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Trial of Catalonia independence leaders

The trial of the Catalonia independence leaders, legally named Causa especial 20907/2017 of the Supreme Court of Spain, and popularly known as the Causa del procés, is an oral trial that began on 12 February 2019 in the Supreme Court of Spain. Judge Pablo Llarena coordinated an instruction between October 2017 and July 2018, as a result of which 18 people will be tried, including almost all of Carles Puigdemont's cabinet, political activists Jordi Sànchez and Jordi Cuixart, the former Speaker of the Parliament of Catalonia Carme Forcadell and several of its members. Some defendants have remained in pre-trial detention without bail since the beginning of the instruction.[1][2] Amnesty International[3] has expressed strong concerns over this measure and the severity of the charges pressed.

Trial of Catalonia independence leaders
Supreme Court of Spain
CourtSupreme Court of Spain
Full case nameCausa Especial número: 20907/2017 del Tribunal Supremo de España
Decided12 February 2019 (2019-02-12)
Transcript(s)Summary, Popular accusation by Vox
Court membership
Judges sittingManuel Marchena (president) Antonio del Moral García, Luciano Varela, Andrés Martínez Arrieta, Juan Ramón Berdugo Gómez de la Torre, Ana María Ferrer García, Andrés Palomo del Arco
Keywords
2017 Catalan independence referendum

The UN High Commissioner for Human Rights[4] on the other hand, has expressed strong concerns over the violence produced the day of the referendum in October 2017.

The trial proceedings officially ended on June 12, 2019. The court did not announce a date on which the verdict would be delivered, with media outlets reporting that it would most likely be delivered at some time in Fall of 2019.[5][6][7] The defendants of the trial have expressed their intention to petition the Constitutional Court of Spain and the European Court of Human Rights, should they deem it necessary to do so following the verdict.[8][9]

Contents

BackgroundEdit

Catalonia is an autonomous community in Spain. Its capital is Barcelona. As County of Barcelona it joined the Crown of Aragon in the 12th century. The whole of the Crown of Aragon united at the end of the 15th century with the Kingdom of Castile. Today Catalonia is part of modern Spain. The inhabitants of the region are mostly bilingual in Spanish and in Catalan, and with a distinct linguistic, cultural and historical heritage. Despite belonging to Spain, throughout the history of the region, separatist movements have existed at various moments in the past.

On 9 November 2014, a non-binding 2014 Catalan self-determination referendum was held. After the Spanish Government refused to allow a binding referendum, pro-independence parties called for the 2015 Catalan regional election to be considered a Plebiscite, with the promise to declare independence in 18 months. Pro-independence parties earned a majority in the Parliament but were backed by less than 50% of the voters. In September 2017, the Parliament of Catalonia approved the Law of the referendum on self-determination of Catalonia, as well as the Law of juridical transition and foundation of the Republic which was to be applied two days after the referendum results were made public and would override the Constitution of Spain and Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia while providing the Parliament with special powers to declare the secession of Catalonia from the Kingdom of Spain. Both laws were declared illegal by the Constitutional Court of Spain. The 2017 Catalan independence referendum was called by the Generalitat de Catalonia on the 1st of October, 2017, was also suspended by the same court.[10][11] Despite it, the referendum went on and on 10 October 2017 the President of the Catalan Government Carles Puigdemont addressed the Parliament of Catalonia but he did not unambiguously declare independence. On 27 October 2017 the Parliament of Catalonia passed a resolution declaring the independence of Catalonia, but no actions were initiated to enforce it. Hours later the Government of Spain seized control of the Generalitat invoking Article 155 of the Spanish Constitution. Subsequently, some of the independence leaders were sent to preventive detention without bail, accused of crimes of rebellion, disobedience, and misuse of public funds. Carles Puigdemont and four members of his cabinet fled into self-exile.[12]

ProsecutorsEdit

The prosecution is formed by the State Prosecutor's Office, the State Attorney's Office and the right-wing political party Vox as public prosecutor. The defendants have been accused of the crimes of rebellion, disobedience, and misuse of public funds.

