JA21 (pronounced [ˌjaːʔeːnənˈtʋɪntəx], backronym for Juiste Antwoord 2021, lit.'Correct Answer 2021' or 'Right Answer 2021') is a political party in the Netherlands, currently active in the Senate as the Nanninga Group (Dutch: Fractie-Nanninga).[19][20] It was founded in December 2020 by Joost Eerdmans and Annabel Nanninga after leaving Forum for Democracy on 26 November 2020.[21] The party participated in the general election on 17 March 2021.[19]

JA21
LeaderJoost Eerdmans[1]
ChairpersonAdrien de Boer
Leader in the House
of Representatives
Joost Eerdmans
Leader in the SenateAnnabel Nanninga
Leader in the EPRob Roos
FoundersJoost Eerdmans
Annabel Nanninga
Founded18 December 2020 (2020-12-18)
Split fromForum for Democracy
HeadquartersAnna van Buerenplein 41
2595 DA The Hague[2]
Membership (2023)Increase 5,060[3]
IdeologyConservative liberalism[4][5]
Anti-immigration[6]
Euroscepticism[7]
Fortuynism[8]

Right-wing populism[9][10]
Political positionRight-wing[11][12][4][5][13][14] to far-right[15][16][17][18]
European affiliationEuropean Conservatives and Reformists Party
European Parliament groupEuropean Conservatives and Reformists
Colours  Navy
  Crimson
Senate
7 / 75
House of Representatives
3 / 150
Provincial councils
22 / 572
Municipal councils
2 / 8,522
European Parliament
3 / 29
Website
ja21.nl

HistoryEdit

 
Joost Eerdmans, co-founder and leader of the party
 
Annabel Nanninga, co-founder and leader in the Senate

JA21 was founded on 18 December 2020 by Eerdmans and Nanninga, after they had left Forum for Democracy following an internal dispute over the party leadership's response to allegations of racism, antisemitism and homophobia against its youth wing (including glorification of Anders Breivik and Brenton Tarrant), and controversial statements made by party leader Thierry Baudet.[1][19][22] JA21 describes itself as a "proper" right-wing party and aims to fill the gap between the centre-right People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) and the more radical-right Party for Freedom (PVV). Party leader Joost Eerdmans had previously been a member of parliament for the Pim Fortuyn List and served as deputy mayor of Rotterdam.[19][23]

According to Eerdmans, the name JA21 does not only refer to the first names of himself and Nanninga; it also stands for the 'Right Answer/Correct Answer' (het 'Juiste Antwoord') and 'Your Alternative' ('Jouw Alternatief').[24]

On 20 December 2020, ex-Forum for Democracy MEPs Derk Jan Eppink, Rob Roos and Rob Rooken announced that they had become members of JA21.[25] Two days later, the independent Senate group Fractie-Van Pareren – consisting of seven ex-Forum for Democracy senators – joined JA21, making it the fourth largest party in the Senate.[20][26]

On 16 January 2021, the provincial group of Forum for Democracy in North Brabant split, with three members leaving Forum for Democracy to form the JA21 parliamentary group in the Provincial Council of North Brabant.[27] As Forum for Democracy was part of the province's coalition government at the time of the split, the new JA21 parliamentary group immediately entered the coalition after talks with the other coalition members.[28] This marked the first time that JA21 entered a coalition with other parties.

IdeologyEdit

In its platform, JA21 describes itself as both liberal and conservative with an emphasis on personal freedom, political transparency and reliable government.[29] Initially, JA21 sought to emulate the original political platform of the Forum for Democracy party from which it split. Both political observers and the party's leadership have also referred to JA21 as being more influenced by Fortuynism, the ideology espoused by assassinated Dutch politician Pim Fortuyn and his Pim Fortuyn List (LPF) party. Party leader Joost Eerdmans, himself a former LPF member of parliament, has claimed that he wants JA21 to help "Fortuyn's ideas return to the House of Representatives."[8]

