November 2019 Spanish general election
The November 2019 Spanish general election was held on Sunday, 10 November 2019, to elect the 14th Cortes Generales of the Kingdom of Spain. All 350 seats in the Congress of Deputies were elected, as well as 208 of 265 seats in the Senate.
All 350 seats in the Congress of Deputies and 208 (of 265) seats in the Senate
176 seats needed for a majority in the Congress of Deputies
Constituency results map for the Congress of Deputies
The election was held as provided under article 99.5 of the Spanish Constitution, as a result of the failure in government formation negotiations after Pedro Sánchez's failed investiture voting on 23–25 July 2019. On 17 September 2019, King Felipe VI declined to propose any candidate for investiture ahead of the 23 September deadline as a result of the lack of agreement between parties, with a new general election scheduled for 10 November. The failure in PSOE–Unidas Podemos negotiations prompted Podemos founder Íñigo Errejón to turn his regional Más Madrid platform—which had obtained a remarkable result in the 26 May Madrilenian regional election—into a national alliance under the newly-created brand of Más País, comprising a number of regional parties and former Podemos and United Left allies, such as Coalició Compromís, Equo or Chunta Aragonesista.
- 1 Overview
- 2 Parties and alliances
- 3 Timetable
- 4 Campaign period
- 5 Opinion polls
- 6 Voter turnout
- 7 Results
- 8 Aftermath
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
The Spanish Cortes Generales are envisaged as an imperfect bicameral system. The Congress of Deputies has greater legislative power than the Senate, having the ability to vote confidence in or withdraw it from a Prime Minister and to override Senate vetoes by an absolute majority of votes. Nonetheless, the Senate possesses a few exclusive, yet limited in number functions—such as its role in constitutional amendment—which are not subject to the Congress' override. Voting for the Cortes Generales is on the basis of universal suffrage, which comprises all nationals over eighteen and in full enjoyment of their political rights. Additionally, Spaniards abroad are required to apply for voting before being permitted to vote, a system known as "begged" or expat vote (Spanish: Voto rogado).
For the Congress of Deputies, 348 seats are elected using the D'Hondt method and a closed list proportional representation, with a threshold of 3 percent of valid votes—which includes blank ballots—being applied in each constituency. Parties not reaching the threshold are not taken into consideration for seat distribution. Additionally, the use of the D'Hondt method may result in an effective threshold over three percent, depending on the district magnitude. Seats are allocated to constituencies, corresponding to the provinces of Spain. Each constituency is entitled to an initial minimum of two seats, with the remaining 248 allocated among the constituencies in proportion to their populations. Ceuta and Melilla are allocated the two remaining seats, which are elected using plurality voting.
For the Senate, 208 seats are elected using an open list partial block voting, with electors voting for individual candidates instead of parties. In constituencies electing four seats, electors can vote for up to three candidates; in those with two or three seats, for up to two candidates; and for one candidate in single-member districts. Each of the 47 peninsular provinces is allocated four seats, whereas for insular provinces, such as the Balearic and Canary Islands, districts are the islands themselves, with the larger—Majorca, Gran Canaria and Tenerife—being allocated three seats each, and the smaller—Menorca, Ibiza–Formentera, Fuerteventura, La Gomera, El Hierro, Lanzarote and La Palma—one each. Ceuta and Melilla elect two seats each. Additionally, autonomous communities can appoint at least one senator each and are entitled to one additional senator per each million inhabitants.
The electoral law provides that parties, federations, coalitions and groupings of electors are allowed to present lists of candidates. However, parties, federations or coalitions that have not obtained a mandate in either House of Parliament at the preceding election are required to secure the signature of at least 0.1 percent of the electors registered in the constituency for which they are seeking election, whereas groupings of electors are required to secure the signature of 1 percent of electors. Electors are barred from signing for more than one list of candidates. Concurrently, parties and federations intending to enter in coalition to take part jointly at an election are required to inform the relevant Electoral Commission within ten days of the election being called. The electoral law provides for a special, simplified process for election re-runs, including a shortening of deadlines, the lifting of signature requirements if these had been already met for the immediately previous election and the possibility of maintaining lists and coalitions without needing to go through pre-election procedures again.
