List of political parties in the Netherlands

This article lists political parties in the Netherlands, which has a multi-party system with numerous political parties, in which any one party has little chance of gaining power alone, and parties often work with each other to form coalition governments.

The lower house of the legislature, the House of Representatives, is elected by a national party-list system of proportional representation. There is no threshold for getting a seat, making it possible for a party to get a seat with only two-thirds percent of the vote—roughly one seat for every 67,000 votes.

No party has won a majority of seats since the election of 1894,[1] and no party has even approached the seats needed for a majority since the current proportional representation system was implemented in 1918. All Dutch governments since then have been coalitions between two or more parties. However, there is a broad consensus on the basic principles of the political system, and all parties must adjust their goals to some extent in order to have a realistic chance at being part of the government.

General overviewEdit

Members of four Dutch political parties (PvdA, D66, CDA and VVD) campaigning in Ulft, shortly before the 2010 municipal elections

National political partiesEdit

Parties represented in the States GeneralEdit

Political party Main ideology Position Leader Affiliation Seats Ref.
Eur. EP group Intl. Senate House EP
VVD People's Party for Freedom and Democracy
Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie
Conservative liberalism Centre-right Mark Rutte ALDE Renew LI 12 34 5 [12][13][14]
D66 Democrats 66
Democraten 66
Social liberalism Centre to centre-left Sigrid Kaag ALDE Renew LI 7 24 2 [13][12]
PVV Party for Freedom
Partij voor de Vrijheid
Right-wing populism Right-wing to far-right Geert Wilders ID 5 17 1 [15][16][17][18]
CDA Christian Democratic Appeal
Christen-Democratisch Appèl
Christian democracy Centre to centre-right Wopke Hoekstra EPP EPP CDI 9 15 5 [19][20][21][22]
SP Socialist Party
Socialistische Partij
Democratic socialism Left-wing Lilian Marijnissen 4 9 [23][24][25][26]
PvdA Labour Party
Partij van de Arbeid
Social democracy Centre-left Lilianne Ploumen PES S&D PA 6 9 6 [2][27]
GL GreenLeft
Green politics Centre-left to left-wing Jesse Klaver EGP Greens–EFA GG 8 8 3 [27]
FvD Forum for Democracy
Forum voor Democratie
National conservatism Right-wing to far-right Thierry Baudet ECR 2 5 [28][29][30]
PvdD Party for the Animals
Partij voor de Dieren
Animal rights Left-wing Esther Ouwehand APEU GUE–NGL 3 6 1 [31]
CU Christian Union
Christian democracy Centre to centre-right Gert-Jan Segers ECPM EPP 4 5 1 [2][27][32][33]
Volt Volt Netherlands
Volt Nederland
Social liberalism Centre Laurens Dassen Volt Europa Greens–EFA 3 1 [34]
JA21 Right Answer 2021
Juiste Antwoord 2021
Conservative liberalism Right-wing Joost Eerdmans ECR 3
SGP Reformed Political Party
Staatkundig Gereformeerde Partij
Christian right Right-wing Kees van der Staaij ECPM ECR 2 3 1 [2][27][35]
DENK DENK Identity politics Centre-left Farid Azarkan 3 [36][37]
BBB Farmer–Citizen Movement
Agrarianism Centre-right Caroline van der Plas 1
BIJ1 BIJ1 Egalitarianism Far-left Sylvana Simons 1 [38]
50+ 50PLUS Pensioners' interests Centre Martin van Rooijen 2 0 [2][13][12][31]
GO Group Otten
Groep Otten
Open government Centre-right Henk Otten NI 2 1 [39]
OSF Independent Senate Group
Onafhankelijke Senaatsfractie
Regionalism Centre Ton Raven EFA 1

