Open main menu

List of political parties in the Netherlands

Members of four Dutch political parties (PvdA, D66, CDA and VVD) in Ulft, shortly before the municipal elections of 2010

This article lists political parties in the Netherlands, which has a multi-party system with numerous political parties, in which any one party has little chance of gaining power alone, and parties often work with each other to form coalition governments.

The lower house of the legislature, the House of Representatives, is elected by a national party-list system of proportional representation. There is no threshold for getting a seat, making it possible for a party to get a seat with only two-thirds percent of the vote—roughly one seat for every 67,000 votes.

No party has won a majority of seats since 1897, and no party has even approached the seats needed for a majority since the current proportional representation system was implemented in 1918. All Dutch governments since then have been coalitions between two or more parties. However, there is a broad consensus on the basic principles of the political system, and all parties must adjust their goals to some extent in order to have a realistic chance at being part of the government.

Contents

General overviewEdit

Parliamentary partiesEdit

Political parties represented in the States General of the Netherlands
Political party Ideology Political
position
European Union
position
European
affiliation
EP group International
affiliation
Leader Senate House
  People's Party for
Freedom and Democracy

(Volkspartij voor
Vrijheid en Democratie
)
VVD Conservative liberalism
[6]
Economic liberalism
[7][8][9]
Centre-right
[10][11]
Moderate
Pro-Europeanism

[12][13][14]
ALDE Party ALDE LI Mark Rutte 12 33
  Party for Freedom
(Partij voor de Vrijheid)
PVV Right-wing populism
[15][16]
Right-wing
[17][18]
Hard Euroscepticism
[19]
MENF
[20][21]
ENF IFA Geert Wilders 9 20
  Christian Democratic Appeal
(Christen-Democratisch Appèl)
CDA Christian democracy
[22][23][24][25][26]
Centre-right
[27][28]
Pro-Europeanism
[29]
EPP EPP Group CDI Sybrand van
Haersma Buma
12 19
  Democrats 66
(Democraten 66)
D66 Social liberalism
[6]
Centre
[10]
Pro-Europeanism
[30][31]
ALDE Party ALDE LI Rob Jetten 10 19
  GreenLeft
(GroenLinks)
GL Green politics
[32]
Social democracy
[33][34]
Centre-left
[35]
to left-wing
[36][37]
Pro-Europeanism EGP Greens-EFA GG Jesse Klaver 4 14
  Socialist Party
(Socialistische Partij)
SP Democratic socialism
[38][39][40]
Social democracy
[41]
Left-wing
[42]
Soft Euroscepticism
[43]
  GUE-NGL   Lilian Marijnissen 9 14
  Labour Party
(Partij van de Arbeid)
PvdA Social democracy
[1]
Centre-left
[36][37]
Pro-Europeanism PES S&D PA Dr.
Lodewijk Asscher
8 9
  Christian Union
(ChristenUnie)
CU Christian democracy
[1]
Social Christianity
[36][37]
Centre
[44][45]
to centre-right
[45]
Soft Euroscepticism
[46]
ECPM ECR   Gert-Jan Segers 3 5
  Party for the Animals
(Partij voor de Dieren)
PvdD Animal rights
[47]
Animal welfare
[32]
Environmentalism
Soft Euroscepticism EA7 GUE-NGL   Marianne Thieme 2 5
  50PLUS
(50Plus)
50+ Pensioners' interests
[47]
Populism
[6][1]
Centre
[10]
Soft Euroscepticism       Henk Krol 2 5
  Reformed Political Party
(Staatkundig Gereformeerde Partij)
SGP Christian right
[1]
Social conservatism
[36][37]
Right-wing
[48][49]
Soft Euroscepticism
[50]
ECPM ECR   Kees van der Staaij 2 3
Denk
(Denk)
DENK Identity politics
[51]
Minority rights
[52][53][54]
Centre-left
to left-wing
        Tunahan Kuzu 0 3
  Forum for Democracy
(Forum voor Democratie)
FvD National conservatism
Fiscal conservatism
Direct democracy
E-democracy
Right-wing populism
[55]
Right-wing
[56][57]
Hard Euroscepticism
[58]
      Dr.
Thierry Baudet
0 2
Political party represented in the Senate only
Independent Senate
Group

