Íñigo Errejón

Íñigo Errejón Galván (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈiɲiɣo ereˈxoŋ galˈβan];[A] born 14 December 1983) is a Spanish political scientist and politician, serving as member of the 14th Congress of Deputies.

Íñigo Errejón
10N2019 Íñigo Errejón (cropped).jpg
Member of the Congress of Deputies
Assumed office
3 December 2019
ConstituencyMadrid
In office
7 January 2016 – 21 January 2019[1]
ConstituencyMadrid
Member of the Assembly of Madrid
In office
11 June 2019 – 11 November 2019
Personal details
Born
Íñigo Errejón Galván

(1983-12-14) 14 December 1983 (age 37)
Madrid, Spain
NationalitySpanish
Political partyMás País (2019-present)
Podemos (2014–2019)
Alma materComplutense University of Madrid
OccupationResearcher, politician, political strategist
Signature

Doctor of Philosophy in Political Science, he was the secretary for policy and strategy and campaigning of Podemos (managing several electoral campaigns of the political party) as well as a member of the 11th and 12th terms of the Congress of Deputies. He split from Podemos and founded a new platform in early 2019, Más Madrid, under which Errejón was elected to the Assembly of Madrid and that was later re-constituted as Más País in order to run in the November 2019 general election, with the outcome of Errejón returning to the Congress of Deputies.

From the standpoint of political theory, he is influenced by Ernesto Laclau and the Essex School of discourse analysis.

BiographyEdit

Early life and educationEdit

Born on 14 December 1983 in Madrid,[2] Íñigo Errejón is the son of José Antonio Errejón Villacieros (a public servant in the Spanish Central Administration who held senior positions in different ministries) and María de los Ángeles Galván (a biologist).[3][4] His father, a Marxist who had been a member of the Workers' Party, became one of the signatories of the 1983 Tenerife Manifesto (the text which marked the birth of the Greens in Spain) and much later in time, also a member of Izquierda Anticapitalista (IZAN).[5][4]

Errejón was a scout during his teenage years.[6] Initially close to the political tradition of libertarian marxism, Errejón started his political activity as activist in the "Colectivo 1984" in Pozuelo de Alarcón.[7] In 2006, he helped to found Contrapoder, a student association described as anticapitalist or anti-establishment.[7][8][B]

He studied at the Complutense University of Madrid (UCM), where he earned a licentiate degree in Political Science in 2006.[10][11] During his time at university, he was a part of social movements linked to civil disobedience in Madrid.[C]

While preparing his doctoral thesis, Errejón stayed at the University of California, Los Angeles from 2007 to 2008 (under a visit coordinated by John Agnew),[13][14] the University of Bologna (2010) and the Instituto de Altos Estudios Nacionales [es] in Ecuador (2011).[15] In 2012, he earned a PhD degree in Political Science after writing a dissertation titled La lucha por la hegemonía durante el primer gobierno del MAS en Bolivia (2006-2009): un análisis discursivo, dealing with the political discourse during the first mandate in power of Bolivia's Movement for Socialism (MAS), and supervised by Heriberto Cairo Carou [es].[16][17]

Errejón began working for Center for Political and Social Studies Foundation (CEPS), a socialist, anti-capitalist think tank in Spain that performed the majority of its work in Latin America. He worked as a secretary for CEPS and was a member of its executive board.[18] He also collaborated with the GIS XXI Foundation [es] (a polling firm linked to the Venezuelan government) and was appointed as director of its Political Identities research line.[19][20][21] He later became a member of Consultative Board of the Strategic Latin American Centre of Geopolitics [es] (CELAG).[22][D]

He was a member of the editorial board of the political analysis journal Viento Sur [es], linked to IZAN.[5][23]

PodemosEdit

 
Errejón at the presentation of Podemos in January 2014 in Madrid.

In 2014, Pablo Iglesias appointed Errejón as campaign manager for Podemos in the European Parliament elections of 2014.[24] The campaign was a success, and the new party won 1.2 million votes.[25]

Errejón himself became one of the most prominent Podemos politicians in terms of public profile, featuring in TV shows like La Sexta noche.[25] On 15 November 2014, he was chosen as one of the 11 members of the Council of Coordination of Podemos, commissioned to the post of Secretary of Policy of the party executive board.[26]

By late 2014 Errejón faced public scrutiny and criticism as he had allegedly breached the conditions of his contract as a researcher at the University of Málaga (UMA), as the latter demanded physical presence and reportedly Errejón did not attend the UMA. Concerns on the incompatibility of his job as researcher with other paid activities (such as campaign manager) also appeared.[27] While his supervisor (fellow Podemos board member Alberto Montero) alleged Errejón had verbal permission to work long distance, an investigation by the UMA was opened, with the UMA announcing it would suspend Errejón's salary in December 2014.[28][29][E] However, eventually no disciplinary sanction was actually enforced by the UMA on Errejón, as Errejón had already asked that the contract not be renewed.[34]

 
Errejón at the 2015 International Forum for Empowerment and Equality, held in Buenos Aires.