JA21 states that it stands for "less regulatory burden, tax relief, a strict immigration policy and support for the entrepreneurs who make our country great".[30] The party is strongly opposed to further integration within the European Union and the EU becoming a Federal Superstate. JA21 wants to strengthen the Netherlands' autonomy by ending influence of the EU on domestic affairs by putting "Dutch interests first" and supporting the right to national self-determination.[30] It also supports a referendum on Dutch membership of the Eurozone, a revision of Dutch membership of EU treaties and the Schengen Agreement, and a renegotiation of Dutch membership of the EU. JA21 is also opposed to the potential accession of Turkey to the European Union.[31] The party also wants to opt out of the EU asylum pact, regain full control over Dutch borders and expel illegal immigrants.[32] JA21 also opposes cuts to the police budget and calls for tougher prison sentences against those who attack emergency workers and repeatedly offend.[33] It also calls for compulsory measures for immigrants to learn Dutch, wants an end to foreign funding of mosques and Islamic schools, and states that people with dual nationality should be stripped of their Dutch citizenship if they join a foreign terrorist group.[34] The party also supports foreign investment and maintaining free trade agreements with other nations in order to stem flows of migration and wants good relations with the United Kingdom following Brexit.[35] JA21 also supports internet freedom and wants to protect the right to online privacy by preventing the government and big tech companies from mining personal data or breaching privacy laws. In terms of culture, the party has expressed opposition to modern architecture and supports restoring historic buildings to their original specifications. In 2022, JA21 campaigned against "de-colonisation" of Dutch history, instead arguing for the protection of national cultural heritage and for free museum admission for Dutch nationals.[36]

On its website, JA21 lists its beliefs as:[30]

  • Immigration: in favor of copying the Danish immigration policy[37]
  • Democracy: in favor of giving more power to the electorate through binding referendums
  • Pensions: against EU control over Dutch pensions
  • Security: in favor of a strong army and police, and a zero-tolerance policy for extremism
  • European Union: Dutch interests first, against the transfer of resources from Northern to Southern Europe; against Eurofederalism
  • Health care: in favor of putting the interests of patients before the interests of health insurers
  • Income: in favor of tax and welfare system reforms to create incentives to work
  • Media and culture: in favor of depoliticizing the Dutch public broadcasting system, and more money for cultural heritage
  • Education: against ideological homogeneity and identity politics in schools
  • Entrepreneurship: in favor of support for small businesses; against government deals with multinational corporations
  • Climate: against costly climate laws and agreements
  • COVID-19 pandemic: in favor of science-based policy, for public health and the economy
  • Culture and identity: oppose de-colonisation of Dutch history and education and preserve national heritage

RepresentationEdit

Members of the House of RepresentativesEdit

Members of the SenateEdit

Members of the European ParliamentEdit

Members of the States ProvincialEdit

Province Seats
  Drenthe
5 / 41
  Flevoland
5 / 41
  Friesland
1 / 43
  North Brabant
3 / 55
  North Holland
5 / 55
  South Holland
7 / 55
  Utrecht
6 / 47

Electoral resultsEdit

House of RepresentativesEdit

Election Lijsttrekker Votes % Seats +/– Government
2021 Joost Eerdmans 245,859 2.4 (#12)
3 / 150
New Opposition

