing populism,[32] endorsing anti-Islam and anti mass-immigration discourses as well as criticism of multiculturalism.[32] Their view of European Union is that of a soft euroscepticism, arguing that Spain should make no sovereignty concessions to the EU, because they consider Spanish sovereignty to reside in the Spanish nation alone.[33] However, they propose to remove Spain's autonomous communities, negating the sovereignty of other nationalities and regional identities within Spain.[33]

Vox is considered antifeminist,[34] and wants to repeal the gender violence law,[35] which is considered as "discriminant against one of the sexes" and replace it with a "family violence law that will afford the same protection to the elderly, men, women and children who suffer from abuse".[36]

According to Xavier Casals, the ultranationalism in Vox, unifying part of its ideology up to this point, is identified by the party with a palingenetic and biological vision of the country, the so-called "España Viva", and with a Catholic-inspired culture.[4]

Electoral performance

Congress of Deputies

Congress of Deputies
Election Seats Vote % Status Leader
2015
0 / 350
58,114 (#15) 0.23 N/A Santiago Abascal
2016
0 / 350
47,182 (#13) 0.20 N/A Santiago Abascal

Senate

Senate
Election Seats Leader
2015
0 / 208
Santiago Abascal
2016
0 / 208
Santiago Abascal

European Parliament

European Parliament
Election Seats Vote %
2014
0 / 54
246,833 (#11) 1.57

Regional parliaments

Election Seats Vote % Status
Andalusia 2018
12 / 109
395,978 (#5) 10.97 Opposition
Asturias 2015
0 / 45
3,226 (#10) 0.59 N/A
Basque Country 2016
0 / 75
771 (#12) 0.07 N/A
Canary Islands 2015
0 / 60
1,814 (#16) 0.20 N/A
Cantabria 2015
0 / 35
1,119 (#12) 0.34 N/A
Castile and León 2015
0 / 84
9,333 (#9) 0.68 N/A
Castilla–La Mancha 2015
0 / 33
5,302 (#8) 0.48 N/A
Extremadura 2015
0 / 65
1,786 (#9) 0.28 N/A
Madrid 2015
0 / 129
37,491 (#7) 1.18 N/A
Murcia 2015
0 / 45
5,427 (#9) 0.85 N/A
Valencian Community 2015
0 / 99
10,336 (#10) 0.42 N/A