Errejón was the campaign manager for Podemos in the Andalusian parliamentary elections of 22 March 2015, in which the party won 15 seats.[21] In the same month, he participated as a speaker at the International Forum for Empowerment and Equality, held in Buenos Aires.[35] He was also campaign manager for the regional elections on 24 May that year.[21]

Errejón ran as a candidate for Podemos in the December 2015 general election, and was included third in the party list for the Lower House in the constituency of Madrid.[36][37] Elected as a member of the Congress of Deputies, he joined the Committee on Finance and Public Administrations.[38] He also became the Spokesperson of the Podemos parliamentary group (effectively number 2 in the parliamentary group after Iglesias).[39] As no government could be formed during the 11th term of the Cortes Generales, a new general election for was called for June 2016. Errejón ran third as candidate to the Congress in the Unidos Podemos list,[40] a coalition between Podemos, United Left (IU) and other left-wing parties. The 2016 election brought a breaking point in Podemos as both Iglesias and Errejón deemed the results of the election as a failure, but because of different strategical reasons; Errejón in particular resented the defence of Iglesias had made of the alliance with IU.[41] Errejón became the Spokesperson of the Unidos Podemos-En Comú Podem-En Marea Confederal Parliamentary Group. During the 12th Congress of Deputies, he also joined the Constitutional Committee (in which he held the role of spokesperson of his parliamentary group) as well as the Committee on Finance and Public Function, the Committee on Finance and Public Administrations and the temporary Committee on the investigation of the alleged illegal funding of the People's Party.[42]

From December 2016 to February 2017 the 2nd Podemos Citizen Assembly ("Vistalegre II") took place. Errejón did not bid for the party leadership (with Iglesias standing as candidate for Secretary-General with the single alternative candidacy of Juan Moreno Yagüe) but presented a project (Recuperar la Ilusión) competing with another two alternatives (around Iglesias and Anticapitalistas, respectively) in the matter of the composition of the State Citizen Council and the voting of several party documents.[43][44] Iglesias confirmed his role as Secretary General and his platform commanded a qualified majority in the voting of the composition of the State Citizen Council, with Errejón's project obtaining roughly one third of the votes. Iglesias thus imposed his vision and project in the party, in what it was considered then a triumph of the more left-wing faction of Podemos.[43] Just after Vistalegre II, Errejón was demoted from the position of Spokesperson of the Parliamentary Group in the Congress of Deputies and replaced by Irene Montero.[45]

 
Errejón in May 2018, next to Tania Sánchez and Clara Serra.

In May 2018 Errejón launched a bid for the primary election to determine the Podemos list for the May 2019 Madrilenian regional election under the Sí Madrid 2019 platform.[46] Run as the party-liner candidacy, with no credible rival, it commanded a 98% of support from the party members.[47]

In January 2019, Errejón announced he would run in the regional election under the Más Madrid list,[48] the platform previously presented by Manuela Carmena (the Mayor of Madrid) in order to run in the municipal election (both the regional and municipal elections were to be celebrated on 26 May). While the initiative of Más Madrid was purposely open to further negotiation to include Podemos in some form (it was framed by Errejón as an "invitation" rather than as a "split"),[49] this formal unlinking from the party unleashed an internal crisis in Podemos. The crisis' toll took Ramón Espinar (the regional leader of Podemos in Madrid), who quit frontline politics in disagreement with the decision taken by Iglesias of actually presenting an alternative list to Errejón's in the regional election[50] (Podemos had convened not to present an alternative list to Carmena's vis-à-vis the municipal election). Errejón was then asked to leave his seat of deputy, and he (still leaving a door open to reach a unitary list of Más Madrid with Podemos, IU and Equo) quit the Congress of Deputies on 21 January.[51]

Más Madrid and Más PaísEdit

 
Errejón along other regional legislators and municipal councillors at the Puerta del Sol in March 2019, during an act of remembrance of the victims of the 11-M train-bombings.

