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The Senate (Spanish: Senado) is the upper house of Spain's parliament, the Cortes Generales. It is made up of 265 members: 208 elected by popular vote, and 57 appointed by the regional legislatures. All senators serve four-year terms, though regional legislatures may recall their appointees at any time.

Senate of Spain

Senado de España
XII Legislature
Coat of arms or logo
Type
Type
History
Founded1837 (disband 1923–1977)
1978 (reinstituted)
Leadership
First Vice President
Second Vice President
Majority leader
Ignacio Cosidó (PP)
Minority leader
Andrés Gil García (PSOE)
Structure
Seats266
Senado de la XII legislatura de España.svg
Political groups
Government (62)

Confidence and supply (49)

Opposition (155)

  •      PP (147)
  •      Mixed group (8)
Elections
Limited voting
Meeting place
Senado - sala de plenos.jpg
Palacio del Senado
Centro, Madrid
Kingdom of Spain
Website
www.senado.es

Contents

HistoryEdit

The Senate was first established under the constitution of 1837 under the regency of Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies. It remained under the regimes of the constitutions of 1845, 1856, 1869 and 1876. It was composed, at that latter time, of three main categories: senators by their own right, senators for life and senators elected. This chamber, along with the Congress of Deputies, was suppressed after the coup of General Miguel Primo de Rivera in 1923.

Only after the Spanish transition to democracy in 1978 was it reestablished.

OrganizationEdit

Senators form groups along party lines. Parties with fewer than ten senators form the Mixed Group. If the membership of an existing group falls below six during a session, it is merged into the Mixed Group at the next session. For example, Coalición Canaria lost its senate caucus in 2008 after electoral losses reduced its group from six to two. The Basque Nationalist Party, falling from seven to four, "borrowed" senators from the ruling Socialist Party to form their group; in exchange, they supported the election of socialist Javier Rojo as President of the Senate. The PNV group is again under threshold after returning the borrowed Socialists, and it faces dissolution after the current session.

Legally, 133 seats are required for an absolute majority, vacant seats notwithstanding.

Elections to the SenateEdit

To date, senate elections have coincided with elections to the lower house, but the President of the Government (i.e., the Prime Minister) may legally advise the king to call elections for one chamber only, under article 115 of the Spanish Constitution. While the Congress of Deputies is chosen by party list proportional representation, the members of the senate are chosen in two distinct ways: popular election by limited voting and appointment from regional legislatures.

Directly elected membersEdit

Most members of the senate (currently 208 of 266) are directly elected by the people. Each province elects four senators without regard to population. Insular provinces are treated specially. The larger islands of the Balearics (Baleares) and Canaries (Canarias)—Mallorca, Gran Canaria, and Tenerife—are assigned three seats each, and the smaller islands—Menorca, Ibiza–Formentera, Fuerteventura, Gomera, Hierro, Lanzarote and La Palma—one each; Ceuta and Melilla are assigned two seats each. This allocation is heavily weighted in favor of small provinces; Madrid, with roughly 6 million people, and Soria, with 100,000 inhabitants, are each represented by four senators.

In non-insular constituencies, each party nominates three candidates. Candidates' names are organized in columns by party on a large (DIN A3 or larger) ochre-colored ballot called a sábana or bedsheet.

Each voter may mark up to three candidates' names, from any party. This is the only occasion when Spanish voters vote for individuals rather than a party list. Panachage is allowed, but typically voters cast all three votes for candidates of a single party. As a result, the four Senators are usually the three candidates from the most popular party and the first placed candidate from the next most popular.

Before 2011, a party could not choose the order of its candidates on the ballot paper; candidates were sorted alphabetically by surname. When a party did not get all three of its candidates elected, this arrangement favored candidates with surnames early in the alphabet. This was the case for 2nd placed parties in every province and for both parties in tight races when voters did not vote for three candidates of the same party (panachage).

Regional legislatures-appointed membersEdit

Article 69.5 of the Spanish Constitution empowers the legislative assembly of each autonomous community of Spain to appoint a senate delegation from its own ranks, with one Senator per one million citizens, rounded up. Demographic growth increased the combined size of the regional delegations from 51 to 56 in 2008 for the 9th term.

