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List of active separatist movements in Europe

This is a list of currently active separatist movements in Europe. Separatism often refers to full political secession,[1][2][3] though separatist movements may seek nothing more than greater autonomy or to be recognised as a national minority.[4]

What is and is not considered an autonomist or secessionist movement is sometimes contentious. Entries on this list must meet three criteria:

  1. They are active movements with active members;
  2. They are seeking greater autonomy or self-determination for a geographic region (as opposed to personal autonomy);
  3. They are citizens/peoples of the conflict area and do not come from another country.

Under each region listed is one or more of the following:

Various ethnic groups in Europe are seeking greater autonomy or independence. In the European Union (EU), several of these groups are members of the European Free Alliance (EFA). In some cases, the group seeks to unify into a different state – in cases where this does not involve the creation of a new state entity, this is considered to be irredentism. Analogous irredentist movements are included in the list of active irredentist movements.


Breakaway state



Autonomist movements

  German-speaking Community[7][8]

Secessionist movements

  Flanders or Flemish Community (the latter includes   Brussels-Capital Region)


Bosnia and HerzegovinaEdit


Czech RepublicEdit

Autonomist movements




  Faroe Islands




Secessionist movements

  French Basque Country

  Historic Brittany, comprising Brittany (administrative region) and parts of   Pays de la Loire




Autonomist movements









Breakaway states


  South Ossetia

Autonomist movement

  Armenians in Samtskhe-Javakheti


Secessionist movements


Autonomist movements



  Friuli-Venezia Giulia

Province of Trieste



Map of the EU, showing Padania (as claimed by Lega Nord) in dark green

Northern Italy



  South Tyrol




Breakaway state


Proposed secessionist or autonomist movements



Autonomist movements


  • People: Frisian
    • Proposed autonomous area: Frisia
      • Political party: Frisian National Party, (EFA member)
      • Status: Democratic movement seeking greater autonomy for Frisian-speaking people in Friesland[35]



Autonomist movements

  Upper Silesia


Hungarian community in Romania

Other administrative proposals by regionalist organisations


A protest in Kaliningrad Oblast
Map of Ingria/Leningrad Oblast claimed by the advocacy group of Free Ingria, which also likely comprises another federal subject, Saint Petersburg.

Autonomist movements

  Komi-Permyak Okrug[50]

Secessionist movements


  • People: Bashkir
    • Advocacy groups: Bashkort Public Organization, Bashkir Human Rights Movement, the Council of Aksakals of Bashkortostan, Bashkir Social Movement
      • Political party: The Heavenly Wolf
    • Proposed state:   Bashkortostan


  • People: Chuvash
    • Proposed state:   Chuvashia
      • Movements: Chuvash National Movement, Chuvash Republican Youth
      • Organization: Chuvash Ireklekh Society of National-Cultural Rebirth

  Don Republic[53][54]

  Kaliningrad Oblast


  Komi Republic[56][57]

  • People: Komi
    • Proposed state:   Komi Republic
      • Political organizations: Komi Republican Organization
      • Advocacy movements: Komi Voityr, Finno-Ugric Peoples Consultative Committee
      • Organization: Komi People's Congress
      • Movement: Komi National Movement

  Kuban [58][59]


  Leningrad Oblast[62][63]

  Sverdlovsk Oblast[64][65]



  • People: Udmurts
    • Proposed state:   Udmurtia
      • Movement: Congress of the Peoples of Udmurtia
Russia's North Caucasus












Republic of Vojvodina within federalized Serbia, proposed by the League of Social Democrats of Vojvodina in 1999 – the map also includes an autonomous Sandžak, Kosovo and the metropolitan area of Belgrade as a distinctive administrative unit as well.
Autonomist movements



Breakaway state

  Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija


Autonomist movements

Southern Slovakia:

  • People: Hungarians
    • Proposed autonomous area: Territorial autonomy for the compact Hungarian ethnic block and cultural autonomy for the regions of Hungarian presence.[78]


Secessionist movements




  Balearic Islands

  Basque Country (autonomous community)

  Canary Islands







Additionally, there are a number of almost extinct secessionist or soveranist movements in other autonomous communities and historical territories, e.g. Extremadura and Murcia.


Local secessionist (mostly autonomist) movements include Aranesism, Bercianism, Cartagenism, Majorcanism, Manchego autonomism, Navarrism, Valencian Blaverism and Eastern Andalusian autonomism.

  Aran Valley



  Castilla–La Mancha



Autonomist movements

  Jura region



A map of the 2014 pro-Russian protests and unrest in Ukraine, by oblast. Severity of the unrest, at its peak, is indicated by the colouring. 'RSA' indicates 'Regional State Administration', the name for the governments of the oblasts (regions) of Ukraine.
Breakaway states

  Autonomous Republic of Crimea

De facto states
Occupied territories of Eastern Ukraine, controlled by DPR and LPR

  Luhansk Oblast (occupied areas)

  Donetsk Oblast (occupied areas)

United KingdomEdit

Secessionist movements





Autonomist movements




  Cornwall (possibly including the Isles of Scilly)

  Greater London

  • People: Londoners
    • Proposed autonomous area:   London

North East England

Northern Isles


  Na h-Eileanan Siar




Independence movements of dependent territories

  Isle of Man

See alsoEdit


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External linksEdit