  • Spanish Attorney General: The prosecutors of the Criminal Chamber of the Supreme Court who drafted the indictment were Javier Zaragoza, Fidel Cadena, Consuelo Madrigal and Jaime Moreno, maintaining the lawsuit for rebellion filed by José Manuel Maza, former attorney general of the state, in 2017 and the instruction of Judge Pablo Llarena.[13] According to the prosecution's text, "the secessionist plan included the use of all the means necessary to achieve its objective, including - with the certainty that the state would not accept the situation - the violence necessary to ensure the pretentious criminal outcome, using the intimidating force that represented, on the one hand, the tumultuous action deployed with the large mobilizations of citizens instigated and promoted by them, and, on the other, the use of the Mossos d'Esquadra, armed police made up by approximately 17,000 troops who would exclusively abide by their instructions -as was the case- and that, if necessary, they could coercively protect their criminal objectives, thus subtracting the fulfillment of the genuine function of keeping and preserving the constitutional order ".
  • The State's advocacy body was presented to the cause in March 2018. According to its submitted text, consellers (ministers) Junqueras, Forn, Turull, Romeva, Rull and Bassa must receive a more serious punishment for their authority status, as responsible parties for having induced, sustained and directed the sedition from its condition of members of the Catalan Government. The rest are accused of having executed the referendum using public funds and of disobedience for having systematically ignored the agreements of the Constitutional Court. The activists Jordi Cuixart and Jordi Sànchez are accused of having induced, sustained and directed a crime of sedition. In December 2018, the director of the State's legal service, Consuelo Castro, replaced Edmundo Bal in favour of Rosa Maria Seoane as a representative for the cause.[14]
  • Vox: This political party was admitted as a public prosecutor in November 2017 by magistrate Maria Eugènia Alegret, provided they paid a deposit of 20,000 euros.[15] In Spanish law, a private person under certain circumstances can prosecute criminal charges of public importance. According to Vox, a "binding" referendum was promoted and that supposed "a clear attempt to subvert the constitutional order" to "disintegrate the territorial unity of the State", by which they understand the events that occurred as a "subversive attack against the current constitutional order", as a coup strategy to hold an "illegal referendum" on the 1 October 2017.[16] Jordi Cuixart's defense lodged an appeal with the Supreme Court, demanding that the right-wing party be expelled from the proceedings and not be able to participate in the trial. The Supreme Court, despite criticizing "the risk of transferring the political dispute to the legal process", ended up dismissing the appeal.[17] Javier Ortega Smith, lawyer and Secretary-General of Vox, and Pedro Fernández, Vox "Legal Vice-Secretary", will represent the popular action during the trial.[18]

DefendantsEdit

There are a total of 18 people being tried within the context of this case. They are listed below in alphabetical order by their last name, indicating the accusation and the conviction requested.[19][20]