Conventionally, the proportions of the regional delegations mimic their legislative assemblies, as required in principle by Article 69.5 of the constitution. However, Autonomous Communities have considerable leeway, and a motion to appoint the delegation often requires no more than a plurality. Two anomalous examples are:

  • After the 2007 election, the single senator from the Balearic Islands was from neither the largest bloc (the People's Party, with 28 of 59 seats), nor the second-largest (the PSOE, with 16), but in fact from the fourth-largest bloc, the Socialist Party of Majorca, which held only four of 59 seats. This arrangement was part of a five-party coalition agreement. This anomaly was resolved in 2008, when the Balearic Islands gained a second senate seat which was filled by the PP.
  • Since 2003, the PSOE has ruled Aragon with support from regionalist parties. In the 2007 election, it won 30 of 67 seats. Nevertheless, Aragon's two appointed senators came from the opposition People's Party (23 seats) and the regionalist Aragonese Party (9 seats).

Due to population growth, Andalusia, the Balearic and Canary Islands, Catalonia, and Madrid each gained a new senator in 2008. Andalusia was the last Autonomous Community to allocate its new seat; it rebuilt its entire delegation after its 2008 regional elections. The distribution after the 2015 election was:

Autonomous Community Population (2017) Senators Senator/pop.-ratio Distribution
Andalusia 8,403,350 9 933,706
1 5 3
Aragon 1,315,713 2 657,857
1 1
Asturias 1,030,055 2 515,028
1 1
Balearic Islands 1,160,591 2 580,296
1 1
Basque Country 2,168,254 3 722,751
1 1 1
Canary Islands 2,164,344 3 721,488
1 1 1
Cantabria 581,109 1 581,109
1
Castile and León 2,423,875 3 807,958
1 2
Castilla-La Mancha 2,034,801 3 678,267
1 1 1
Catalonia 7,453,957 8 931,745
1 2 1 2 2
Extremadura 1,072,884 2 536,442
1 1
Galicia 2,703,662 3 901,221
1 2
La Rioja 312,423 1 312,423
1
Madrid 6,506,437 7 929,491
1 2 1 3
Murcia 1,474,071 2 737,036
1 1
Navarre 641,345 1 641,345
1
Valencian Community 4,932,302 6 822,050
1 1 1 1 2
Total 46,549,045 58 802,570 Source: [1]

CompositionEdit

RoleEdit

The Spanish parliamentary system is bicameral but asymmetric. The Congress of Deputies has more independent functions, and it can also override most Senate measures. Only the Congress can grant or revoke confidence to a Prime Minister. In the ordinary lawmaking process, either house may be the initiator, and the Senate can amend hostilely or veto, the proposal then being sent back to the lower house, which can override these objections by an absolute majority vote. Organic laws, which govern basic civil rights and regional devolutions, need an absolute majority of both congress and senate to pass.

The process for constitutional amendments is slightly more tangled: the rule is to require a three fifths (60%) of both houses, but if the Senate does not achieve such a supermajority and a mixed congress-senate committee fails to resolve the issues, the Congress may force the amendment through with a two-thirds vote as long as an absolute majority of the Senate was in favour.

On the other hand, the Senate has certain exclusive functions in the appointment of constitutional posts, such as judges of the Constitutional Court or the members of the General Council of the Judicial Power. The Senate is solely responsible for disciplining regional presidents (article 155 of the Spanish Constitution). Only the Senate can suspend local governments. (Local Regime Framework Act article 61.[1]) It exercised this power in April 2006, dissolving the Marbella city council when most of its members were found to have engaged in corrupt practices. On Friday, October 26, 2017, the Senate of Spain (Senado) voted 214 to 47 to invoke Article 155 of the Spanish Constitution over Catalonia. Article 155 powers gave Spanish Prime Minister Rajoy to remove secessionist politicians, including Mr. Puigdemont, the Catalan leader and direct rule from Madrid.

Senate reform has been a topic of discussion since the early days of Spanish democracy. One proposal would advance the federalization of Spain by remaking the Senate to represent the autonomous communities of Spain.

