November 2019 Spanish general election

The November 2019 Spanish general election was held on Sunday, 10 November 2019, to elect the 14th Cortes Generales of the Kingdom of Spain. All 350 seats in the Congress of Deputies were up for election, as well as 208 of 265 seats in the Senate.

November 2019 Spanish general election

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All 350 seats in the Congress of Deputies and 208 (of 265) seats in the Senate
176 seats needed for a majority in the Congress of Deputies
Opinion polls
Registered37,001,379 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg0.3%
Turnout24,507,715 (66.2%)
(Red Arrow Down.svg5.5 pp)
  First party Second party Third party
  Pedro Sánchez 2020 (portrait).jpg Pablo Casado 2019h (cropped).jpg Santiago Abascal 2018d (cropped).jpg
Leader Pedro Sánchez Pablo Casado Santiago Abascal
Party PSOE PP Vox
Leader since 18 June 2017 21 July 2018 20 September 2014
Leader's seat Madrid Madrid Madrid
Last election 123 seats, 28.7% 66 seats, 16.7% 24 seats, 10.3%
Seats won 120 89 52
Seat change Red Arrow Down.svg3 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg23 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg28
Popular vote 6,792,199 5,047,040 3,656,979
Percentage 28.0% 20.8% 15.1%
Swing Red Arrow Down.svg0.7 pp Green Arrow Up Darker.svg4.1 pp Green Arrow Up Darker.svg4.8 pp

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  Pablo Iglesias 2020b (cropped).jpg Gabriel Rufián 2019 (cropped).jpg Albert Rivera 2019b (cropped).jpg
Leader Pablo Iglesias Gabriel Rufián Albert Rivera
Party Unidas Podemos[a] ERC–Sobiranistes Cs
Leader since 15 November 2014 14 October 2019 9 July 2006
Leader's seat Madrid Barcelona Madrid
Last election 42 seats, 14.3% 15 seats, 3.9% 57 seats, 15.9%
Seats won 35 13 10
Seat change Red Arrow Down.svg7 Red Arrow Down.svg2 Red Arrow Down.svg47
Popular vote 3,119,364 880,734 1,650,318
Percentage 12.9% 3.6% 6.8%
Swing Red Arrow Down.svg1.4 pp Red Arrow Down.svg0.3 pp Red Arrow Down.svg9.1 pp

November 2019 Spanish general election - Vote Strength.svg
November 2019 Spanish general election - Vote Strength by Community.svg

Prime Minister before election

Pedro Sánchez (acting)
PSOE

Elected Prime Minister

Pedro Sánchez
PSOE

The election was held as provided under article 99.5 of the Spanish Constitution,[1] as a result of the failure in government formation negotiations after Pedro Sánchez's failed investiture voting on 23–25 July 2019. On 17 September 2019, King Felipe VI declined to propose any candidate for investiture ahead of the 23 September deadline as a result of the lack of agreement between parties, with a new general election scheduled for 10 November.[2][3][4][5] The failure in negotiations between Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) and Unidas Podemos prompted Podemos founder Íñigo Errejón to turn his regional Más Madrid platform—which had obtained a remarkable result in the 26 May Madrilenian regional election—into a national alliance under the newly-created brand of Más País,[6][7] comprising a number of regional parties and former Podemos and United Left allies, such as Coalició Compromís, Equo or Chunta Aragonesista.[8][9]

The election saw a partial recovery for the People's Party (PP) and big gains for the far-right Vox party at the expense of Citizens (Cs), which suffered one of the largest electoral setbacks in the history of Spanish elections after the party had scored its best historical result in the April 2019 general election.[10] Both PSOE and Unidas Podemos saw slight decreases in both popular vote and seats, but were still able to outperform the combined strength of PP, Vox and Cs, to be able to successfully negotiate a government shortly after the election to become the first governing coalition in Spain since the Second Spanish Republic.[11][12][13]

OverviewEdit

Electoral systemEdit

The Spanish Cortes Generales were envisaged as an imperfect bicameral system. The Congress of Deputies had greater legislative power than the Senate, having the ability to vote confidence in or withdraw it from a prime minister and to override Senate vetoes by an absolute majority of votes. Nonetheless, the Senate possessed a few exclusive, yet limited in number functions—such as its role in constitutional amendment—which were not subject to the Congress' override.[1][14] Voting for the Cortes Generales was on the basis of universal suffrage, which comprised all nationals over eighteen and in full enjoyment of their political rights.[15] Additionally, Spaniards abroad were required to apply for voting before being permitted to vote, a system known as "begged" or expat vote (Spanish: Voto rogado).[16]