Supreme CourtEdit

Politicians and activists
Name Portrait Office Attorney General Prosecution Solicitor General Prosecution Vox Prosecution Defence Lawyer
Charge Requested
Sentence
Charge Requested
Sentence
Charge Requested
Sentence
Dolors Bassa   Minister of Social Welfare, Employment and Family
  • Rebellion
  • Misuse of public funds
  • 16 years imprisonment
  • 16 years absolute disqualification
  • Sedition
  • Misuse of public funds
  • 11 years & 6 months imprisonment
  • 11 years & 6 months absolute disqualification
  • Rebellion
  • Criminal organization
  • Misuse of public funds
  • 74 years imprisonment
Mariano Bergés
Meritxell Borràs   Minister of Governance, Public Administration and Housing
  • Disobedience
  • Misuse of public funds
  • 7 years imprisonment
  • 16 years absolute disqualification
  • €100 fine per day for 10 months
  • Sedition
  • Misuse of public funds
  • 7 years imprisonment
  • 10 years absolute disqualification
  • €100 fine per day for 10 months
  • Criminal organization
  • Disobedience
  • Misuse of public funds
  • 24 years imprisonment
  • 2 years special disqualification
  • €108,000 fine
Jordi Cuixart   President of Òmnium Cultural
  • Rebellion
  • Misuse of public funds
  • 17 years imprisonment
  • 17 years absolute disqualification
  • Sedition
  • 8 years imprisonment
  • 8 years absolute disqualification
  • Rebellion (two crimes)
  • Sedition (two crimes)
  • Criminal organization
  • 52 years imprisonment
Marina Roig and Benet Salellas
Carme Forcadell   President of the Parliament of Catalonia
  • Rebellion
  • 17 years imprisonment
  • 17 years absolute disqualification
  • Sedition
  • Misuse of public funds
  • 10 years imprisonment
  • 10 years absolute disqualification
  • Rebellion (two crimes)
  • Sedition (two crimes)
  • Criminal organization
  • Disobedience
  • 52 years imprisonment
  • 2 years special disqualification
  • €108,000 fine
Olga Arderiu Ripoll and Raimon Tomás Vinardell
Joaquim Forn   Minister of the Interior
  • Rebellion
  • Misuse of public funds
  • 16 years imprisonment
  • 16 years absolute disqualification
  • Sedition
  • Misuse of public funds
  • 11 years & 6 months imprisonment
  • 11 years & 6 months absolute disqualification
  • Rebellion
  • Criminal organization
  • Misuse of public funds
  • 74 years imprisonment
Xavier Melero
Oriol Junqueras   Vice President of Catalonia
  • Rebellion
  • Misuse of public funds
  • 25 years imprisonment
  • 25 years absolute disqualification
  • Sedition
  • Misuse of public funds
  • 12 years imprisonment
  • 12 years absolute disqualification
  • Rebellion
  • Criminal organization
  • Misuse of public funds
  • 74 years imprisonment
Andreu Van den Eynde
Carles Mundó   Minister of Justice
  • Disobedience
  • Misuse of public funds
  • 7 years imprisonment
  • 16 years absolute disqualification
  • €100 fine per day for 10 months
  • Sedition
  • Misuse of public funds
  • 7 years imprisonment
  • 10 years absolute disqualification
  • €100 fine per day for 10 months
  • Criminal organization
  • Disobedience
  • Misuse of public funds
  • 24 years imprisonment
  • 2 years special disqualification
  • €108,000 fine
Josep Orilla
Raül Romeva   Minister of Foreign Affairs, Institutional Relations, and Transparency
  • Rebellion
  • Misuse of public funds
  • 16 years imprisonment
  • 16 years absolute disqualification
  • Sedition
  • Misuse of public funds
  • 11 years & 6 months imprisonment
  • 11 years & 6 months absolute disqualification
  • Rebellion
  • Criminal organization
  • Misuse of public funds
  • 74 years imprisonment
Andreu Van Den Eynde
Josep Rull   Minister of Planning and Sustainability
  • Rebellion
  • Misuse of public funds
  • 16 years imprisonment
  • 16 years absolute disqualification
  • Sedition
  • Misuse of public funds
  • 11 years & 6 months imprisonment
  • 11 years & 6 months absolute disqualification
  • Rebellion
  • Criminal organization
  • Misuse of public funds
  • 74 years imprisonment
Jordi Pina
Jordi Sànchez   President of the Catalan National Assembly
  • Rebellion
  • Misuse of public funds
  • 17 years imprisonment
  • 17 years absolute disqualification
  • Sedition
  • 8 years imprisonment
  • 8 years absolute disqualification
  • Rebellion (two crimes)
  • Sedition (two crimes)
  • Criminal organisation
  • 52 years imprisonment
Jordi Pina
Jordi Turull   Minister of Presidency & Government Spokesperson
  • Rebellion
  • Misuse of public funds
  • 16 years prison
  • 16 years absolute disqualification
  • Sedition
  • Misuse of public funds
  • 11 years & 6 months imprisonment
  • 11 years & 6 months absolute disqualification
  • Rebellion
  • Criminal organization
  • Misuse of public funds
  • 74 years imprisonment
Jordi Pina
Santi Vila   Minister of Culture
  • Disobedience
  • Misuse of public funds
  • 7 years imprisonment
  • 16 years absolute disqualification
  • €100 fine per day for 10 months
  • Misuse of public funds
  • 7 years imprisonment
  • 10 years absolute disqualification
  • Criminal organization
  • Disobedience
  • Misuse of public funds
  • 24 years imprisonment
  • 2 years special disqualification
  • €108,000 fine
Joan Segarra