Iñigo Errejón contested the 24 May regional election in Madrid as head of the Más Madrid list (also postulating himself as prospective candidate to become the President of the Community of Madrid).[52] The Más Madrid list obtained a 14.69% of the valid votes, earning 20 seats of the 11th term of the Assembly of Madrid, while the list led by Podemos (Unidas Podemos Izquierda Unida Madrid en Pie), obtained a hair over the 5% electoral threshold; the whole left-of-centre forces (including PSOE) fell again short of forming a left-wing majority in the regional parliament (with 64 out of 132 seats).[53][54]

As negotiations between PSOE Unidas Podemos to form a coalition government presided by Pedro Sánchez after the April 2019 general election collapsed, a general election set for December 2019 was in the horizon. An alternative list vying to run in the new election around Más Madrid in order to break the deadlock was postulated. The initiative was approved by the party members during an informal assembly on 22 September 2019.[55] Three days later the platform was launched under the name Más País and Errejón was elected to lead it, vowing "to be at the service of a progressive government".[56][57] Más País later reached agreements to run in coalition with Compromís, Equo and Chunta Aragonesista in several constituencies.[58][59]

The party coalition with Equo in Madrid obtained just two seats at the election, while the Compromís-dominated alliance in Valencia earned another seat. The Más País legislators, initially destined to join the Mixed Parliamentary Group, helped to create another miscellaneous group, the "Plural Parliamentary Group", merging with other legislators.[60] On 7 January 2020 Errejón, who congratulated Sánchez and Iglesias during the former's investiture session as prime minister, as both have reached a government coalition agreement, warned however that the action of the new government should not be directed against the opposition right-wing forces in the upcoming legislative term, as it would then buy the right-wing argument of Spain being split in two, rather than what Errejón thought it was actually the case (that "Spain is divided by inequality").[61] He then proceeded to voted 'yes' in the second round of the investiture.[61]

Ideology and stancesEdit

According to Chazel and Fernández, Errejón transitioned from the anarchist and libertarian sensibilities of his youth to an interest in Latin American populism, displaying a convergence toward the Essex School of discourse analysis in his PhD dissertation, underpinning the intellectual goal of the creation of hegemony through discourse.[62] A follower of Ernesto Laclau (whom he has explicitly cited several times as leading intellectual reference)[63] and Chantal Mouffe, Errejón has been considered as the "most forthcoming" figure in Podemos when it came to embrace the party as populist.[64] According to Franzé, rather than as antagonism between already existing actors, Errejón would understand populism as a reconfiguration of the legitimate demos.[65]

Errejón was a supporter of the figure of Hugo Chávez (whom he deemed a "source of political pedagogy"),[66] and an early defender of the Venezuelan bolivarian experience (Venezuela was described by Errejón as "my adopted fatherland").[66] Errejón got to the point of stating in 2013 that the lines for food Venezuelans experienced for hours were "because they have more money to consume more" and that there was a "culture of queues" because Venezuelans supposedly enjoyed socialising.[67][68]

He has later retracted from previous takings of Venezuela, stating in a 2018 interview that "Venezuela is a disaster and it is obvious that I do not want that model for my country.[69]

Electoral historyEdit

Electoral history of Íñigo Errejón
Election List Constituency List position Result
Spanish general election, 2015 Podemos Madrid 3rd (out of 36) Elected
Spanish general election, 2016 Unidos Podemos Madrid 3rd (out of 36) Elected
Madrilenian regional election, 2019 Más Madrid Madrid 1st (out of 132) Elected
Spanish general election, November 2019 Más País-Equo Madrid 1st (out of 37) Elected


PublicationsEdit

Author
  • — (2012). La lucha por la hegemonía durante el primer gobierno del MAS en Bolivia (2006-2009): un análisis discursivo. Madrid: Universidad Complutense de Madrid. (PhD dissertation)
Co-author
  • Errejón, Íñigo; Mouffe, Chantal (2015). Construir Pueblo. Hegemonía y radicalización de la democracia. Barcelona: Icaria.[70]
  • García Linera, Álvaro; Errejón, Íñigo (2020). Qué horizonte. Hegemonía, Estado y revolución democrática. Madrid: Lengua de Trapo.[71]
Co-editor
  • Errejón, Íñigo; Serrano, Alfredo, eds. (2011). ¡Ahora es cuándo, carajo! Del asalto a la transformación del Estado en Bolivia. Barcelona: El Viejo Topo.