For the Congress of Deputies, 348 seats were elected using the D'Hondt method and a closed list proportional representation, with a threshold of three percent of valid votes—which included blank ballots—being applied in each constituency. Parties not reaching the threshold were not taken into consideration for seat distribution. Seats were allocated to constituencies, corresponding to the provinces of Spain, with each being allocated an initial minimum of two seats and the remaining 248 being distributed in proportion to their populations. Ceuta and Melilla were allocated the two remaining seats, which were elected using plurality voting.[1][17] The use of the D'Hondt method might result in a higher effective threshold, depending on the district magnitude.[18]

For the Senate, 208 seats were elected using an open list partial block voting, with electors voting for individual candidates instead of parties. In constituencies electing four seats, electors could vote for up to three candidates; in those with two or three seats, for up to two candidates; and for one candidate in single-member districts. Each of the 47 peninsular provinces was allocated four seats, whereas for insular provinces, such as the Balearic and Canary Islands, districts were the islands themselves, with the larger—Majorca, Gran Canaria and Tenerife—being allocated three seats each, and the smaller—Menorca, IbizaFormentera, Fuerteventura, La Gomera, El Hierro, Lanzarote and La Palma—one each. Ceuta and Melilla elected two seats each. Additionally, autonomous communities could appoint at least one senator each and were entitled to one additional senator per each million inhabitants.[1][17]

Election dateEdit

The term of each chamber of the Cortes Generales—the Congress and the Senate—expired four years from the date of their previous election, unless they were dissolved earlier. The election decree was required to be issued no later than the twenty-fifth day prior to the date of expiry of the Cortes in the event that the prime minister did not make use of his prerogative of early dissolution. The decree was to be published on the following day in the Official State Gazette (BOE), with election day taking place on the fifty-fourth day from publication. The previous election was held on 28 April 2019, which meant that the legislature's term would have expired on 28 April 2023. The election decree was required to be published in the BOE no later than 4 April 2023, with the election taking place on the fifty-fourth day from publication, setting the latest possible election date for the Cortes Generales on Sunday, 28 May 2023.[17]

The prime minister had the prerogative to dissolve both chambers at any given time—either jointly or separately—and call a snap election, provided that no motion of no confidence was in process, no state of emergency was in force and that dissolution did not occur before one year had elapsed since the previous one. Additionally, both chambers were to be dissolved and a new election called if an investiture process failed to elect a prime minister within a two-month period from the first ballot.[1] Barred this exception, there was no constitutional requirement for simultaneous elections for the Congress and the Senate, there being no precedent of separate elections and with governments having long preferred that elections for the two chambers of the Cortes take place simultaneously.

Parliamentary statusEdit

The Cortes Generales were officially dissolved on 24 September 2019, after the publication of the dissolution decree in the Official State Gazette.[19] The tables below show the status of the parliamentary groups in both chambers at the time of dissolution.[20][21]

Parliamentary composition in September 2019[22]
Congress of Deputies
Groups Parties Deputies
Seats Total
Socialist Parliamentary Group PSOE 111 123
PSC 12
People's Parliamentary Group in the Congress PP 66 66
Citizens Parliamentary Group Cs 57 57
United We Can–In Common We Can–Galicia in
Common's Confederal Parliamentary Group
Podemos 32 42
IU 5
CatComú 4
Equo 1
Vox Parliamentary Group Vox 24 24
Republican Parliamentary Group ERC 13 14
Sobiranistes 1
Basque Parliamentary Group (EAJ/PNV) EAJ/PNV 6 6
Mixed Parliamentary Group JxCat 7 18
EH Bildu 4
CCa 2
UPN 2
ERC 1[b]
Compromís 1
PRC 1
 
Parliamentary composition in September 2019[23]
Senate[c]
Groups Parties Senators
Seats Total
Socialist Parliamentary Group PSOE 136 139
PSC 3
People's Parliamentary Group in the Senate PP 69 69
Republican Left–EH Bildu Parliamentary Group ERC 12 14
EH Bildu 2
Citizens Parliamentary Group Cs 13 13
Basque Parliamentary Group in the Senate
(EAJ/PNV)
EAJ/PNV 9 9
Confederal Left Parliamentary Group
(Forward Andalusia, More for Majorca,
Commitment, More Madrid and
Catalonia in Common–We Can)
AA 1 6
Més 1
Más Madrid 1
Compromís 1
CatComú 1
GCE 1
Nationalist Parliamentary Group in the Senate
Together for Catalonia–Canarian Coalition/
Canarian Nationalist Party
JxCat 4 6
EAJ/PNV 1
CCa 1
Mixed Parliamentary Group Vox 1 9
ERC 1[d]
UPN 1
PRC 1
PAR 1
ASG 1