Presidents of the Senate of SpainEdit

Kingdom of Spain (Democratic Sexennium; 1868–1873)Edit

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Tenure
(Years and days)
Party Legislature Monarch
(Reign)
Ref.
  Francisco Santa Cruz
President of the Senate
(1797–1883)
2 April 1871

17 September 1872
1 year, 229 days Constitutional Party 1871–1872
1872 I
(1871)
Amadeo I
 
(1871–1873)
[2]
[3]
1872 II
(Apr 1872)
  Laureano Figuerola
President of the Senate
(1816–1903)
17 September 1872

11 February 1873
86 days Constitutional Party 1872–1873
(Aug 1872)
[4]
[5]

Kingdom of Spain (Restoration; 1874–1931)Edit

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Tenure
(Years and days)
Party Legislature Monarch
(Reign)
Ref.
  Manuel García Barzanallana
Marquis of Barzanallana

President of the Senate
(1817–1892)
24 April 1877

18 September 1881
4 years, 208 days Conservative Party 1876
(1876)
Alfonso XII
 
(1874–1885)
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
[10]
1877
1878 Ext.
1878
(1877)
1879–1880
1880–1881
(1879)
  José Gutiérrez de la Concha
1st Marquis of Havana

President of the Senate
(1809–1895)
18 September 1881

12 December 1883
2 years, 24 days Liberal Party 1881–1882
1882–1883
1883–1884
(1881)
[11]
[12]
  Francisco Serrano
1st Duke of la Torre

President of the Senate
(1810–1885)
12 December 1883

16 May 1884
156 days Dynastic Left [13]
  Francisco Javier Arias Dávila y Matheu
12th Count of Puñonrostro

President of the Senate
(1812–1890)
16 May 1884

23 December 1885
1 year, 221 days Conservative Party 1884–1885
1885–1886
(1884)
[14]
Maria Christina
of Austria

 
(1885–1902)
Regent for
Alfonso XIII
  Arsenio Martínez-Campos
President of the Senate
(1831–1900)
23 December 1885

8 May 1886
136 days Liberal Party [15]
  José Gutiérrez de la Concha
1st Marquis of Havana

President of the Senate
(1809–1895)
8 May 1886

27 February 1891
4 years, 295 days Liberal Party 1886
1887
1887–1888
1888–1889
1889–1890
(1886)
[16]
[17]
[18]
[19]
[20]
  Arsenio Martínez-Campos
President of the Senate
(1831–1900)
27 February 1891

3 April 1893
2 years, 35 days Liberal Party 1891–1893
1893–1894
1894–1895
(1891)
[21]
  José Gutiérrez de la Concha
1st Marquis of Havana

President of the Senate
(1809–1895)
3 April 1893

10 November 1894
1 year, 221 days Liberal Party [22]
  Eugenio Montero Ríos
President of the Senate
(1832–1914)
10 November 1894

7 May 1896
1 year, 179 days Liberal Party [23]
  José de Elduayen
1st Marquis of the Pazo de la Merced

President of the Senate
(1823–1898)
7 May 1896

18 April 1898
1 year, 346 days Conservative Party 1896–1898
(1896)
[24]
  Eugenio Montero Ríos
President of the Senate
(1832–1914)
18 April 1898

30 May 1899
1 year, 42 days Liberal Party 1898–1899
(1898)
[25]
  Arsenio Martínez-Campos
President of the Senate
(1831–1900)
30 May 1899

23 September 1900[†]
1 year, 116 days Liberal Party 1899–1900
1900–1901
(1899)
[26]
  Marcelo Azcárraga Palmero
President of the Senate
(1832–1915)
18 October 1900

8 November 1900
21 days Conservative Party [27]
[28]
  Manuel Aguirre de Tejada
Count of Tejada de Valdosera

President of the Senate
(1827–1911)
8 November 1900

8 June 1901
212 days Conservative Party [29]
  Eugenio Montero Ríos
President of the Senate
(1832–1914)
8 June 1901

15 May 1903
1 year, 341 days Liberal Party 1901–1902
1902–1903
(1901)
[30]
[31]
Alfonso XIII
 
(1902–1931)
  Marcelo Azcárraga Palmero
President of the Senate
(1832–1915)
15 May 1903

9 October 1905
2 years, 147 days Conservative Party 1903–1904
1904–1905
(1903)
[32]
[33]
  José López Domínguez
President of the Senate
(1829–1911)
9 October 1905

17 September 1906
343 days Liberal Party 1905–1907
(1905)
[34]
  Eugenio Montero Ríos
President of the Senate
(1832–1914)
17 September 1906