NotesEdit

  1. ^ In isolation, Errejón is pronounced [ereˈxon].
  2. ^ Among other actions, the association protested against a panel at the UCM in which Rosa Díez intervened and invited Evo Morales to give a conference in the Faculty of Political Science.[9]
  3. ^ According to Pablo Iglesias, his testimonies (along those of Daniel Córdoba) are "very useful" to account for the anti-globalization protests in Genoa (July 2001, against the meeting of the G8), Prague (September 2000, during the annual meeting of the board of governors of the IMF and World Bank) and Scotland (July 2005, against a new meeting of the G8) as well as the mobilizations against the Iraq War and the protests of 13 March 2004 in front of the headquarters of the People's Party in Madrid after the 11-M attacks.[12]
  4. ^ Back in 2015, the diary ABC accused Podemos members Juan Carlos Monedero and Errejón of "working" (suggesting a paid remuneration) for the CELAG. Podemos refuted the latter extent arguing that, as members of the Consultative Board, they did not earn a remuneration.[22]
  5. ^ According to Podemos, the case was a "campaign of defamation" against Errejón for being one of the most visible faces of the party, now an emerging political force. The Podemos spokesman for Relations with Civil Society and Social Movements, Rafael Mayoral, even hinted that pressure from the Andalusian regional government could have influenced the decision taken against Errejón.[30][31] Elena Cortés [es], a member of the Andalusian regional government demanded Mayoral to provide evidence for the alleged interferences.[32][33]