Parties and candidatesEdit

The electoral law allowed for parties and federations registered in the interior ministry, coalitions and groupings of electors to present lists of candidates. Parties and federations intending to form a coalition ahead of an election were required to inform the relevant Electoral Commission within ten days of the election call, whereas groupings of electors needed to secure the signature of at least one percent of the electorate in the constituencies for which they sought election, disallowing electors from signing for more than one list of candidates. Concurrently, parties, federations or coalitions that had not obtained a mandate in either chamber of the Cortes at the preceding election were required to secure the signature of at least 0.1 percent of electors in the aforementioned constituencies.[17] The electoral law provided for a special, simplified process for election re-runs, including a shortening of deadlines, the lifting of signature requirements if these had been already met for the immediately previous election and the possibility of maintaining lists and coalitions without needing to go through pre-election procedures again.

Below is a list of the main parties and electoral alliances which contested the election:

Candidacy Parties and
alliances
Leading candidate Ideology Previous result Gov. Ref.
Votes (%) Con. Sen.
PSOE   Pedro Sánchez Social democracy 28.67% 123 123  Y
PP   Pablo Casado Conservatism
Christian democracy
16.69% 66 54  N [24]
Cs   Albert Rivera Liberalism 15.86% 57 4  N [25]
Unidas
Podemos
  Pablo Iglesias Left-wing populism
Direct democracy
Democratic socialism
14.32% 42 0  N [26]
Vox   Santiago Abascal Right-wing populism
Ultranationalism
National conservatism
10.26% 24 0  N
ERC–
Sobiranistes
  Gabriel Rufián Catalan independence
Social democracy
Democratic socialism
3.91% 15 11  N [27]
JxCat–Junts   Laura Borràs Catalan independence
Liberalism
1.91% 7 2  N [27]
EAJ/PNV   Aitor Esteban Basque nationalism
Christian democracy
Social democracy
1.51% 6 9  N
EH Bildu   Oskar Matute Basque independence
Left-wing nationalism
Socialism
0.99% 4 1  N
CCa–
PNC–NC
  Ana Oramas Regionalism
Canarian nationalism
Centrism
0.66%[e] 2 0  N [28]
NA+   Sergio Sayas Regionalism
Christian democracy
Conservatism
Liberalism
0.41% 2 3  N [29]
BNG   Néstor Rego Galician nationalism
Left-wing nationalism
Socialism
0.36% 0 0  N
PRC   José María Mazón Regionalism
Centrism
0.20% 1 0  N
ASG   Fabián Chinea Insularism
Social democracy
[f] N/A 1  N [30]
Más País   Íñigo Errejón Alter-globalization
Participatory democracy
Green politics
Did not contest[g]  N [9]
[31]
[32]
[33]
CUP–PR   Mireia Vehí Catalan independence
Anti-capitalism
Socialism
Did not contest  N [34]
[35]
[36]
¡Teruel
Existe!
  Tomás Guitarte Regionalism Did not contest  N

TimetableEdit

The November 2019 Spanish general election was the first to apply the new electoral procedures introduced for election re-runs as a result of the experience of the 2015–2016 political deadlock leading to the June 2016 election. This consists of a special, simplified process, including a shortening of deadlines, the lifting of signature requirements if these had been already met for the immediately previous election and the possibility of maintaining lists and coalitions without needing to go through the same pre-election procedures again. The key dates are listed below (all times are CET. Note that the Canary Islands use WET (UTC+0) instead):[17][37]