References

  1. ^ "Vox multiplica en un año por seis el número de afiliados y supera ya los 30.000" (in Spanish). OK Diario. 21 January 2019. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  2. ^ a b La Sexta (14 February 2014). "VOX, el partido a la derecha del PP que se come el voto ultra". lasexta.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 January 2018. La ideología de VOX tiene una línea conservadora clara: centralismo a ultranza y no a los nacionalismos
  3. ^ a b "Hay un gran espacio a la derecha del PP, pero nadie ha sabido aún cómo ocuparlo". El Confidencial, 29/07/2017.
    Sin espacio en España para la nueva derecha populista. El Mundo, 26/12/2017.
  4. ^ a b Casals, Xavier (19 January 2019). "Vox habla sobre Vox. Tres libros para conocer el partido". Agenda Pública.
  5. ^ Acha, Beatriz (6 January 2019). "No, no es un partido (neo)fascista". Agenda Pública.
  6. ^ "La principal característica de VOX no es ser de ultraderecha, sino defender el sistema neoliberal". lasexta.com (in Spanish). principal característica de Vox [...] son absolutamente defensores del sistema neoliberal
  7. ^ "En España el partido más liberal en materia económica es VOX". panampost.com (in Spanish).
  8. ^ "Vox es más ultraderecha clásica que populismo contemporáneo". letraslibres.com (in Spanish). su nacionalismo se conjuga con [...] un discurso económico liberal
  9. ^ Cádiz, Covadonga y Bruselas, Libertad Digital
  10. ^ Los musulmanes de España entre dos fuegos: el yihadismo y la extrema derecha xenófoba, El Confidencial}}
  11. ^ http://lab.rtve.es/las-claves/el-programa-de-vox-para-reconquistar-espana-2018-12-03/. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  12. ^ https://www.elmundo.es/espana/2014/01/17/52d8675e268e3e0b5a8b4585.html. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  13. ^ Luppicini & Baarda 2017, p. 208: "He continued the jibing, announcing that several members of 'Popular Party' will be integrated back into political life through the new right wing Christian 'Popular Party', a breakaway party 'VOX' ('Voice') and the anti-separatist UPyD"
  14. ^ WELCOME TO VOX Spain. The Leader. Published 4 September 2017. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
    Spain’s new PP leader seeks to move the party ‘back to its roots’. The Olive Press. Author - Bradley Stokes. Published 25 July 2018. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
  15. ^ "Hay un gran espacio a la derecha del PP, pero nadie ha sabido aún cómo ocuparlo". El Confidencial, 29/07/2017.
    Sin espacio en España para la nueva derecha populista. El Mundo, 26/12/2017.
    Will Bannonism Play in Spain?. Slate, 02/07/2018.
    Explained: Who is VOX? Spain's latest far-right party gaining popularity. Euronews. Author - Cristina Abellan Matamoros. Last updated 8 October 2018. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
    Spanish far right gains increased support. The Government Europa. Published 2 November 2018. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
    Magma Ultra. El Periódico
    Here’s how bad economically a Spain-Catalonia split could really be. CNBC, 04/05/2018.
    Vox: la ultraderecha irrelevante en las urnas agita los juzgados. eldiario.es, 17/12/2017.
    La afiliación al partido ultraderechista VOX aumenta un 20% en 40 días. Público, 02/10/2017.
    Spain's far-right gains visibility in Catalonia crisis. AFP, 2017.
    Spain proves sterile ground for far-right parties. Deutsche Welle, 31/05/2017.
    Spain: No country for old fascists. Politico Europe, 26/12/2016.
  16. ^
  17. ^ "Voxeando". abc (in Spanish). 2018-10-13. Retrieved 2019-01-14.
  18. ^ Will Bannonism Play in Spain?. Slate, 02/07/2018.
  19. ^ González - Enríquez, Carmen (14 February 2017). "The Spanish Exception: Unemployment, inequality and immigration, but no right-wing populist parties" (PDF). elcano Royal Institute: 31, 34–34 – via elcano. The extreme right was disconcerted by transition to democracy and unable to react: soon it was divided into several groups, each of them claiming to be the true heirs of Falange Española, losing a common leadership. They gradually lost the voters they had gathered in 1979, who fled towards the Alianza Popular or abstention, and they have not gained near 1 per cent of the vote in parliamentary elections since. During the two last decades they have not even reached 0.5 per cent in those elections. Their most salient success was the 2 per cent of all votes obtained in the 2014 European elections by a new party, Vox, led by a former Partido Popular leader, who almost managed to obtain a seat. But this same party won less than 0.3 per cent in the 2015 and 2016 parliamentary elections (figure 20).
    Regué, Júlia (2018-08-19). "Radiografía de la extrema derecha en Catalunya". elperiodico (in Spanish). Retrieved 2018-09-04.
    "Spain's far-right gains visibility in Catalonia crisis". 2017-10-15. Retrieved 2018-05-29.
  20. ^ "Vox: la ultraderecha irrelevante en las urnas agita los juzgados". eldiario.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 2018-04-18.
    "Arrest of Catalan Leader Tests Spain, Separatists and E.U." The New York Times. 2018-03-27. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-04-18.
  21. ^ a b "La afiliación al partido ultraderechista VOX aumenta un 20% en 40 días" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2018-04-18.
  22. ^ "Spain: No country for old fascists". POLITICO. 2016-12-26. Retrieved 2018-05-29.
    www.dw.com), Deutsche Welle. "Spain proves sterile ground for far-right parties | DW | 31.05.2017". DW.COM. Retrieved 2018-05-29.
  23. ^ "VOX es un partido político con personalidad jurídica propia e inscrito en el Registro de partidos políticos del Ministerio del Interior el día 17 Diciembre de 2013" - VOX
  24. ^ "Nace Vox, el partido político de Santiago Abascal y Ortega Lara". Libertad Digital. 14 January 2014. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  25. ^ a b O'Leary, Elisabeth. "Spanish ruling party rebels launch new conservative party". U.S. Retrieved 2018-04-18.
  26. ^ Tristeza y decepción en Vox tras los resultados de las Elecciones Europeas in libertaddigital.com (in Spanish)
  27. ^ Paradinas, Marcos (3 November 2017). "VOX: "El 21D es fruto de un pacto oculto entre Rajoy y los golpistas"". elplural.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  28. ^ "El TSJ catalán admite la querella de Vox por rebelión contra Puigdemont" (in Spanish). El País. 11 October 2017. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
  29. ^ "Los ex 'populares' Juan Antonio Morales y Antonio Pozo se incorporan a Vox" (in Spanish). Región Digital. 10 September 2018. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
  30. ^ Spain far-right Vox party gains foothold in Andalusia election Published by BBC news on 3 December 2018
  31. ^ "Alejo Vidal Cuadras, fundador de VOX habla sobre el matrimonio homosexual". www.google.com. Retrieved 2018-09-03.
  32. ^ a b Casals, Xavier (21 April 2015). "Vox y su campaña contra la inmigración masiva". ElManifiesto.com.
  33. ^ a b Abascal, Santiago (2015-11-08). "Cádiz, Covadonga y Bruselas". Libertad Digital (in Spanish). Retrieved 2018-07-21. Porque estamos convencidos de que nación y soberanía son conceptos íntimamente relacionados. Si somos soberanos es porque somos una Nación y no tenemos derecho a entregar lo que hemos recibido de nuestros mayores. España debe estar en Europa pero sin complejos, reivindicando el papel histórico, industrial y agrícola que merecemos. No debemos ser vasallos de Merkel ni de Tsipras. Ni camareros de Merkel ni paganos de las propinas de Tsipras. Las Cortes de Cádiz proclamaron que la Nación española era libre e independiente y que no podía ser patrimonio de ninguna familia o persona. Proclamaron asimismo que la soberanía reside esencialmente en la Nación, que es la única que tiene derecho a establecer sus leyes fundamentales. Esta declaración de soberanía ha sido una constante en toda nuestra historia constitucional.
  34. ^ Far right victories in Andalucía send shockwave through Spanish politics Published by The Guardian on 9 December, 2018, written by Sam Jones
  35. ^ Álvarez, Pilar; Valdés, Isabel (3 December 2018). "Derogar la ley de violencia de género y otros planes de Vox contra el feminismo" – via elpais.com.
  36. ^ "Far-right Spanish political party Vox: What are its policies?". 3 December 2018 – via elpais.com.

Bibliography

External links