ReferencesEdit

Citations
  1. ^ Pina, Raul (21 January 2019). "Iñigo Errejón consuma la ruptura con Podemos y deja de ser diputado". ELMUNDO (in Spanish). Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  2. ^ Ficha de Íñigo Errejón, en el portal de transparencia de la página oficial de Podemos.
  3. ^ Galán, Lola (14 April 1985).
  4. ^ a b "Íñigo Errejón, "el niño" que abandonó la sombra". Telemadrid. 7 May 2019.
  5. ^ a b Sanz, Segundo (19 June 2014). "La 'casta' de Podemos: el padre de Errejón es alto cargo del Gobierno desde hace 30 años". vozpopuli.
  6. ^ Pina, Mariana (27 December 2014).
  7. ^ a b Gil, Iván (24 December 2016). "Íñigo Errejón: la forja de un líder del cambio con mochila ligera". El Confidencial.
  8. ^ Rivas, Tatiana G. (18 February 2016). "El hermano de Errejón declarará en el juicio de Rita Maestre por hacer pintadas obscenas". ABC.
  9. ^ Barcala, Diego (24 October 2010).
  10. ^ López Canales, David (2015-08-24). "Íñigo Errejón: Pensamos en ganar. Gobernar ya es otra cosa". Vanity Fair (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-01-14.
  11. ^ Fundación General de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid (March–June 2011). "Cine, identidades políticas y hegemonía" (PDF).
  12. ^ Iglesias Turrión, Pablo (2008). Multitud y acción colectiva postnacional. Un estudio comparado de los desobedientes: de Italia a Madrid (2000-2005) (PDF). Tesis doctoral. Madrid: Universidad Complutense de Madrid. p. 67. ISBN 978-84-692-1016-1.
  13. ^ García, Pablo (19 January 2019). "No se puede". El Independiente.
  14. ^ Ximénez de Sandoval, Pablo (19 December 2014). "La experiencia americana de Podemos". El País.
  15. ^ Zaballa, Gonzalo (19 February 2019). "Amor por la política gracias a sus padres". COPE.
  16. ^ Schavelzon 2015, p. 36; 60.
  17. ^ "Íñigo Errejón (Podemos): "Hay que entenderse con formaciones que están en contra de recortes y saqueos"". eldiario.es. 27 May 2014.
  18. ^ "¿Qué es la Fundación CEPS?". CEPS Foundation. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  19. ^ Sanz, Segundo (4 May 2014). "El jefe de campaña de Pablo Iglesias para el 25-M colabora con una fundación vinculada al chavismo". Voz Pópuli.
  20. ^ Grupo de Investigación Social Siglo XXI (13 November 2013). "Íñigo Errejón Galván: Chávez y el chavismo son fuente de pedagogía política (GISXXI)".
  21. ^ a b c E., S. (9 April 2015).
  22. ^ a b "Podemos desmiente que Errejón y Monedero asesoren a Venezuela". El País. 13 April 2015.
  23. ^ Press, Europa (2014-11-13). "Íñigo Errejón, de Podemos, da una conferencia este martes en Valladolid sobre cambios políticos y sociales". www.europapress.es. Retrieved 2020-01-15.
  24. ^ «Íñigo Errejón, jefe de campaña de Pablo Iglesias, se convierte en el nuevo líder mediático de Podemos».
  25. ^ a b Villaverde, Susana (17 November 2014).
  26. ^ Europa Press (16 November 2014).
  27. ^ Villaverde, Susana (November 21, 2014). "La ley prohíbe a Errejón cobrar de la universidad y de Podemos". El Mundo (in Spanish). Retrieved 11 November 2019.
  28. ^ Codina, Esperanza; Planelles, Manuel (2014-12-04). "La Universidad de Málaga suspende de empleo y sueldo a Iñigo Errejón". El País (in Spanish). ISSN 1134-6582. Retrieved 2020-01-14.
  29. ^ Codina, Esperanza; Planelles, Manuel (4 December 2014). "La Universidad de Málaga suspende de empleo y sueldo a Iñigo Errejón". El País (in Spanish). Prisa. Retrieved 11 November 2019.
  30. ^ Manetto, F. (4 December 2014). "Podemos atribuye el caso a "una campaña de difamación"". El País. Madrid: Prisa. Retrieved 11 November 2019.
  31. ^ Publico/Europa Press (4 December 2014).
  32. ^ a. m. (5 December 2014). "El expediente de la UMA a Errejón desata la guerra entre Podemos y el PSOE". ABC (in Spanish). Vocento. Retrieved 11 November 2019.
  33. ^ EFE (5 December 2014). "La Junta exige a Podemos que demuestre la injerencia de Díaz en el expediente a Errejón". Diario Sur (in Spanish). Vocento. Retrieved 11 November 2019.
  34. ^ Torres, Carmen (2018-04-12). "La Universidad de Málaga no llegó a sancionar a Errejón por su contrato a distancia". El Independiente (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-01-15.
  35. ^ «Iñigo Errejón se reúne con Noam Chomsky en Buenos Aires».
  36. ^ Carvajal, Álvaro (2015-11-04). "Podemos ficha para las listas al Congreso a José Julio Rodríguez, ex jefe del Estado Mayor con Zapatero". El Mundo (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-01-14.
  37. ^ Juntas Electorales Provinciales: "Candidaturas proclamadas para las elecciones al Congreso de los Diputados y al Senado, convocadas por Real Decreto 977/2015, de 26 de octubre" (PDF). Boletín Oficial del Estado (281): 110776. 24 November 2015. ISSN 0212-033X.
  38. ^ "XI Legislatura (2016-2016). Errejón Galván, Íñigo". Congress of Deputies.
  39. ^ Riveiro, Aitor. "Íñigo Errejón no se sentará junto a Pablo Iglesias tras ser relevado como portavoz del Congreso". eldiario.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-01-14.