  • 24 September: The election decree is issued with the countersign of the President of the Congress of Deputies, ratified by the King.[19] Formal dissolution of the Cortes Generales and beginning of a suspension period of events for the inauguration of public works, services or projects.
  • 25 September: Initial constitution of provincial and zone electoral commissions.
  • 30 September: Deadline for parties and federations intending to maintain or enter into a coalition to inform the relevant electoral commission.
  • 7 October: Deadline for parties, federations, coalitions, and groupings of electors to maintain or present lists of candidates to the relevant electoral commission.
  • 9 October: Submitted lists of candidates are provisionally published in the Official State Gazette (BOE).
  • 13 October: Deadline for parties, federations, coalitions, and groupings of electors to rectify irregularities in their lists.
  • 14 October: Official proclamation of valid submitted lists of candidates.
  • 15 October: Proclaimed lists are published in the BOE.
  • 19 October: Deadline for citizens entered in the Register of Absent Electors Residing Abroad (CERA) and for citizens temporarily absent from Spain to apply for voting.
  • 31 October: Deadline to apply for postal voting.
  • 1 November: Official start of electoral campaigning.[19]
  • 5 November: Official start of legal ban on electoral opinion polling publication, dissemination or reproduction and deadline for CERA citizens to vote by mail.
  • 6 November: Deadline for postal and temporarily absent voters to issue their votes (extended to 8 November by the Central Electoral Commission).
  • 8 November: Last day of official electoral campaigning and deadline for CERA citizens to vote in a ballot box in the relevant consular office or division.[19]
  • 9 November: Official 24-hour ban on political campaigning prior to the general election (reflection day).
  • 10 November: Polling day (polling stations open at 9 am and close at 8 pm or once voters present in a queue at/outside the polling station at 8 pm have cast their vote). Provisional counting of votes starts immediately.
  • 13 November: General counting of votes, including the counting of CERA votes.
  • 16 November: Deadline for the general counting of votes to be carried out by the relevant electoral commission.
  • 25 November: Deadline for elected members to be proclaimed by the relevant electoral commission.
  • 5 December: Deadline for both chambers of the Cortes Generales to be re-assembled (the election decree determines this date, which for the November 2019 election was set for 3 December).[19]
  • 4 January: Final deadline for definitive results to be published in the BOE.

CampaignEdit

Party slogansEdit

Party or alliance Original slogan English translation Ref.
PSOE « Ahora Gobierno. Ahora España »
« Ahora sí »
"Government now. Spain now"
"Yes now"
[38]
[39]
PP « Por todo lo que nos une » "For everything that unites us" [40]
Cs « España en marcha » "Spain underway" [41]
Unidas Podemos
Main: « Un Gobierno contigo »
ECP: « Si vols solucions, vota solucions »
En Común: « Conta con nós »
Main: "A Government with you"
ECP: "If you want solutions, vote solutions"
En Común: "Count with us"
[42]
[43]
[44]
Vox « España siempre » "Always Spain" [45]
ERC–Sobiranistes « Tornarem més forts » "We shall return stronger" [46]
JxCat–Junts « Per la independència, ni un vot enrere » "For independence, not a vote back" [47]
EAJ/PNV « Hemen, EAJ-PNV » "Here, EAJ/PNV" [48]
EH Bildu « Erabaki Baietz! » "Decide Yes!" [49]
CCa–PNC–NC « Hagamos más fuerte a Canarias » "Let's make the Canaries stronger" [50]
NA+ « Navarra, clave en España » "Navarra, key in Spain" [51]
BNG « Facer valer Galiza con voz propia » "Enforce Galicia with our own voice" [52]
Más País
Main: « Desbloquear, avanzar, Más País »
Més Compromís: « Acordar, la política útil »
Main: "Unblock, make progress, More Country"
Més Compromís: "Agreeing, the useful policy"
[53]
[54]
CUP–PR « Ingovernables » "Ungovernable" [55]

Pre-campaign periodEdit

The pre-campaign period saw the rise of a new left-wing electoral platform, Más País, founded by former Podemos co-founder Íñigo Errejón around his Más Madrid platform, following the failure of the left to agree on a government following the April election.[56] Más País was joined by several other parties, such as Coalició Compromís, Chunta Aragonesista and Equo, the latter of which voted for breaking up its coalition with Unidas Podemos in order to join Errejón's platform.[9][57][58] The leadership of Podemos in the Region of Murcia also went on to joint Más País.[8] The platform went on to poll at 6% as soon as it was formed.[59]

On 24 September, the Spanish Supreme Court ruled in favor of the PSOE's plan to remove the remnants of Francisco Franco from the Valle de los Caídos, a key policy of Pedro Sánchez during the previous legislature.[60] The prior of the Valle de los Caídos' abbey, Santiago Cantera, initially announced his intention to disregard the Supreme Court's ruling and not authorize Franco's exhumation;[61] however, the Spanish government closed down the monument to the public on 11 October in order to prepare for the exhumation—finally scheduled for 22 October at latest, so for the removal to be over by 25 October—to uphold the Supreme Court's ruling.[62][63]

On 13 October, the leaders of the Catalan independence movement involved in the events of October 2017 were sentenced by the Supreme Court for sedition and embezzlement to convictions ranging from 9 to 13 years in jail.[64] The ruling unleashed a wave of violent protests throughout Catalonia, and particularly in Barcelona, throughout the ensuing days.[65][66][67]