The term of each House of the Cortes Generales—the Congress and the Senate—expires four years from the date of their previous election, unless they are dissolved earlier. The election Decree shall be issued no later than the twenty-fifth day prior to the date of expiry of the Cortes in the event that the Prime Minister does not make use of his prerogative of early dissolution. The Decree shall be published on the following day in the Official State Gazette (BOE), with election day taking place on the fifty-fourth day from publication. The previous election was held on 28 April 2019, which means that the legislature's term will expire on 28 April 2023. The election Decree shall be published no later than 4 April 2023, with the election taking place on the fifty-fourth day from publication, setting the latest possible election date for the Cortes Generales on Sunday, 28 May 2023.
The Prime Minister has the prerogative to dissolve both Houses at any given time—either jointly or separately—and call a snap election, provided that no motion of no confidence is in process, no state of emergency is in force and that dissolution does not occur before one year has elapsed since the previous one. Additionally, both Houses are to be dissolved and a new election called if an investiture process fails to elect a Prime Minister within a two-month period from the first ballot. Barred this exception, there is no constitutional requirement for simultaneous elections for the Congress and the Senate, there being no precedent of separate elections and with governments having long preferred that elections for the two Houses take place simultaneously.
Parties and alliancesEdit
The Cortes Generales were officially dissolved on 24 September 2019, after the publication of the dissolution Decree in the Official State Gazette. The tables below show the status of the parliamentary groups in both chambers at the time of dissolution.
Main electoral listsEdit
The November 2019 Spanish general election was the first to apply the new electoral procedures introduced for election re-runs as a result of the experience of the 2015–2016 political deadlock leading to the June 2016 election. This consists of a special, simplified process, including a shortening of deadlines, the lifting of signature requirements if these had been already met for the immediately previous election and the possibility of maintaining lists and coalitions without needing to go through the same pre-election procedures again. The key dates are listed below (all times are CET. Note that the Canary Islands use WET (UTC+0) instead):
- 24 September: The election Decree is issued with the countersign of the President of the Congress of Deputies, ratified by the King. Formal dissolution of the Cortes Generales and beginning of a suspension period of events for the inauguration of public works, services or projects.
- 25 September: Initial constitution of Provincial and Zone Electoral Commissions.
- 30 September: Deadline for parties and federations intending to maintain or enter into a coalition to inform the relevant Electoral Commission.
- 7 October: Deadline for parties, federations, coalitions, and groupings of electors to maintain or present lists of candidates to the relevant Electoral Commission.
- 9 October: Submitted lists of candidates are provisionally published in the Official State Gazette.
- 13 October: Deadline for parties, federations, coalitions, and groupings of electors to rectify irregularities in their lists.
- 14 October: Official proclamation of valid submitted lists of candidates.
- 15 October: Proclaimed lists are published in the Official State Gazette.
- 19 October: Deadline for citizens entered in the Register of Absent Electors Residing Abroad and for citizens temporarily absent from Spain to apply for voting.
- 31 October: Deadline to apply for postal voting.
- 1 November: Official start of electoral campaigning.
- 5 November: Official start of legal ban on electoral opinion polling publication, dissemination or reproduction and deadline for citizens entered in the Register of Absent Electors Residing Abroad to vote by mail.
- 6 November: Deadline for postal and temporarily absent voters to issue their votes.
- 8 November: Last day of official electoral campaigning and deadline for citizens entered in the Register of Absent Electors Residing Abroad to vote in a ballot box in the relevant Consular Office or Division.
- 9 November: Official 24-hour ban on political campaigning prior to the general election (reflection day).
- 10 November: Polling day (polling stations open at 9 am and close at 8 pm or once voters present in a queue at/outside the polling station at 8 pm have cast their vote). Provisional counting of votes starts immediately.
- 13 November: General counting of votes, including the counting of votes made overseas.
- 16 November: Deadline for the general counting of votes to be carried out by the relevant Electoral Commission.
- 25 November: Deadline for elected members to be proclaimed by the relevant Electoral Commission.