High Court of Justice of CataloniaEdit

The following six defendants were charged in the instruction of the Supreme Court yet it decided to send their cases to the High Court of Justice of Catalonia:[21]

Politicians
Name Portrait Office Attorney General Prosecution Solicitor General Prosecution Vox Prosecution Defence Lawyer
Charge Requested
Sentence
Charge Requested
Sentence
Charge Requested
Sentence
Ramona Barrufet   Fourth Secretary of the Parliament of Catalonia
  • Disobedience
  • 1 year & 8 months special disqualification
  • €100 fine per day for 10 months
  • Serious disobedience
  • 1 year & 8 months special disqualification
  • €100 fine per day for 10 months
  • Criminal organization
  • Disobedience
  • 12 years imprisonment
  • 2 years special disqualification
  • €108,000 fine
Judith Gené
Mireia Boya   President of the Popular Unity Candidacy–Constituent Call parliamentary group
  • Disobedience
  • 1 year & 8 months special disqualification
  • €100 fine per day for 10 months
  • Serious disobedience
  • 1 year & 4 months special disqualification
  • €100 fine per day for 8 months
  • Criminal organization
  • Disobedience
  • 12 years imprisonment
  • 2 years special disqualification
  • €108,000 fine
Benet Salellas, Isabel Afonso and Carles López
Lluís Corominas   President of the Junts pel Sí parliamentary group
  • Disobedience
  • 1 year & 8 months special disqualification
  • €100 fine per day for 10 months
  • Serious disobedience
  • 1 year & 8 months special disqualification
  • €100 fine per day for 10 months
  • Criminal organization
  • Disobedience
  • 12 years imprisonment
  • 2 years special disqualification
  • €108,000 fine
Lluís Guinó [ca; es]   First Vice-President of the Parliament of Catalonia
  • Disobedience
  • 1 year & 8 months special disqualification
  • €100 fine per day for 10 months
  • Serious disobedience
  • 1 year & 8 months special disqualification
  • €100 fine per day for 10 months
  • Criminal organization
  • Disobedience
  • 12 years imprisonment
  • 2 years special disqualification
  • €108,000 fine
Joan Josep Nuet   Third Secretary of the Parliament of Catalonia
  • Disobedience
  • 1 year & 4 months special disqualification
  • €100 fine per day for 8 months
  • Serious disobedience
  • 1 year & 4 months special disqualification
  • €100 fine per day for 8 months
  • Criminal organization
  • Disobedience
  • 12 years imprisonment
  • 2 years special disqualification
  • €108,000 fine
Enrique Leiva
Anna Simó   First Secretary of the Parliament of Catalonia
  • Disobedience
  • 1 year & 8 months special disqualification
  • €100 fine per day for 10 months
  • Serious disobedience
  • 1 year & 8 months special disqualification
  • €100 fine per day for 10 months
  • Criminal organization
  • Disobedience
  • 12 years imprisonment
  • 2 years special disqualification
  • €108,000 fine
Olga Arderiu Ripoll,Raimon Tomás Vinardell