(Onafhankelijke
Senaatsfractie
)
OSF Regionalism Centre   EFA     Henk ten Hoeve 1 0

Other national partiesEdit

Regional partiesEdit

Party Abbreviation Active in Number of provincial seats Number of municipal seats
Frisian National Party FNP Friesland 4 58
Groninger Belang GB Groningen 3 -
Party for the North PvhN Groningen 1 3
Party for Zeeland PVZ Zeeland 1 1

Locally represented partiesEdit

Party Abbreviation Year of creation Number of municipal seats
The Greens DG 1983 1
Islam Democrats ID 2006 2
New Communist Party of the Netherlands NCPN 1992 3
Forza! Netherlands Forza! 2003 8
Proud of the Netherlands TROTS 2007 6
United Communist Party VCP 1999 5
United Senior Party VSP 2001 13

Defunct partiesEdit

 
History and evolution of all Dutch political parties to ever have had seats in the House of Representatives.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Retrieved 8 June 2015.
  2. ^ a b Almeida, Dimitri. "Liberal Parties and European Integration" (PDF).
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ What's liberal politics in the Netherlands?
  5. ^ Andeweg, R. B.; Galen A. Irwin (2002). Governance and politics of the Netherlands. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 51. ISBN 0333961579.
  6. ^ a b c Andeweg, R. and G. Irwin Politics and Governance in the Netherlands, Basingstoke (Palgrave) p.49
  7. ^ T. Banchoff (28 June 1999). Legitimacy and the European Union. Taylor & Francis. p. 123. ISBN 978-0-415-18188-4. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
  8. ^ Andeweg R.B. and G.A. Irwin Government & Politics in the Netherlands 2002 Palgrave p. 48
  9. ^ "Vvd.nl Website Information". Who.is. Archived from the original on 15 May 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2017.
  10. ^ a b c Hans Keman (2008), "The Low Countries: Confrontation and Coalition in Segmented Societies", Comparative European Politics, Taylor & Francis, p. 221
  11. ^ Sean Lusk; Nick Birks (2014). Rethinking Public Strategy. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 168. ISBN 978-1-137-37758-6.
  12. ^ "VVD Standpunten". VVD.
  13. ^ Barbara Wejnert (26 July 2010). Democratic Paths and Trends. Emerald Group Publishing. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-85724-091-0. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
  14. ^ Thomas Poguntke; Paul Webb (21 June 2007). The Presidentialization of Politics: A Comparative Study of Modern Democracies. Oxford University Press. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-19-921849-3. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
  15. ^ Pauwels, Teun (2014). Populism in Western Europe: Comparing Belgium, Germany and The Netherlands. Routledge. pp. 117–118. ISBN 9781317653912.
  16. ^ Merijn Oudenampsen (2013). "Explaining the Swing to the Right: The Dutch Debate on the Rise of Right-Wing Populism". In Ruth Wodak, Majid KhosraviNik, Brigitte Mral. Right-Wing Populism in Europe: Politics and Discourse. A&C Black. p. 191.
  17. ^ Rita C-K Chin (2009). After the Nazi racial state: difference and democracy in Germany and Europe. University of Michigan Press. p. 239.
  18. ^ Are Dutch voters really turning to populist Geert Wilders?
    'Dutch voters choose a new government in March 2017 and if the polls are right, the right-wing Freedom Party (PVV) of populist leader Geert Wilders is surging ahead of his rivals and is set to win 35 seats'.
    BBC NEWS. Author - Anna Holligan.