- 5 December: Deadline for both chambers of the Cortes Generales to be re-assembled (the election Decree determines this date, which for the November 2019 election was set for 3 December).
- 4 January: Final deadline for definitive results to be published in the Official State Gazette.
|Party or alliance||Original slogan||English translation||Refs|
|PSOE||« Ahora Gobierno. Ahora España »
« Ahora sí »
|"Government now. Spain now"
|PP||« Por todo lo que nos une »||"For everything that unites us"|||
|Cs||« España en marcha »||"Spain underway"|||
|Unidas Podemos||« Un Gobierno contigo »||"A Government with you"|||
|Vox||« España siempre »||"Always Spain"|||
|ERC–Sobiranistes||« Tornarem més forts »||"We shall return stronger"|||
|JxCat–Junts||« Per la independència, ni un vot enrere »||"For independence, not a vote back"|||
|EAJ/PNV||« Hemen, EAJ-PNV »||"Here, EAJ/PNV"|||
|EH Bildu||« Erabaki Baietz! »||"Decide Yes!"|||
|Más País||« Desbloquear, avanzar, Más País »||"Unblock, make progress, More Country"|||
The pre-campaign period saw the rise of a new left-wing electoral platform, Más País, founded by former Podemos co-founder Íñigo Errejón around his Más Madrid platform, following the failure of the left to agree on a government following the April election. Más País was joined by several other parties, such as Coalició Compromís, Chunta Aragonesista and Equo, the latter of which voted for breaking up its coalition with Unidas Podemos in order to join Errejón's platform. The leadership of Podemos in the Region of Murcia also went on to joint Más País. The platform went on to poll at 6 % as soon as it was formed.
On 24 September, the Spanish Supreme Court ruled in favor of the PSOE's plan to remove the remnants of Francisco Franco from the Valle de los Caídos, a key policy of Pedro Sánchez during the previous legislature. The prior of the Valle de los Caídos' abbey, Santiago Cantera, initially announced his intention to disregard the Supreme Court's ruling and not authorize Franco's exhumation; however, the Spanish government closed down the monument to the public on 11 October in order to prepare for the exhumation—finally scheduled for 22 October at latest, so for the removal to be over by 25 October—to uphold the Supreme Court's ruling.
On 13 October, the leaders of the Catalan independence movement involved in the events of October 2017 were sentenced by the Supreme Court for sedition and embezzlement to convictions ranging from 9 to 13 years in jail. The ruling unleashed a wave of violent protests throughout Catalonia, and particularly in Barcelona, throughout the ensuing days.
|Date||Organisers||Moderator(s)||P Present S Surrogate NI Non-invitee A Absent invitee|
|1 November||RTVE[m]||Xabier Fortes||P
A. de Toledo
(La Sexta Noche)
|4 November||TV Academy||Ana Blanco
|7 November||laSexta[n]||Ana Pastor||P
- Opinion polls
|1 November||SocioMétrica/El Español||14.3||17.6||19.4||16.6||18.5||6.0||3.7||–||–||3.9|
|Sigma Dos/Antena 3||20.0||21.5||10.8||29.5||18.2||–||–||–||–||–|
|NC Report/La Razón||22.8||25.1||10.1||24.3||17.7||–||–||–||–||–|
The table below shows registered vote turnout on election day without including voters from the Census of Absent-Residents (CERA).