Audiencia NacionalEdit

In addition, the prosecutor of the Spanish National Court (Audiencia Nacional) is requesting prison time for the former head of the Mossos d'Esquadra, Josep Lluís Trapero, and the rest of the Mossos d'Esquadra command in 2017.[22]

Officials
Name Portrait Office Charge Requested
Sentence
Josep Lluís Trapero Álvarez   Head of the Mossos d'Esquadra
  • Rebellion
  • 11 years imprisonment
  • 11 years disqualification
Pere Soler [ca; es] Director-General of Penitentiary Services and Director of the Mossos d'Esquadra
  • Rebellion
  • 11 years imprisonment
  • 11 years disqualification
Cèsar Puig Secretary-General of the Ministry of Interior
  • Rebellion
  • 11 years imprisonment
  • 11 years disqualification
Teresa Laplana Eixample District Head of the Mossos d'Esquadra
  • Sedition
  • 4 years imprisonment
  • 11 years absolute disqualification

CourtEdit

The court will be formed by seven members in the Criminal Chamber of the Supreme Court of Spain, chaired by Manuel Marchena:

  • Manuel Marchena (Chair)
  • Antonio del Moral García
  • Luciano Varela
  • Andrés Martínez Arrieta
  • Juan Ramón Berdugo Gómez de la Torre
  • Ana María Ferrer García
  • Andrés Palomo del Arco

In September 2018, five of them (Manuel Marchena, Luciano Varela, Juan Ramon Berdugo, Andres Martinez Arrieta and Antonio del Moral) were recused by six of the defendants. The first four were part of the admission room that processed, on 31 October 2017, the complaint filed by the then Attorney General of the State, José Manuel Maza. One of the grounds for the recusation was that, upon admitting the complaint, these four judges could not guarantee their impartiality, a requirement for all members of the court. The Supreme Court dismissed the challenge and supported their impartiality to prosecute the case.[23]

WitnessesEdit

The Supreme Court approved the participation of more than 300 witnesses and refused the declaration of near 50 ones.[n. 1]

On 27 February 2019, were called to testify (in order of appearance):[25][n. 2]

On 28 February 2019 testified (in order of appearance):

On 4 March 2019 testified (in order of appearance):

On 5 March 2019 testified (in order of appearance):

On 14 March 2019 testified (in order of appearance):

CrimesEdit

The defendants have been accused of the following crimes:

Accusations of the Public Prosecutor's Office
Crime Article on Spanish Penal Code Defendants Cause
Rebellion Article 472 and concordant Oriol Junqueras, Joaquim Forn, Jordi Turull, Raül Romeva, Josep Rull, Dolors Bassa, Carme Forcadell, Jordi Sánchez and Jordi Cuixart 20907/2017
Misuse of public funds Article 432 and concordant Oriol Junqueras, Joaquim Forn, Jordi Turull, Raül Romeva, Josep Rull, Dolors Bassa, Meritxell Borràs, Carles Mundó and Santi Vila 20907/2017
Disobedience Article 410 and concordant Lluís Maria Corominas, Lluís Guinó, Anna Isabel Simó, Ramona Barrufet, Joan Josep Nuet, Mireia Boya, Meritxell Borràs, Carles Mundó and Santi Vila 20907/2017

ReactionEdit

 
Rally against the trial in December 2018

On 7 March 2018, the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights reminded Spanish authorities that "pre-trial detention should be considered a measure of last resort", referring to the Catalan politicians and activists arrested after the independence referendum.[63]

On 15 October 2018, Amnesty International requested the immediate release of the two activists Sánchez and Cuixart (known as the Jordis since they share their first name), stating that the maintenance of provisional detention was unjustified and considering it an excessive and disproportionate restriction of their rights to freedom of expression and peaceful assembly, although without referring to them as prisoners of conscience.[64][65] In November 2018 Amnesty International, through their Campaigns Director for Europe Fotis Filippou, announced, in a letter addressed to the Jordis, that he would supervise the trial "to analyze whether the guarantees of a fair trial were met".[66] Days before the beginning of the trial, Amnesty International asked the Court to allow its observers to attend it in order to evaluate that the guarantees of a fair trial were fulfilled. The Supreme Court refused their request arguing that publicly broadcasting the trial was enough.[67]