    Published 9 December 2016. Retrieved 10 December 2016.
  19. ^ Thompson, Wayne C. (2014). Western Europe 2014. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 185. ISBN 9781475812305.
  20. ^ "Colloquium Vrijheid". Colloquiumvrijheid.eu. Archived from the original on 18 March 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
  21. ^ "Europe's right-wing parties meet near Vienna, urge Brexit". DW.COM. 17 June 2016. Retrieved 17 March 2017.
  22. ^ (in Dutch) "CDA: partij van samenleving en van waarden". Reformatorisch Dagblad. 8 August 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
  23. ^ http://tradebridgeconsultants.com/country-index/netherlands/political-parties/christian-democratic-appeal/
  24. ^ http://cda.frl/nl/pagina/941/uitgangspunten/
  25. ^ http://nos.nl/artikel/332339-cda-kiest-voor-radicale-midden.html
  26. ^ http://www.nrc.nl/nieuws/2012/01/21/cda-moet-kiezer-weer-raken-met-keuze-voor-radicale-midden
  27. ^ Syuzanna Vasilyan (2009). "The integration crisis in the Netherlands: the causes and the new policy measures". In Ditta Dolejšiová; Miguel Angel García López (eds.). European Citizenship in the Process of Construction: Challenges for Citizenship, Citizenship Education and Democratic Practice in Europe. Council of Europe. p. 73. ISBN 978-92-871-6478-0.
  28. ^ Hans Vollaard; Gerrit Voerman; Nelleke van de Walle (2015). "The Netherlands". In Donatella M. Viola (ed.). Routledge Handbook of European Elections. Routledge. p. 171. ISBN 978-1-317-50363-7.
  29. ^ Kees Van Kerbergen; André Krouwel (2013). "A double-edged sword! The Dutch centre-right and the 'foreigners issue'". In Tim Bale (ed.). Immigration and Integration Policy in Europe: Why Politics – and the Centre-Right – Matter. Routledge. pp. 91–92. ISBN 978-1-317-96827-6.
  30. ^ Vít Hloušek; Lubomír Kopeček (2010). Origin, Ideology and Transformation of Political Parties: East-Central and Western Europe Compared. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 109. ISBN 978-0-7546-9661-2. Retrieved 14 July 2013.
  31. ^ Dimitri Almeida (2012). The Impact of European Integration on Political Parties: Beyond the Permissive Consensus. Routledge. p. 98. ISBN 978-0-415-69374-5.
  32. ^ a b "parties-and-elections.de".
  33. ^ "Van poppodia naar de bedrijfskantine - Klaver wil van GroenLinks brede volkspartij maken".
  34. ^ "De ideologische herprofilering van GroenLinks: na 28 jaar de gehoopte doorbraak?".
  35. ^ http://www.demsoc.org/2014/05/11/greenleft-gl/
  36. ^ a b c d Josep M. Colomer (24 July 2008). Comparative European Politics. Taylor & Francis. p. 221f. ISBN 978-0-203-94609-1. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
  37. ^ a b c d Score 4.0/10 in 2003 Chapel Hill expert survey, see Hooghe et al. (2003) Chapel Hill Survey
  38. ^ José Magone (3 July 2013). Contemporary European Politics: A Comparative Introduction. Routledge. p. 533. ISBN 978-1-136-93397-4.
  39. ^ http://www.parties-and-elections.eu/netherlands.html
  40. ^ "European Social Survey 2012 - Appendix 3 (in English)" (PDF). European Science Foundation. 1 January 2014. Retrieved 6 May 2014.[permanent dead link]
  41. ^ Watkins, Susan (May – June 2005). "Continental tremors". New Left Review. New Left Review. II (33).
  42. ^ "Contemporary Far Left Parties in Europe", published november 2008, retrieved november 18, 2016: http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/id/ipa/05818.pdf