  40. ^ Juntas Electorales Provinciales: "Candidaturas proclamadas para las elecciones al Congreso de los Diputados y al Senado, convocadas por Real Decreto 184/2016, de 3 de mayo" (PDF). Boletín Oficial del Estado (131): 35491–35754. 31 May 2016. ISSN 0212-033X.
  41. ^ Chazel & Fernández Vázquez 2019, p. 3.
  42. ^ "XII Legislatura (2016-2019). Errejón Galván, Íñigo". Congress of Deputies.
  43. ^ a b García de Blas, Elsa (12 February 2017). "Iglesias logra todo el control para imponer el Podemos más radical". el País.
  44. ^ "Errejón presenta su proyecto para un Podemos "democrático" e "integrador" frente a "fórmulas del pasado"". rtve.es (in Spanish). 2016-12-16. Retrieved 2020-01-14.
  45. ^ "Podemos nombra a Irene Montero nueva portavoz en el Congreso, en sustitución de Errejón". Europa Press. 2017-02-18. Retrieved 2020-01-14.
  46. ^ "Errejón lanza en redes su candidatura 'Sí Madrid 2019' a las primarias". Público. Retrieved 2020-01-14.
  47. ^ "Errejón será el candidato de Podemos en la Comunidad de Madrid y Tania Sánchez cae al número tres". abc (in Spanish). 2018-05-14. Retrieved 2020-01-14.
  48. ^ "Errejón anuncia que irá a las elecciones con las siglas de Carmena". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 2019-01-17. Retrieved 2020-01-14.
  49. ^ 20minutos (2019-01-17). "Errejón se desliga de Podemos para ir a las autonómicas bajo el paraguas de Carmena". www.20minutos.es - Últimas Noticias (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-01-14.
  50. ^ "Ramón Espinar dimite de la dirección de Podemos en Madrid y deja su escaño en la Asamblea". abc (in Spanish). 2019-01-25. Retrieved 2020-01-14.
  51. ^ Vallín, Pedro (2019-01-21). "Íñigo Errejón deja su escaño en el Congreso". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-01-14.
  52. ^ S. Calleja, Ignacio (11 November 2019). "El escaño de Higueras abre la lucha por el liderazgo de Más Madrid en la capital". ABC (in Spanish). Vocento. Retrieved 11 November 2019.
  53. ^ Junta Electoral Provincial de Madrid: "Elecciones a la Asamblea de Madrid 2019" (PDF). Boletín Oficial de la Comunidad de Madrid (134): 106–108. 7 June 2019. ISSN 1989-4791.
  54. ^ Riveiro, Aitor. "Debacle de Unidas Podemos el 26M: cae en Europa, pierde representación territorial y todas las alcaldías menos Cádiz". eldiario.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-01-14.
  55. ^ Bécares, Roberto (23 September 2019). "El partido de Íñigo Errejón aprueba presentarse a las elecciones del 10-N". El Mundo.
  56. ^ Marcos, Ana; León, Pablo (26 September 2019). "Errejón promete que su partido estará "al servicio de un Gobierno progresista"". El País.
  57. ^ Caballero, Fátima (25 September 2019). "Errejón ya tiene marca para presentarse a las elecciones: concurrirá el 10 de noviembre con Más País". eldiario.es.
  58. ^ "Más País, plataforma de Errejón, concurrirá el 10N en Sevilla, Málaga, Cádiz y Granada según el preacuerdo con Equo". Europa Press (in Spanish). 26 September 2019. Retrieved 11 November 2019.
  59. ^ "¿Dónde presentará Errejón a Más País el 10N?". La Vanguardia. October 5, 2019.
  60. ^ Pinar, Clara (4 January 2020). "Baile de votos en el Congreso: CC cambia al 'no', el PRC se abre al 'sí' y Errejón, ausente por enfermedad". 20minutos.es.
  61. ^ a b "Errejón agradece a Iglesias el acuerdo con el PSOE: "Gracias Pablo"". Europa Press. 7 January 2020.
  62. ^ Chazel & Fernández Vázquez 2019, p. 6.
  63. ^ Ferraresi 2016, p. 55.
  64. ^ Gerbaudo & Screti 2017, p. 3.
  65. ^ Franzé 2017, p. 237.
  66. ^ a b Laborda, Juan José (28 January 2019). "La quintaesencia del populismo". Voz Pópuli.
  67. ^ Nuria, Val (26 May 2016). "Íñigo Errejón: "En Venezuela hay colas porque tienen más dinero para consumir más"" (in Spanish). Ok Diario. Retrieved 7 July 2016.
  68. ^ Núñez Huesca, Rafael (25 May 2016). "Las absurdas causas de las colas en Venezuela, según Errejón". La Gaceta. Retrieved 7 July 2016.
  69. ^ Prieto, Alberto D. (7 February 2019). "Podemos afea a Errejón su repentino silencio sobre Venezuela: "Si hay alguien chavista es él"". El Español.
  70. ^ Fittipaldi, Raffaella (2016). "Íñigo Errejón, Chantal Mouffe (2015), Construir Pueblo. Hegemonía y radicalización de la democracia, Barcelona, Icaria Editorial, ISBN: 978-84-9888-660-3". Partecipazione e Conflitto. 9 (3): 1075–1079. ISSN 2035-6609.
  71. ^ "Errejón: Integrar al adversario, clave para que un proyecto tenga éxito". eldiario.es. 26 January 2020.
Bibliography
Party political offices
Preceded by
Position established
Political Secretary of Podemos
2014–2017
Succeeded by
Position abolished
Preceded by
Position established
Leader of the Unidas Podemos Confederal Group in the Congress of Deputies
2016-2017
Succeeded by
Irene Montero
Preceded by
Position established
Leader of the Más Madrid Group in the Assembly of Madrid
2019
Succeeded by
Pablo Gómez Perpinyà