Election debatesEdit

November 2019 Spanish general election debates
Date Organisers Moderator(s)     P  Present[h]    S  Surrogate[i]    NI  Not invited   A  Absent invitee 
PSOE PP Cs UP Vox ERC JxCat PNV Audience Ref.
1 November RTVE[j] Xabier Fortes P
Lastra
P
A. de Toledo
P
Arrimadas
P
I. Montero
P
Espinosa
P
Rufián
NI P
Esteban
17.7%
(2,468,000)
[68]
[69]
2 November laSexta
(La Sexta Noche)
Iñaki López S
Sicilia
S
Gamarra
S
Rodríguez
S
Vera
S
O. Smith
P
Rufián
S
Borràs
P
Esteban
8.5%
(865,000)
[70]
[71]
4 November TV Academy Ana Blanco
Vicente Vallés
P
Sánchez
P
Casado
P
Rivera
P
Iglesias
P
Abascal
NI NI NI 52.7%
(8,621,000)
[72]
[73]
7 November laSexta[k] Ana Pastor P
MJ. Montero
P
Pastor
P
Arrimadas
P
I. Montero
P
Monasterio
NI NI NI 19.2%
(3,133,000)
[74]
[75]
Opinion polls
Candidate viewed as "performing best" or "most convincing" in each debate
Debate Polling firm/Commissioner PSOE PP Cs UP Vox ERC PNV Tie None  ?
1 November SocioMétrica/El Español[76] 14.3 17.6 19.4 16.6 18.5 6.0 3.7 3.9
4 November electoPanel/electomania.es[77] 9.7 7.5 14.8 34.3 33.8
Sigma Dos/Antena 3[78] 20.0 21.5 10.8 29.5 18.2
Invymark/laSexta[79] 32.3 17.4 12.8 15.5 13.8 8.2
SocioMétrica/El Español[80] 20.0 26.3 13.3 15.0 21.8 3.6
Ipsos/Henneo[81] 24.0 9.0 6.0 32.0 29.0
NC Report/La Razón[82] 22.8 25.1 10.1 24.3 17.7
CIS[83] 15.3 9.4 4.2 23.3 14.7 3.4 23.7 6.1

Opinion pollsEdit

 
10-point average trend line of poll results from 28 April 2019 to 10 November 2019, with each line corresponding to a political party.
  PSOE
  PP
  Cs
  Vox
  ERC
  JxCat
  PNV
  CC


Voter turnoutEdit

The table below shows registered vote turnout on election day without including voters from the Census of Absent-Residents (CERA).

Region Time
14:00 18:00 20:00
28A 10N 28A 10N 28A 10N
Andalusia 38.94% 35.80% 57.25% 54.85% 73.31% 68.25%
Aragon 44.65% 41.18% 62.32% 57.91% 77.62% 71.50%
Asturias 40.15% 34.42% 58.67% 53.50% 73.35% 65.48%
Balearic Islands 38.10% 30.95% 54.42% 47.40% 67.58% 58.71%
Basque Country 41.75% 40.18% 60.05% 57.60% 74.52% 68.91%
Canary Islands 30.72% 27.08% 51.00% 44.36% 68.14% 60.46%
Cantabria 43.12% 39.12% 63.65% 59.28% 78.09% 70.83%
Castile and León 41.80% 37.29% 62.00% 56.70% 78.24% 71.37%
Castilla–La Mancha 42.71% 38.07% 62.35% 57.44% 78.02% 71.36%
Catalonia 43.52% 40.58% 64.20% 59.88% 77.58% 72.17%
Extremadura 42.87% 37.17% 60.22% 54.41% 76.31% 69.12%
Galicia 36.97% 31.96% 58.93% 53.26% 73.97% 66.62%
La Rioja 44.76% 40.42% 61.62% 57.45% 78.11% 71.27%
Madrid 43.61% 40.98% 65.11% 61.50% 79.75% 74.54%
Murcia 43.41% 39.01% 61.85% 57.89% 75.69% 69.99%
Navarre 43.79% 39.38% 60.97% 56.46% 76.29% 69.21%
Valencian Community 45.87% 42.51% 61.67% 59.97% 76.34% 71.74%
Ceuta 30.47% 27.27% 48.84% 43.77% 63.97% 56.16%
Melilla 28.14% 24.61% 45.45% 38.98% 63.05% 57.12%
Total 41.49% 37.92% 60.76% 56.85% 75.75% 69.87%
Sources[84]