10 May 1907
235 days Liberal Party [35]
  Marcelo Azcárraga Palmero
President of the Senate
(1832–1915)
10 May 1907

9 June 1910
3 years, 30 days Conservative Party 1907–1908
1908–1909
1909–1910
(1907)
[36]
[37]
[38]
  Eugenio Montero Ríos
President of the Senate
(1832–1914)
9 June 1910

11 June 1913
Acting until 8 November 1913
3 years, 2 days Liberal Party 1910–1911
1911–1914
(1910)
[39]
[40]
[41]
  Marcelo Azcárraga Palmero
President of the Senate
(1832–1915)
8 November 1913

30 May 1915[†]
1 year, 203 days Conservative Party [42]
[43]
1914–1915
1915–1916
(1914)
  Joaquín Sánchez de Toca
President of the Senate
(1852–1942)
25 June 1915

6 May 1916
316 days Conservative Party [44]
[45]
  Manuel García Prieto
1st Marquis of Alhucemas

President of the Senate
(1859–1938)
6 May 1916

31 May 1917
1 year, 25 days Liberal Democrats 1916
1917–1918
(1916)
[46]
[47]
  Alejandro Groizard
President of the Senate
(1830–1919)
31 May 1917

23 June 1919
2 years, 23 days Liberal Party [48]
[49]
1918–1919
(1918)
  Manuel Allendesalazar
President of the Senate
(1856–1923)
23 June 1919

15 December 1919
175 days Conservative Party 1919–1920
(1919)
[50]
  Joaquín Sánchez de Toca
President of the Senate
(1852–1942)
15 December 1919

26 May 1923
3 years, 162 days Conservative Party [51]
[52]
[53]
1921–1922
1922–1923
(1921)
  Álvaro de Figueroa
1st Count of Romanones

President of the Senate
(1863–1950)
26 May 1923

15 September 1923
112 days Liberal Party 1923
(1923)
[54]
[55]

Kingdom of Spain (1975–present)Edit

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Tenure
(Years and days)
Party Legislature Monarch
(Reign)
Ref.
  Antonio Fontán
President of the Senate
(1923–2010)
13 July 1977

2 January 1979
1 year, 173 days Union of the
Democratic Centre
Constituent
(1977)
Juan Carlos I
 
(1975–2014)
  Cecilio Valverde
President of the Senate
(1927–2001)
27 April 1979

31 August 1982
3 years, 126 days Union of the
Democratic Centre
I
(1979)
  José Federico de Carvajal
President of the Senate
(1930–2015)
18 November 1982

2 September 1989
6 years, 349 days Spanish Socialist
Workers' Party
II
(1982)
III
(1986)
  Juan José Laborda
President of the Senate
(born 1947)
21 November 1989

9 January 1996
6 years, 49 days Spanish Socialist
Workers' Party
IV
(1989)
V
(1993)
  Juan Ignacio Barrero
President of the Senate
(born 1943)
27 March 1996

8 February 1999
2 years, 318 days People's Party VI
(1996)
  Esperanza Aguirre
President of the Senate
(born 1952)
8 February 1999

21 October 2002
3 years, 255 days People's Party
VII
(2000)
  Juan José Lucas
President of the Senate
(born 1944)
22 October 2002

20 January 2004
1 year, 90 days People's Party
  Javier Rojo
President of the Senate
(born 1949)
2 April 2004

27 September 2011
7 years, 178 days Spanish Socialist
Workers' Party
VIII
(2004)
IX
(2008)
  Pío García-Escudero
President of the Senate
(born 1952)
13 December 2011

Incumbent
6 years, 361 days People's Party X
(2011)
Felipe VI
 
(2014–present)
XI
(2015)
XII
(2016)
Pío García-EscuderoFrancisco Javier Rojo GarcíaJuan José Lucas GiménezEsperanza Aguirre Gil de BiedmaJuan Ignacio Barrero ValverdeJuan José Laborda MartínJosé Federico de Carvajal PérezCecilio Valverde MazuelasAntonio Fontán 