|Castile and León||41.80%||37.29%||62.00%||56.70%||78.24%||71.37%|
Congress of DeputiesEdit
|Parties and coalitions||Popular vote||Seats|
|Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE)||6,752,983||28.00||–0.67||120||–3|
|People's Party (PP)||5,019,869||20.82||+4.13||89||+23|
|United We Can (Unidas Podemos)||3,097,185||12.84||–1.48||35||–7|
|In Common–United We Can (Podemos–EU)||186,260||0.77||–0.14||2||±0|
|Citizens–Party of the Citizenry (Cs)||1,637,540||6.79||–9.07||10||–47|
|Republican Left of Catalonia–Sovereigntists (ERC–Sobiranistes)||875,750||3.63||–0.28||13||–2|
|Republican Left of the Valencian Country (ERPV)||5,816||0.02||±0.00||0||±0|
|More Country (Más País)||577,055||2.39||New||3||+2|
|More Country–Aragonese Union–Equo (Más País–CHA–Equo)||22,989||0.10||New||0||±0|
|Together for Catalonia–Together (JxCat–Junts)||527,375||2.19||+0.28||8||+1|
|Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV)||377,423||1.57||+0.06||6||±0|
|Basque Country Unite (EH Bildu)||276,519||1.15||+0.16||5||+1|
|Popular Unity Candidacy–For Rupture (CUP–PR)||244,754||1.01||New||2||+2|
|Animalist Party Against Mistreatment of Animals (PACMA)||226,376||0.94||–0.31||0||±0|
|Canarian Coalition–New Canaries (CCa–PNC–NC)1||123,981||0.51||–0.02||2||±0|
|Galician Nationalist Bloc (BNG)||119,597||0.50||+0.14||1||+1|
|Sum Navarre (NA+)||98,448||0.41||±0.00||2||±0|
|Regionalist Party of Cantabria (PRC)||68,580||0.28||+0.08||1||±0|
|Zero Cuts–Green Group (Recortes Cero–GV)||34,306||0.14||–0.04||0||±0|
|For a Fairer World (PUM+J)||27,016||0.11||+0.03||0||±0|
|Teruel Exists (¡Teruel Existe!)||19,696||0.08||New||1||+1|
|More Left (Més–MxMe–esquerra)2||18,206||0.08||–0.02||0||±0|
|Communist Party of the Peoples of Spain (PCPE)||14,023||0.06||–0.01||0||±0|
|Andalusia by Itself (AxSí)||13,954||0.06||+0.02||0||±0|
|Communist Party of the Workers of Spain (PCTE)||13,828||0.06||+0.01||0||±0|
|Yes to the Future (GBai)||12,622||0.05||–0.04||0||±0|
|Leonese People's Union (UPL)||10,198||0.04||New||0||±0|
|Spanish Communist Workers' Party (PCOE)||9,664||0.04||+0.01||0||±0|
|Coalition for Melilla (CpM)||8,925||0.04||+0.01||0||±0|
|Blank Seats (EB)||5,952||0.02||–0.01||0||±0|
|For Ávila (XAV)||5,399||0.02||New||0||±0|
|Forward–The Greens (Avant/Adelante–LV)||5,290||0.02||–0.01||0||±0|
|The Greens (LV)||3,240||0.01||New||0||±0|
|Humanist Party (PH)||3,195||0.01||–0.01||0||±0|
|Feminist Initiative (IFem)||2,822||0.01||New||0||±0|
|With You, We Are Democracy (Contigo)||2,398||0.01||New||0||±0|
|Left in Positive (IZQP)||2,347||0.01||±0.00||0||±0|
|We Are Valencian in Movement (UiG–Som–CUIDES)||2,316||0.01||–0.01||0||±0|
|We Are Region (Somos Región)||2,303||0.01||–0.01||0||±0|
|Canaries Now (ANC–UP)||2,015||0.01||±0.00||0||±0|
|Aragonese Union (CHA)||1,980||0.01||New||0||±0|
|Sorian People's Platform (PPSO)||1,451||0.01||±0.00||0||±0|
|European Retirees Social Democratic Party (PDSJE)||1,386||0.01||+0.01||0||±0|
|United Extremadura (EU)||1,317||0.01||New||0||±0|
|Libertarian Party (P–LIB)||1,159||0.00||±0.00||0||±0|
|United–Acting for Democracy (Unidos SI–ACPS–DEf)||1,064||0.00||New||0||±0|
|Social Aragonese Movement (MAS)||1,063||0.00||New||0||±0|
|Andecha Astur (Andecha)||897||0.00||±0.00||0||±0|
|Regionalist Party of the Leonese Country (PREPAL)||866||0.00||–0.01||0||±0|
|Movement for Dignity and Citizenship (MDyC)||814||0.00||New||0||±0|
|At Once Valencian Community (aUna CV)||658||0.00||New||0||±0|
|Spanish Phalanx of the CNSO (FE–JONS)||608||0.00||±0.00||0||±0|
|Andalusian Convergence (CAnda)||515||0.00||New||0||±0|