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Joost Eerdmans wil Tweede Kamer in met nieuwe partij: 'JA21'". RTV Rijnmond (in Dutch). 18 December 2020. Retrieved 20 December 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  2. ^ "Register - Verkiezingen - Kiesraad.nl". 5 May 2022.
  3. ^ "JA21 (Conservatieve Liberalen)". Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (in Dutch). Retrieved 24 February 2023.
  4. ^ a b "Eerdmans en Nanninga doen met 'JA21' mee aan verkiezingen". NOS (in Dutch). 18 December 2020. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  5. ^ a b Boersema, Wendelmoet (2021-03-15). "Waarom de strijd op rechts nooit een volledig rechts kabinet oplevert".
  6. ^ "Ja21! - Het Juiste Antwoord". JA21 (in Dutch). Retrieved 21 December 2020.
  7. ^ "EU en euro – JA21".
  8. ^ a b "JA21-oprichter Joost Eerdmans: 'Aan ons de taak het land te verdedigen'". 7 February 2021.
  9. ^ "'Ruimte voor nieuwe partijen in rechts-populistische hoek'". 10 February 2021.
  10. ^ "Wat wil Joost Eerdmans met JA21?". 24 March 2021.
  11. ^ "Chris Aalberts - JA21 wordt alleen een succes als de partij iedereen rechts van de VVD kan verenigen". 24 March 2021.
  12. ^ "Final poll of polls shows support for the VVD is slipping slightly". 16 March 2021.
  13. ^ "De kiezer heeft gesproken: vijf conclusies over de verkiezingsuitslag". RTL Nieuws. 2021-03-18.
  14. ^ "Van de zege van Kaag (D66) tot het fiasco van links: Dit zijn de vijf verrassingen van de Nederlandse verkiezingen". 18 March 2021.
  15. ^ Schaart, Eline (18 March 2021). "4 Dutch election takeaways". Politico. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  16. ^ "Dutch election: progressive party surges as PM begins coalition talks". the Guardian. 2021-03-18. Retrieved 2021-03-20.
  17. ^ Damhuis, Koen. "Dutch elections: Mark Rutte wins another term but fragmented results mask continuing popularity of the far right". The Conversation. No. 19 March 2021. Retrieved 22 March 2021.
  18. ^ Rutten, Rik (22 March 2021). "Van Europa tot abortus: JA21 verschilt in alles van D66". NRC (in Dutch). Retrieved 22 March 2021.
  19. ^ a b c d "Forum-rebellen Eerdmans en Nanninga starten eigen partij: JA21". de Volkskrant (in Dutch). 18 December 2020. Retrieved 20 December 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  20. ^ a b "Zeven senatoren (ex-FvD) sluiten zich aan bij partij Eerdmans en Nanninga". NOS (in Dutch). 24 December 2020. Retrieved 25 December 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  21. ^ "Nanninga, Eerdmans, Pouw en Vlaardingerbroek stappen uit Forum voor Democratie". NOS (in Dutch). 26 November 2020. Retrieved 20 December 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  22. ^ "Joost Eerdmans en Annabel Nanninga doen met nieuwe partij JA21 mee aan verkiezingen". Trouw (in Dutch). 18 December 2020. Retrieved 20 December 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  23. ^ "Eerdmans en Nanninga doen met nieuwe partij JA21 mee aan verkiezingen". Algemeen Dagblad (in Dutch). 18 December 2020. Retrieved 20 December 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  24. ^ Harmsen, Judith (18 December 2020). "Joost Eerdmans over de partij die hij met Annabel Nanninga opricht: 'Het is nodig de leegte rechts van de VVD op te vullen'". Trouw (in Dutch). Retrieved 16 March 2021.
  25. ^ "Eerdmans' JA21 krijgt in één klap drie zetels in Europees Parlement". RTV Rijnmond (in Dutch). 20 December 2020. Retrieved 20 December 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  26. ^ "FVD-afsplitsers vinden onderdak bij Nanninga en Eerdmans". NRC (in Dutch). 24 December 2020. Retrieved 24 December 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  27. ^ "Brabantse Forum-leden stappen over naar JA21 van Eerdmans en Nanninga". de Volkskrant (in Dutch). 16 January 2021. Retrieved 17 January 2021.
  28. ^ Paternotte, Bas (16 January 2021). "Forum-fractie Noord-Brabant opgesplitst, 3 statenleden naar JA21". ThePostOnline (in Dutch). Retrieved 17 January 2021.
  29. ^ "Liberaal en conservatief - Standpunten - Ja21! - Het Juiste Antwoord". ja21.nl. Archived from the original on 2021-02-24.
  30. ^ a b c "Standpunten". JA21 (in Dutch). Retrieved 12 January 2021.
  31. ^ "EU en euro - Standpunten - Ja21! - Het Juiste Antwoord". ja21.nl. Archived from the original on 2021-01-18.
  32. ^ "Immigratie en asiel - Standpunten - Ja21! - Het Juiste Antwoord". ja21.nl. Archived from the original on 2021-02-20.
  33. ^ "Veiligheid en criminaliteit - Standpunten - Ja21! - Het Juiste Antwoord". ja21.nl. Archived from the original on 2021-02-01.
  34. ^ "Integratie en Nederlandse identiteit - Standpunten - Ja21! - Het Juiste Antwoord". ja21.nl. Archived from the original on 2021-01-30.
  35. ^ "Internationale handel en ontwikkeling - Standpunten - Ja21! - Het Juiste Antwoord". ja21.nl. Archived from the original on 2021-02-08.
  36. ^ "Informatie en privacy - Standpunten - Ja21! - Het Juiste Antwoord". ja21.nl. Archived from the original on 2021-01-18.
  37. ^ "JA21 Asielplan" (PDF).

External linksEdit