NotesEdit

^† Died in office.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ (in Spanish)Spanish Official Gazette: Local Regime Framework Act (Law 7/1985)
  2. ^ "Senado.- Junta preparatoria celebrada el domingo 2 de Abril de 1871" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (93): 759–760. 3 April 1871.
  3. ^ "Senado.- Presidencia de edad del Sr. Conde de Chacón" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (118): 264–265. 27 April 1872.
  4. ^ "Senado.- Sesión celebrada el martes 17 de Setiembre de 1872" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (262): 831–832. 18 September 1872.
  5. ^ "Senado.- Presidencia del Excmo. Sr. D. Laureano Figuerola.- Sesión celebrada el lunes 10 de Febrero de 1873" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (43): 501. 12 February 1873.
  6. ^ "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado para la próxima legislatura á D. Manuel García Barzanallana" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (115): 249. 25 April 1877.
  7. ^ "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado á Don Manuel García Barzanallana, Marqués de Barzanallana" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (10): 77. 10 January 1878.
  8. ^ "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado para la próxima legislatura á D. Manuel García Barzanallana" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (46): 381. 15 February 1878.
  9. ^ "Reales decretos nombrando Presidente del Senado para la próxima legislatura á D. Manuel García Barzanallana, y Vicepresidente de dicho alto Cuerpo á Don Manuel Antonio Acuña, D. Florencio Rodríguez Vaamonde, D. Francisco Mata y Alós y D. José María de Ezpeleta y Aguirre" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (150): 615. 30 May 1879.
  10. ^ "Reales decretos nombrando Presidente del Senado para la próxima legislatura á D. Manuel García Barzanallana, y Vicepresidente del mismo á D. Manuel Silvela, D. Guillermo Charon, D. Andrés Lasso de la Vega y D. Emilio Bernar" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (358): 865. 23 December 1880.
  11. ^ "Reales decretos nombrando Presidente del Senado á D. José Gutiérrez de la Concha, y Vicepresidentes á Don Telesforo Montejo y otros" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (263): 785. 20 September 1881.
  12. ^ "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado para la próxima legislatura á D. José Gutiérrez de la Concha, Marqués de la Habana" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (337): 603. 3 December 1882.
  13. ^ "Reales decretos nombrando Presidente del Senado para la próxima legislatura á D. Francisco Serrano, Duque de la Torre, y Vicepresidente á D. Tomás María Mosquera" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (347): 793. 13 December 1883.
  14. ^ "Reales decretos nombrando Presidente del Senado á D. Francisco Javier Arias Dávila, y Vicepresidentes á D. Fermín Lasala, D. Eduardo Fernández San Román, D. Emilio Bernar y D. Cayo Quiñones" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (139): 463. 18 May 1884.
  15. ^ "Reales decretos nombrando Presidente del Senado para la próxima legislatura á D. Arsenio Martínez de Campos, y Vicepresidentes del mismo á D. Fermín Lasala y Collado, D. Eduardo Fernández San Román, Don Cayo Quiñones de León y D. Juan Moreno Benítez" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (358): 963. 24 December 1885.
  16. ^ "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado para la próxima legislatura á D. José Gutiérrez de la Concha, Marqués de la Habana" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (129): 387. 9 May 1886.
  17. ^ "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado á Don José Gutiérrez de la Concha" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (15): 137. 15 January 1887.
  18. ^ "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado para la próxima legislatura á D. José Gutiérrez de la Concha, Marqués de la Habana" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (333): 587. 29 November 1887.
  19. ^ "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado para la próxima legislatura á D. José Gutiérrez de la Concha, Marqués de la Habana" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (333): 637. 28 November 1888.
  20. ^ "Reales decretos nombrando Presidente del Senado á D. José Gutiérrez de la Concha, Marqués de la Habana, y Vicepresidente á D. Tomás María Mosquera, D. Francisco de Paula y Pavia, D. Cristóbal Colón de la Cerda, Duque de Veragua, y D. Gaspar Núñez de Arce" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (164): 797. 13 June 1889.
  21. ^ "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado para la próxima legislatura á D. Arsenio Martínez de Campos" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (59): 631. 28 February 1891.
  22. ^ "Reales decretos nombrando Presidente y Vicepresidentes del Senado para la próxima legislatura á los señores que se expresan" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (94): 473. 4 April 1893.
  23. ^ "Reales decretos nombrando Presidente del Senado á D. Eugenio Montero Ríos, y Vicepresidentes á D. Eduardo Bermúdez Reina, D. Gaspar Núñez de Arce, D. Juan Jordán del Urries y Ruiz de Arana y D. Eduardo Martínez del Campo" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (315): 473. 11 November 1894.