  43. ^ Introducing the Dutch Socialist Party. Socialist Party (Netherlands). Retrieved 15 June 2017.
  44. ^ Jort Statema; Paul Aarts. Timo Behr; Teija Tiilikainen (eds.). The Netherlands: Follow Washington, Be a Good European. Northern Europe and the Making of the EU's Mediterranean and Middle East Policies. note on p. 237.
  45. ^ a b Rudy B. Andeweg; Galen A. Irwin (2014). Governance and Politics of the Netherlands (4th ed.). Palgrave Macmillan. p. 74.
  46. ^ (in Dutch) CU is niet meer 'christelijk-sociaal' Trouw
  47. ^ a b "Parties and Elections in Europe". Parties-and-elections.eu.
  48. ^ "Far-right MEPs form group in European Parliament". EurActiv. 2 July 2009. Retrieved 20 March 2014.
  49. ^ Score 8.0/10 in 2003 Chapel Hill expert survey, see Hooghe et al. (2003) Chapel Hill Survey
  50. ^ Benjamin LeRuth; Yordan Kutiyski; André Krouwel; Nicholas J Startin (2017). "Does the Information Source Matter? Newspaper Readership, Political Preferences and Attitudes Toward the EU in the UK, France and the Netherlands". In Manuela Caiani; Simona Guerra (eds.). Euroscepticism, Democracy and the Media: Communicating Europe, Contesting Europe. Palgrave Macmillan UK. p. 105. ISBN 978-1-137-59643-7.
  51. ^ Andreas KouwenhovenHugo Logtenberg 10 februari 2017. "Nep-aanhang is online actief voor politieke partij Denk - NRC". Nrc.nl. Retrieved 11 March 2017.
  52. ^ "A Pro-Immigrant Party Rises in the Netherlands". The New York Times. 29 July 2016.
  53. ^ "Dutch party wants to outlaw mosques, Islamic schools, Koran". Politico.
  54. ^ "Ethnic minorities desert Labour, turn to Denk ahead of March vote". Dutch News. 6 February 2017.
  55. ^ (in Dutch) "Standpunten". Forum voor Democratie. 15 November 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
  56. ^ "Economie". Forum voor Democratie. Retrieved 14 March 2017.
  57. ^ "Belastingen". Forum voor Democratie. Retrieved 14 March 2017.
  58. ^ Joshua Chaffin (14 March 2017). "Populists seize the moment as Dutch fall out of love with EU". Financial Times.
  59. ^ a b "Artikel 1: Een nieuwe politiek van Gelijkwaardigheid" (PDF) (in Dutch). Artikel 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2017. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  60. ^ (in Dutch) "Verkiezingsprogramma 2017 – 2021". Libertarische Partij. 10 November 2016. Archived from the original on 27 December 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
  61. ^ "Standpunten (FAQ)". GeenPeil (in Dutch). Retrieved 20 December 2016.
  62. ^ Piratenpartij (13 April 2010). "Structuur" [Structure] (in Dutch). Retrieved 14 April 2010.
  63. ^ Piratenpartij (13 April 2010). "Kernpunten" [Key Positions] (in Dutch). Retrieved 14 April 2010.
  64. ^ NU.nl (12 April 2010). "Piratenpartij wil naar vrije informatiesamenleving" [Pirateparty wants a free information society] (in Dutch). Novum. Retrieved 14 April 2010.
  65. ^ "Principles 3.2" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 February 2009. Retrieved 12 July 2014.
  66. ^ (in Dutch) "Doelstellingen". Partij voor Mens en Spirit. 5 May 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
  67. ^ (in Dutch) "Monasch: Ik ben sociaal-democraat en dat blijf ik". Trouw. 8 November 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
  68. ^ (in Dutch) "Uitgangspunten". Nieuwe Wegen. 30 November 2016. Archived from the original on 28 December 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
  69. ^ "Vision". Volt Europa. Retrieved 11 May 2019.

External linksEdit