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List of active separatist movements in Europe

This is a list of currently active separatist movements in Europe. Separatism often refers to full political secession,[1][2][3] though separatist movements may seek nothing more than greater autonomy or to be recognised as a national minority.[4]

What is and is not considered an autonomist or secessionist movement is sometimes contentious. Entries on this list must meet three criteria:

  1. They are active movements with active members;
  2. They are seeking greater autonomy or self-determination for a geographic region (as opposed to personal autonomy);
  3. They are citizens/peoples of the conflict area and do not come from another country.

Under each region listed is one or more of the following:

Various ethnic groups in Europe are seeking greater autonomy or independence. In the European Union (EU), several of these groups are members of the European Free Alliance (EFA). In some cases, the group seeks to unify into a different state – in cases where this does not involve the creation of a new state entity, this is considered to be irredentism. Analogous irredentist movements are included in the list of active irredentist movements.

AzerbaijanEdit

Breakaway state

  Nagorno-Karabakh

BelgiumEdit

Autonomist movements

  German-speaking Community[7][8]

Secessionist movements

  Flanders or Flemish Community (the latter includes   Brussels-Capital Region)

  Wallonia

Bosnia and HerzegovinaEdit

CyprusEdit

Czech RepublicEdit

Autonomist movements

  Moravia

DenmarkEdit

  Bornholm

  Faroe Islands

FinlandEdit

  Åland[13]

FranceEdit

Secessionist movements

  French Basque Country

  Historic Brittany, comprising Brittany (administrative region) and parts of   Pays de la Loire

  Corsica

  Occitania

  Provence

Autonomist movements

  Alsace

  Brittany

  Corsica

  Alpes-Maritimes

  Normandy

  Savoy

  Occitania

GeorgiaEdit

Breakaway states

  Abkhazia

  South Ossetia

Autonomist movement

  Armenians in Samtskhe-Javakheti

GermanyEdit

 
Bavaria
 
Sorbs
Secessionist movements

  Bavaria

Autonomist movements

  Lusatia

ItalyEdit

  Friuli-Venezia Giulia

Province of Trieste

  Lombardy

  Piedmont

 
Map of the EU, showing Padania (as claimed by Lega Nord) in dark green

Northern Italy

  Sardinia

  Sicily

  South Tyrol

  Veneto

KosovoEdit

MoldovaEdit

Breakaway state

  Transnistria

Proposed secessionist or autonomist movements

  Gagauzia

NetherlandsEdit

Autonomist movements

  Frisia

  • People: Frisian
    • Proposed autonomous area: Frisia
      • Political party: Frisian National Party, (EFA member)
      • Status: Democratic movement seeking greater autonomy for Frisian-speaking people in Friesland[35]

  Groningen

PolandEdit

Autonomist movements

  Upper Silesia

RomaniaEdit

Hungarian community in Romania

Other administrative proposals by regionalist organisations

RussiaEdit

 
Tatarstan
 
A protest in Kaliningrad Oblast
 
Map of Ingria/Leningrad Oblast claimed by the advocacy group of Free Ingria, which also likely comprises another federal subject, Saint Petersburg.

Autonomist movements

  Komi-Permyak Okrug[50]

Secessionist movements

  Bashkortostan[51]

  • People: Bashkir
    • Advocacy groups: Bashkort Public Organization, Bashkir Human Rights Movement, the Council of Aksakals of Bashkortostan, Bashkir Social Movement
      • Political party: The Heavenly Wolf
    • Proposed state:   Bashkortostan

  Chuvashia[52]

  • People: Chuvash
    • Proposed state:   Chuvashia
      • Movements: Chuvash National Movement, Chuvash Republican Youth
      • Organization: Chuvash Ireklekh Society of National-Cultural Rebirth

  Don Republic[53][54]

  Kaliningrad Oblast

    Karelia

  Komi Republic[56][57]

  • People: Komi
    • Proposed state:   Komi Republic
      • Political organizations: Komi Republican Organization
      • Advocacy movements: Komi Voityr, Finno-Ugric Peoples Consultative Committee
      • Organization: Komi People's Congress
      • Movement: Komi National Movement

  Kuban [58][59]

  Idel-Ural[60][61]

  Leningrad Oblast[62][63]

  Sverdlovsk Oblast[64][65]

  Tatarstan[51][66][67]

  Udmurtia[68]

  • People: Udmurts
    • Proposed state:   Udmurtia
      • Movement: Congress of the Peoples of Udmurtia
Russia's North Caucasus

  Chechnya

  Abazinia[73][74][75]

  Circassia

  Aghulistan

  Avaria[76]

  Karachay-Balkaria

  Kumykia

  Lakistan

  Lezgistan

  Nogaia

SerbiaEdit

 
Republic of Vojvodina within federalized Serbia, proposed by the League of Social Democrats of Vojvodina in 1999 – the map also includes an autonomous Sandžak, Kosovo and the metropolitan area of Belgrade as a distinctive administrative unit as well.
Autonomist movements

  Vojvodina

  Sandžak

Breakaway state

  Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija

SlovakiaEdit

Autonomist movements

Southern Slovakia:

  • People: Hungarians
    • Proposed autonomous area: Territorial autonomy for the compact Hungarian ethnic block and cultural autonomy for the regions of Hungarian presence.[78]

SpainEdit

Secessionist movements

  Andalusia

  Aragon

  Asturias

  Balearic Islands

  Basque Country (autonomous community)

  Canary Islands

  Castile

  Catalonia

  Galicia

  León

  Navarre

  Valencia

Additionally, there are a number of almost extinct secessionist or soveranist movements in other autonomous communities and historical territories, e.g. Extremadura and Murcia.

  Cartagena

Local secessionist (mostly autonomist) movements include Aranesism, Bercianism, Cartagenism, Majorcanism, Manchego autonomism, Navarrism, Valencian Blaverism and Eastern Andalusian autonomism.

  Aran Valley

  Cartagena

  Extremadura

  Castilla–La Mancha

  Murcia

SwitzerlandEdit

Autonomist movements

  Jura region

TurkeyEdit

UkraineEdit

 
A map of the 2014 pro-Russian protests and unrest in Ukraine, by oblast. Severity of the unrest, at its peak, is indicated by the colouring. 'RSA' indicates 'Regional State Administration', the name for the governments of the oblasts (regions) of Ukraine.
Breakaway states

  Autonomous Republic of Crimea

De facto states
 
Occupied territories of Eastern Ukraine, controlled by DPR and LPR

  Luhansk Oblast (occupied areas)

  Donetsk Oblast (occupied areas)

United KingdomEdit

Secessionist movements

  Cornwall

  England

  Scotland

  Wales

Autonomist movements

  England

  Scotland

  Wales

  Cornwall (possibly including the Isles of Scilly)

  Greater London

  • People: Londoners
    • Proposed autonomous area:   London

North East England

Northern Isles

  Orkney

  Na h-Eileanan Siar

  Shetland

  Wessex[98]

  Yorkshire

Independence movements of dependent territories

  Isle of Man

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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External linksEdit