ResultsEdit

Congress of DeputiesEdit

Summary of the 10 November 2019 Congress of Deputies election results
Parties and coalitions Popular vote Seats
Votes % ±pp Total +/−
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) 6,792,199 28.00 –0.67 120 –3
People's Party (PP) 5,047,040 20.81 +4.12 89 +23
Vox (Vox) 3,656,979 15.08 +4.82 52 +28
United We Can (Unidas Podemos) 3,119,364 12.86 –1.46 35 –7
United We Can (PodemosIU) 2,381,960 9.82 –1.24 26 –7
In Common We Can–Let's Win the Change (ECP–Guanyem el Canvi) 549,173 2.26 –0.09 7 ±0
In Common–United We Can (PodemosEU) 188,231 0.78 –0.13 2 ±0
Citizens–Party of the Citizenry (Cs) 1,650,318 6.80 –9.06 10 –47
Republican Left of Catalonia–Sovereigntists (ERCSobiranistes) 880,734 3.63 –0.28 13 –2
Republican Left of Catalonia–Sovereigntists (ERCSobiranistes) 874,859 3.61 –0.28 13 –2
Republican Left of the Valencian Country (ERPV) 5,875 0.02 ±0.00 0 ±0
More Country (Más País) 582,306 2.40 New 3 +2
More CountryEquo (Más País–Equo) 330,345 1.36 New 2 +2
More Commitment (Més Compromís)1 176,287 0.73 +0.07 1 ±0
More Country (Más País) 52,478 0.22 New 0 ±0
More CountryAragonese UnionEquo (Más País–CHA–Equo) 23,196 0.10 New 0 ±0
Together for Catalonia–Together (JxCat–Junts) 530,225 2.19 +0.28 8 +1
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV) 379,002 1.56 +0.05 6 ±0
Basque Country Gather (EH Bildu) 277,621 1.14 +0.15 5 +1
Popular Unity Candidacy–For Rupture (CUP–PR) 246,971 1.02 New 2 +2
Animalist Party Against Mistreatment of Animals (PACMA) 228,856 0.94 –0.31 0 ±0
Canarian Coalition–New Canaries (CCaPNCNC)2 124,289 0.51 –0.15 2 ±0
Galician Nationalist Bloc (BNG) 120,456 0.50 +0.14 1 +1
Sum Navarre (NA+) 99,078 0.41 ±0.00 2 ±0
Regionalist Party of Cantabria (PRC) 68,830 0.28 +0.08 1 ±0
Zero CutsGreen Group (Recortes Cero–GV) 35,042 0.14 –0.04 0 ±0
For a Fairer World (PUM+J) 27,272 0.11 +0.03 0 ±0
Teruel Exists (¡Teruel Existe!) 19,761 0.08 New 1 +1
More Left (MésMxMeesquerra)3 18,295 0.08 –0.02 0 ±0
Andalusia by Herself (AxSí) 14,046 0.06 +0.02 0 ±0
Communist Party of the Peoples of Spain (PCPE) 13,828 0.06 –0.01 0 ±0
Communist Party of the Workers of Spain (PCTE) 13,029 0.05 ±0.00 0 ±0
Yes to the Future (GBai) 12,709 0.05 –0.04 0 ±0
Leonese People's Union (UPL) 10,243 0.04 New 0 ±0
Spanish Communist Workers' Party (PCOE) 9,725 0.04 +0.01 0 ±0
Coalition for Melilla (CpM) 8,955 0.04 +0.01 0 ±0
Blank Seats (EB) 5,970 0.02 –0.01 0 ±0
For Ávila (XAV) 5,416 0.02 New 0 ±0
Forward–The Greens (Avant/Adelante–LV) 5,416 0.02 –0.01 0 ±0
The Greens (Verdes) 3,287 0.01 New 0 ±0
Humanist Party (PH) 3,150 0.01 –0.01 0 ±0
Feminist Initiative (IFem) 3,005 0.01 New 0 ±0
We Are Valencian in Movement (UiG–Som–CUIDES) 2,339 0.01 –0.01 0 ±0
We Are Region (Somos Región) 2,328 0.01 –0.01 0 ±0
Left in Positive (IZQP) 2,325 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
Canaries Now (ANCUP) 2,032 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
With You, We Are Democracy (Contigo) 2,015 0.01 New 0 ±0
Aragonese Union (CHA) 2,000 0.01 New 0 ±0
Sorian People's Platform (PPSO) 1,466 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
United Extremadura (EU) 1,347 0.01 New 0 ±0
European Retirees Social Democratic Party (PDSJE) 1,259 0.01 +0.01 0 ±0
Libertarian Party (P–LIB) 1,171 0.00 ±0.00 0 ±0
Social Aragonese Movement (MAS) 1,068 0.00 New 0 ±0
United–Acting for Democracy (Unidos SI–ACPS–DEf) 1,067 0.00 New 0 ±0
Regionalist Party of the Leonese Country (PREPAL) 941 0.00 –0.01 0 ±0
Andecha Astur (Andecha) 887 0.00 ±0.00 0 ±0
Movement for Dignity and Citizenship (MDyC) 819 0.00 New 0 ±0
Puyalón (PYLN) 630 0.00 ±0.00 0 ±0
Spanish Phalanx of the CNSO (FE–JONS) 616 0.00 ±0.00 0 ±0
At Once Valencian Community (aUna CV) 585 0.00 New 0 ±0
Regionalist Union of Castile and León (Unión Regionalista) 530 0.00 ±0.00 0 ±0
Andalusian Convergence (CAnda) 520 0.00 New 0 ±0
Federation of Independents of Aragon (FIA) 461 0.00 ±0.00 0 ±0
European Solidarity Action Party (Solidaria) 270 0.00 ±0.00 0 ±0
Andalusian Solidary Independent Republican Party (RISA) 249 0.00 ±0.00 0 ±0
Centered (centrados) 234 0.00 ±0.00 0 ±0
Plural Democracy (DPL) 214 0.00 ±0.00 0 ±0
Revolutionary Anticapitalist Left (IZAR) 113 0.00 ±0.00 0 ±0
XXI Convergence (C21) 72 0.00 ±0.00 0 ±0
Union of Everyone (UdT) 26 0.00 ±0.00 0 ±0
Blank ballots 217,227 0.90 +0.14
Total 24,258,228 350 ±0
Valid votes 24,258,228 98.98 +0.03
Invalid votes 249,487 1.02 –0.03
Votes cast / turnout 24,507,715 66.23 –5.53
Abstentions 12,493,664 33.77 +5.53
Registered voters 37,001,379
Sources[85][86]
Popular vote
PSOE
28.00%
PP
20.81%
Vox
15.08%
Unidas Podemos
12.86%
Cs
6.80%
ERC–Sob.
3.63%
Más País
2.40%
JxCat–Junts
2.19%
EAJ/PNV
1.56%
EH Bildu
1.14%
CUP
1.02%
CCa–PNC–NC
0.51%
BNG
0.50%
NA+
0.41%
PRC
0.28%
TE
0.08%
Others
2.73%
Blank ballots
0.90%
Seats
PSOE
34.29%
PP
25.43%
Vox
14.86%
Unidas Podemos
10.00%
ERC–Sob.
3.71%
Cs
2.86%
JxCat–Junts
2.29%
EAJ/PNV
1.71%
EH Bildu
1.43%
Más País
0.86%
CUP
0.57%
CCa–PNC–NC
0.57%
NA+
0.57%
BNG
0.29%
PRC
0.29%
TE
0.29%