  24. ^ "Reales decretos nombrando, Presidente del Senado, á D. José Elduayen, y Vicepresidentes, á los señores que se citan" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (129): 401. 8 May 1896.
  25. ^ "Reales decretos nombrando, Presidente del Senado, á D. Eugenio Montero Ríos, y Vicepresidentes, á los señores que se expresan" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (109): 255. 19 April 1898.
  26. ^ "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado para la próxima legislatura á D. Arsenio Martínez de Campos" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (151): 741. 31 May 1899.
  27. ^ "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado á D. Marcelo de Azcárraga" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (292): 601. 19 October 1900.
  28. ^ "Real decreto dejando sin efecto el de 18 de Octubre último, por el que se nombro Presidente del Senado á D. Marcelo de Azcárraga" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (313): 505. 9 November 1900.
  29. ^ "Reales decretos nombrando Presidente del Senado y Vicepresidentes del mismo al Conde de Valdosera, D. Antonio Dabán, Duque de Béjar, D. Faustino y San Pedro y Conde de Pallares, respectivamente" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (313): 505. 9 November 1900.
  30. ^ "Reales decretos nombrando Presidente y Vicepresidentes del Senado, y Senadores vitalicios, á D. Eugenio Montero Ríos, D. Manuel Eguilior, D. Federico Ochando, Marqués de Ayerbe, Don Martín de Zabala, D. Amós Salvador, D. Baltasar Hidalgo, D. Vicente Alonso Martínez, D. Felipe Sánchez Román, D. Emilio Nieto y D. Andrés Mellado" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (160): 957. 9 June 1901.
  31. ^ "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado para la próxima legislatura á D. Eugenio Montero Ríos" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (92): 17. 2 April 1902.
  32. ^ "Reales decretos nombrando Presidente del Senado á D. Marcelo de Azcárraga, y Vicepresidente á D. Luis Pidal y Mon, D. Mariano Fernández de Henestrosa, D. Francisco Javier López de Carrizosa y D. Angel Avilés y Merino" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (136): 601. 16 May 1903.
  33. ^ "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado para la próxima legislatura á D. Marcelo de Azcárraga y Palmero" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (272): 1109. 30 September 1904.
  34. ^ "Reales decretos nombrando Presidente del Senado para la próxima legislatura á D. José López Domínguez, Capitán General de Ejército; Vicepresidentes de dicho Cuerpo, á Don Amós Salvador y D. Emilio Nieto, y Consejero de Estado, á D. Francisco Romero Robledo" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (283): 113. 10 October 1905.
  35. ^ "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado á D. Eugenio Montero Ríos" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (267): 1201. 24 September 1906.
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  38. ^ "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado para la próxima legislatura á D. Marcelo de Azcárraga y Palmero" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (288): 105. 15 October 1909.
  39. ^ "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado para la próxima Legislatura á D. Eugenio Montero Ríos" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (164): 561. 13 June 1910.
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  41. ^ "Real decreto admitiendo la dimisión del cargo de Presidente del Senado á D. Eugenio Montero Ríos" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (163): 754. 12 June 1913.
  42. ^ "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado para la presente legislatura, al Capitán general de Ejército D. Marcelo de Azcárraga y Palmero, Senador del Reino" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (313): 459. 9 November 1913.
  43. ^ "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado para la próxima legislatura a D. Marcelo de Azcárraga y Palmero" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (90): 796. 31 March 1914.
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  46. ^ "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado para la próxima legislatura a D. Manuel García Prieto, Marqués de Alhucemas" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (128): 242. 7 May 1916.
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  48. ^ "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado para la presente legislatura, a D. Alejandro Groizard y Gómez de la Serna" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (153): 590. 2 June 1917.
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  50. ^ "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado para la próxima legislatura a don Manuel Allende Salazar y Muñoz de Salazar" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (175): 1022. 24 June 1919.
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  54. ^ "Real decreto nombrando Presidente del Senado para la presente legislatura a D. Alvaro de Figueroa y Torres, Conde de Romanones" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (147): 813. 27 May 1923.
  55. ^ "Real decreto declarando disueltos el Congreso de los Diputados y la parte electiva del Senado" (pdf). Gaceta de Madrid (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado (260): 1121. 17 September 1923.

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