|Regionalist Union of Castile and León (Unión Regionalista)||514||0.00||±0.00||0||±0|
|Federation of Independents of Aragon (FIA)||431||0.00||±0.00||0||±0|
|European Solidarity Action Party (Solidaria)||269||0.00||±0.00||0||±0|
|Andalusian Solidary Independent Republican Party (RISA)||229||0.00||±0.00||0||±0|
|Plural Democracy (DPL)||210||0.00||±0.00||0||±0|
|Revolutionary Anticapitalist Left (IZAR)||144||0.00||±0.00||0||±0|
|XXI Convergence (C21)||64||0.00||±0.00||0||±0|
|Union of Everyone (UdT)||31||0.00||±0.00||0||±0|
|Votes cast / turnout||24,365,851||69.87|
|Parties and coalitions||Directly
|Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE)||93||–30||18||111|
|Socialists' Party of Catalonia (PSC)2||2||–1||1||3|
|People's Party (PP)||83||+29||14||97|
|Republican Left of Catalonia–Sovereigntists (ERC–Sobiranistes)||11||±0||2||13|
|Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV)||9||±0||1||10|
|Citizens–Party of the Citizenry (Cs)||0||–4||8||8|
|Confederal Left (Izquierda Confederal)||0||±0||6||6|
|Together for Catalonia–Together (JxCat–Junts)||3||+1||2||5|
|Sum Navarre (NA+)||3||±0||0||3|
|Citizens–Party of the Citizenry (Cs)||1||±0||0||1|
|Basque Country Unite (EH Bildu)||1||±0||1||2|
|Teruel Exists (¡Teruel Existe!)||2||+2||0||2|
|Canarian Coalition–New Canaries (CCa–PNC–NC)||0||±0||1||1|
|Regionalist Party of Cantabria (PRC)||0||±0||1||1|
|Yes to the Future (GBai)||0||±0||1||1|
|Gomera Socialist Group (ASG)||1||±0||0||1|
|Aragonese Party (PAR)||n/a||n/a||1||1|
On 11 November, the day after the election, Albert Rivera resigned as leader of Citizens after the party lost over 80% of its seats in the Chamber and one-third of its seats in the Senate (mainly to Vox and the PP as the party tried to adopt more right-wing positions to gain voters), and announced his intention to give up the Congress seat he had been elected to and retire from politics entirely. The People's Party recovered around one-third of the seats it lost in the Chamber in the previous April 2019 election, and almost half of the Senate seats it lost. The right-wing nationalist Vox party saw its seats in the Chamber more than double, and its Senate seats triple, as shown in opinion polls following the ruling in the trial of Catalonian independence leaders in October. Más País gained two seats in the Chamber from Madrid (one from the PSOE and one from Podemos), while the leftist and Catalan nationalist CUP-PR gained its first seats in the national legislature after choosing to participate at the national level for the first time.
Immediately after the election, the PSOE ruled out a grand coalition with the PP as a way to end the deadlock. On 12 November, PSOE and Podemos announced an agreement for a full four-year coalition government, the first since the country's transition to democracy. Such an alliance would be able to obtain a majority if supported by some regional and separatist parties.
- CERA votes not included yet. Value compared to non-CERA turnout in April 2019, which was 75.8%.
- 111 PSOE, 12 PSC.
- 32 Podemos, 5 IU, 4 CatComú, 1 Equo.
- 13 ERC, 1 Sobiranistes.
- 7 JxCat, 4 EH Bildu, 2 CCa, 2 UPN, 1 ERC, 1 Compromís, 1 PRC.
- 136 PSOE, 3 PSC.
- 12 ERC, 2 EH Bildu.
- 4 JxCat, 1 CCa, 1 PNV.
- 1 Adelante Andalucía, 1 Compromís, 1 GCE, 1 Més, 1 CatComú, 1 Más Madrid.
- 1 Vox, 1 UPN, 1 PRC, 1 PAR, 1 ASG, 1 ERC.
- Pending regional appointments as a result of the 2019 Spanish regional elections.
- The party only contested the Senate election.
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