Parties without representation in the States GeneralEdit

Political party Main ideology Position Leader Affiliation Ref.
European EP group International
CO Code Orange
Code Oranje
Direct democracy Syncretic Richard de Mos
NVU Dutch People's Union
Nederlandse Volks-Unie
Ethnic nationalism Far-right Constant Kusters
VSN Free and Social Netherlands
Vrij en Sociaal Nederland
Humanism Centre Bas Filippini
VP Free-minded Party
Vrijzinnige Partij
Liberalism Centre Norbert Klein
LHK Henk Krol List
Lijst Henk Krol
Progressive conservatism Centre-right Vacant
JL Jesus Lives
Jezus Leeft
Evangelism Right-wing Florens van der Spek
Youth politics Centre Jaron Tichelaar
LDP Liberal Democratic Party (LibDem)
Liberaal Democratische Partij
Social liberalism Centre Sammy van Tuyll
LP Libertarian Party
Libertaire Partij
Right-libertarianism Right-wing Robert Valentine EPIL LI [40]
NLB NLBeter Public sector interests Centre Esther van Fenema
PSP Pacifist Socialist Party '92
Pacifistisch Socialistische Partij '92
Pacifism Left-wing Vacant
PvdR Party for the Republic
Partij voor de Republiek
Republicanism Centre Bruno Braakhuis
PDNM Party The New Human
Partij De Nieuwe Mens
Spiritual left[citation needed] Centre-left[citation needed] Niraï Melis &
Raishrie Gajadin
PPNL Pirate Party
Pirate politics Syncretic Matthijs Pontier PPEU Greens–EFA PPI [42]
SPL Splinter Social liberalism Centre-left Femke Merel van Kooten
DB The Base
De Basis
Universal basic income Centre-left Dennis Rosenbaum
DFP The Party Party
De Feestpartij
Joke Party Syncretic Johan Vlemmix
UCF Ubuntu Connected Front Ubuntuism Left-wing Regillio Vaarnold

Regional and local political partiesEdit

European NetherlandsEdit

Regional partiesEdit

Political party Active in Main ideology Position Leader European
FNP Frisian National Party
Fryske Nasjonale Partij
  Friesland Civic nationalism Big tent[43] Sijbe Knol EFA
GB Groninger Interest
Groninger Belang
  Groningen Regionalism Centre Bram Schmaal
LB Local Brabant
Lokaal Brabant
  North Brabant Regionalism Centre Harold van den Broek
LL Local Limburg
  Limburg Regionalism Centre Raimond Franssen
PvhN Party for the North
Partij voor het Noorden
Regionalism Centre Dries Zwart
PvZ Party for Zeeland
Partij voor Zeeland
  Zeeland Regionalism Centre François Babijn
OPNH Elderly Party NH
Ouderenpartij NH
  North Holland Pensioners' interests Centre Jeff Leever
SL Strong Local Drenthe
Sterk Lokaal Drenthe
  Drenthe Regionalism Centre Alfred Schoenmaker

Local partiesEdit

Political party Main ideology Position Leader
OPA Elderly Politically Active
Ouderen Politiek Actief
Pensioners' interests Single-issue politics Vacant
FN Forza! Netherlands
Forza! Nederland
Right-wing populism Right-wing Paul Meijer
HvDH Heart for The Hague
Hart voor Den Haag/Groep de Mos
Conservative liberalism Right-wing Richard de Mos
ID Islam Democrats
Islam Democraten
Islamic democracy Centre Vacant
LR Livable Rotterdam
Leefbaar Rotterdam
Fortuynism Right-wing Joost Eerdmans
NCPN New Communist Party of the Netherlands
Nieuwe Communistische Partij van Nederland
Communism Far-left Vacant
NIDA NIDA Islamic democracy Syncretic Nourdin El Ouali
PvdE Party of Unity
Partij van de Eenheid
Islamism Right-wing Vacant
TON Proud of the Netherlands
Trots op Nederland
Conservative liberalism Right-wing Sander van den Raadt
DG The Greens
De Groenen
Green politics Centre Otto ter Haar
VCP United Communist Party
Verenigde Communistische Partij
Communism Far-left Engel Modderman
VSP United Seniors Party
Verenigde Senioren Partij
Pensioners' interests Single-issue politics Vacant

Water board partiesEdit

Political party Main ideology Position Leader
AWP General Water Board Party
Algemene Waterschapspartij
Apoliticism Syncretic Ron van Megen
WN Water Natuurlijk Green politics Centre-left Peter Snoeren