SenateEdit

Summary of the 10 November 2019 Senate of Spain election results
Parties and coalitions Directly
elected
Reg.
app.
Total
Seats +/−
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) 93 –30 18 111
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE)1 91 –29 17 108
Socialists' Party of Catalonia (PSC)2 2 –1 1 3
People's Party (PP) 83 +29 14 97
Republican Left of Catalonia–Sovereigntists (ERCSobiranistes) 11 ±0 2 13
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV) 9 ±0 1 10
Citizens–Party of the Citizenry (Cs) 0 –4 8 8
Confederal Left (IC) 0 ±0 6 6
Forward Andalusia (AA) 0 ±0 1 1
Commitment Coalition (Compromís) 0 ±0 1 1
Common Group of the Left (Grupo Común da Esquerda) 0 ±0 1 1
More for Mallorca (Més) 0 ±0 1 1
Catalonia in Common (CatComú) 0 ±0 1 1
More Madrid (Más Madrid) 0 ±0 1 1
Together for Catalonia–Together (JxCat–Junts) 3 +1 2 5
Vox (Vox) 2 +2 1 3
Sum Navarre (NA+) 3 ±0 0 3
Navarrese People's Union (UPN) 1 ±0 0 1
People's Party (PP) 1 ±0 0 1
Citizens–Party of the Citizenry (Cs) 1 ±0 0 1
Basque Country Gather (EH Bildu) 1 ±0 1 2
Teruel Exists (¡Teruel Existe!) 2 +2 0 2
Canarian Coalition–New Canaries (CCaPNCNC) 0 ±0 1 1
Regionalist Party of Cantabria (PRC) 0 ±0 1 1
Yes to the Future (GBai) 0 ±0 1 1
Gomera Socialist Group (ASG) 1 ±0 0 1
Aragonese Party (PAR) n/a n/a 1 1
Total 208 ±0 57 265
Sources[21][86][87]
Seats
PSOE
41.51%
PP
36.98%
ERC–Sob.
4.91%
EAJ/PNV
3.77%
Cs
3.02%
IC
2.26%
JxCat–Junts
1.89%
Vox
1.13%
NA+
1.13%
EH Bildu
0.75%
TE
0.75%
CCa–PNC–NC
0.38%
PRC
0.38%
GBai
0.38%
ASG
0.38%
PAR
0.38%

AftermathEdit

On 11 November, the day after the election, Albert Rivera resigned as leader of Citizens (Cs)[88] after the party lost over 80% of its seats in the Congress and one-third of its seats in the Senate (mainly to Vox and the PP), and announced his intention to give up the Congress seat to which he had been elected, and retire from politics entirely.[89] The PP recovered around one-third of the seats it had lost in the Congress in the April 2019 election, and almost half of the Senate seats it had lost on that occasion. The right-wing nationalist Vox party saw its seats in the Congress more than double, and it won its first directly elected Senate seats. Más País gained two seats in the Congress from Madrid (one from the PSOE and one from Podemos), while the leftist and Catalan nationalist Popular Unity Candidacy (CUP) gained its first seats in the national legislature after choosing to participate at the national level for the first time.

Immediately after the election, the PSOE ruled out a grand coalition with the PP as a way to end the deadlock.[90] On 12 November, Podemos and the PSOE announced a pre-agreement for a full four-year coalition government;[91][92] if it passed the investiture process in parliament, it would be the first coalition government since the country's transition to democracy. However, such an alliance would need parliamentary support from some regional and separatist parties.[90][93]

On 23 November the PSOE and the PSC held membership votes on the pre-agreement with Unidas Podemos; this was approved by 94.7% and 93.3% of the participants.[94]

23 November PSOE & PSC referendum
Question: "Do you support the accord achieved between PSOE
and UP to form a progressive coalition government?"
PSOE PSC
Choice Votes % Choice Votes %
 Y Yes 95,763 93.33  Y Yes 6,007 94.72
No 6,845 6.67 No 335 5.28
Valid votes 102,608 98.93 Valid votes 6,342 98.86
Invalid or blank votes 1,110 1.07 Invalid or blank votes 73 1.14
Total votes 103,718 100.00 Total votes 6,415 100.00
Registered voters and turnout 178,651 63.01 Registered voters and turnout 14,276 44.94
Source: PSOE (98.00% reporting) Source: PSC

On 27 November, UP held a membership vote on the pre-agreement with the Socialist party, which was approved by 96.8% of the participants.[95]

27 November UP referendum
Question: "Do you agree that we participate in a coalition
government under the terms of the pre-agreement
signed by Pedro Sánchez and Pablo Iglesias?"
UP
Choice Votes %
 Y Yes 130,150 96.84
No 4,244 3.16
Valid votes 134,394 99.73
Invalid or blank votes 366 0.27
Total votes 134,760 100.00
Registered voters and turnout 138,488 59.00
Source: Podemos Alcalahoy
Investiture

On 7 January 2020, Pedro Sánchez was confirmed as prime minister by the Congress of Deputies.[96]

Investiture
Pedro Sánchez (PSOE)
Ballot → 5 January 2020 7 January 2020
Required majority → 176 out of 350  N Simple  Y
166 / 350
167 / 350
165 / 350
165 / 350
18 / 350
18 / 350
1 / 350
0 / 350
Sources[97][98]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Total figures include results for En Comú Podem and En Común.
  2. ^ Oriol Junqueras had his Congress of Deputies membership suspended, and as a result was forced into the Mixed Group.
  3. ^ 3 seats were vacant, pending regional appointments as a result of the 2019 Spanish regional elections.
  4. ^ Raül Romeva had his Senate membership suspended, and as a result was forced into the Mixed Group.
  5. ^ Results for Canarian Coalition–Canarian Nationalist Party (0.53%) and New Canaries (0.14%) in the April 2019 election.
  6. ^ The Gomera Socialist Group only fielded candidates for the Senate election.
  7. ^ Coalició Compromís (1 deputy) joined the Més Compromís coalition ahead of the November 2019 election.
  8. ^ Denotes a main invitee attending the event.
  9. ^ Denotes a main invitee not attending the event, sending a surrogate in their place.
  10. ^ Parliamentary spokespersons' debate.
  11. ^ "Women's debate".

ReferencesEdit

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