Caribbean NetherlandsEdit


Political party Main ideology Position Leader Affiliation
American Intl.
PDB Bonaire Democratic Party
Partido Demokrátiko Boneriano
Social democracy Centre-left Clark Abraham
UPB Bonaire Patriotic Union
Union Patriótiko Boneriano
Christian democracy Centre James Kroon ODCA CDI
MPB Bonaire People's Movement
Movementu di Pueblo Boneriano
Christian socialism Centre Elvis Tjin Asjoe
FSP Social Progressive Front
Frente Sosial Progresivo
Social democracy Centre-left Robby Beukenboom


Political party Main ideology Position Leader American
SLP Saba Labour Party Social democracy Centre-left Monique Wilson
WIPM Windward Islands People's Movement Christian democracy Centre Rolando Wilson ODCA

Sint EustatiusEdit

Political party Main ideology Position Leader
DP Democratic Party Christian democracy Centre Adelka Spanner
PLP Progressive Labour Party Social democracy Centre-left Rechelline Leerdam

Defunct political partiesEdit

History and evolution of all Dutch political parties to ever have had seats in the House of Representatives.

See alsoEdit


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  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Retrieved 8 June 2015.
  3. ^ Almeida, Dimitri. "Liberal Parties and European Integration" (PDF).
  4. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Retrieved 8 June 2015.
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  6. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Retrieved 8 June 2015.
  7. ^ Moreau, Patrick. The Victorious Parties - Unity in Diversity?. The Extreme Right in Europe: Current Trends and Perspectives. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. p. 106.
  8. ^ Andeweg, R. B.; Galen A. Irwin (2002). Governance and politics of the Netherlands. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 51. ISBN 0333961579.
  9. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Retrieved 8 June 2015.
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  13. ^ a b c Hans Keman (2008), "The Low Countries: Confrontation and Coalition in Segmented Societies", Comparative European Politics, Taylor & Francis, p. 221, ISBN 9780203946091
  14. ^ Sean Lusk; Nick Birks (2014). Rethinking Public Strategy. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 168. ISBN 978-1-137-37758-6.
  15. ^ Pauwels, Teun (2014). Populism in Western Europe: Comparing Belgium, Germany and The Netherlands. Routledge. pp. 117–118. ISBN 9781317653912.
  16. ^ Merijn Oudenampsen (2013). "Explaining the Swing to the Right: The Dutch Debate on the Rise of Right-Wing Populism". In Ruth Wodak, Majid KhosraviNik, Brigitte Mral. Right-Wing Populism in Europe: Politics and Discourse. A&C Black. p. 191.
  17. ^ Tjitske Akkerman (2015). "Gender and the radical right in Western Europe: a comparative analysis of policy agendas". Patterns of Prejudice. 49 (1–2): 37–60. doi:10.1080/0031322X.2015.1023655. S2CID 144264153.
  18. ^ "Partij voor de Vrijheid (PVV) — Europe Politique". Retrieved 13 August 2019.
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  20. ^ Syuzanna Vasilyan (2009). "The integration crisis in the Netherlands: the causes and the new policy measures". In Ditta Dolejšiová; Miguel Angel García López (eds.). European Citizenship in the Process of Construction: Challenges for Citizenship, Citizenship Education and Democratic Practice in Europe. Council of Europe. p. 73. ISBN 978-92-871-6478-0.
  21. ^ Hans Vollaard; Gerrit Voerman; Nelleke van de Walle (2015). "The Netherlands". In Donatella M. Viola (ed.). Routledge Handbook of European Elections. Routledge. p. 171. ISBN 978-1-317-50363-7.
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  23. ^ José Magone (3 July 2013). Contemporary European Politics: A Comparative Introduction. Routledge. p. 533. ISBN 978-1-136-93397-4.
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  29. ^ "Forum voor Democratie: Why has the Dutch far right surged?". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  30. ^ Tierolf, Bas; Drost, Lisanne; van Kapel, Maaike (December 2018). Zevende rapportage racisme, antisemitisme en extreemrechts geweld in Nederland (PDF) (Report) (in Dutch). Verwey-Jonker Instituut. p. 35. ISBN 978-90-5830-912-9. Retrieved 22 April 2019.
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  34. ^ Stagni, Federica; 2018 (6 December 2018). "Time For Change: How Volt Wants To Fix Europe". Italics Magazine. Retrieved 9 June 2019.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
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  43. ^

External linksEdit