On 21 November 2018, more than 120 professors and law professors published a letter in the digital newspaper Eldiario.es stating that neither the acts of 20 September nor 1 and 3 October 2017 saw the violence required in a crime of rebellion.[68] A group of MEPs stated that they wanted to attend the trial as observers.[69]

On 22 November 2018, the World Organisation Against Torture requested in an open letter addressed to the Spanish government, the Attorney General and the ombudsman the immediate release of Jordi Sànchez and Jordi Cuixart. The same organization recalled that they had requested for their release several times without success.[70] The day after, the NGO Front Line Defenders also issued a statement calling for the release of Cuixart.[71][72]

In December 2018, the International Association of Democratic Lawyers issued a statement requesting the release of "Catalan political prisoners".[73]

More than 500 parliamentarians and former parliamentarians from 25 different countries signed a manifesto calling for the release of Carme Forcadell. Among these signatories were 35 MEPs and the presidents of the parliaments of Flanders, Corsica, Faroe Islands and the Basque Country. This initiative was promoted by the ex-presidents of the Catalan parliament Ernest Benach, Núria de Gispert and Joan Rigol.[74]

On 16 January 2019, the former presidents of the Catalan Parliament and the Generalitat de Catalunya, along with the Ombudsman and at their request, signed an official statement addressed to the Supreme Court asking them to "guarantee the right of defense for the defendants", requesting alternative measures other than imprisonment during the trial for the defendants, as these measures, including daily transfers to and from the prison and extended waiting times in their cells, could "difficult continuous contact with their lawyers and limit active participation in their defense for no legal reason, thus restricting their right".[75]

On 21 January 2019, the PEN Club International presented a manifesto signed by 148 PEN members from 100 countries around the world, denouncing the "disproportionate charges of sedition and rebellion" against the Jordis.[76] Nobel Prize winner Mario Vargas Llosa resigned from PEN International in disagreement with the manifesto, claiming it had been pushed by the catalonian branch of PEN International as part of an "international campaign to disfigure the truth" carried by pro-independence activists.[77]

The day before the beginning of the trial, 11 February 2019, the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization expressed their support to "the Catalonian activists being tried" and added that "perhaps one of the biggest deficit of justice and deliberate confusion between law and justice, is seen in Catalonia.".[78] On the same day, the European Democratic Lawyers association requested the "immediate" release of the Catalan leaders and expressed their "concern" due to a "lack of procedural guarantees during the trial".[79] The day after, the International Commission of Jurists denounced the trial "unduly restricts rights of freedom of expression, assembly and association".[80]

On 29 May 2019, the United Nations Working Group on Arbitrary Detention urged Spain to release Junqueras, Cuixart and Sànchez and to investigate their "arbitrary" detention and the violation of theirs rights, as well as compensating them for the time spent in jail. The Spanish government criticised the report, arguing that the reasoning for their opinion did not take into account some of the alleged crimes. Spain's government issued a statement that raised "doubts" about the group's "independence and impartiality" and called on the U.N. to make sure that its semi-independent working groups are not used "for spurious purposes".[81][82]

Hunger strikeEdit

On 1 December 2018, Jordi Sànchez and Jordi Turull declared that they were starting a hunger strike to protest against the Constitutional Court's obstacles to their appeals for protection, not allowing them to go to European Court of Human Rights.[83] At the time after the strike began, the Constitutional Court had eight appeals admitted without a mention of the two prisoners, with them having filed the first appeal on 22 November of the previous year. According to the law on criminal prosecution, these appeals should have been resolved within a maximum period of 30 days. On 3 December 2018, Josep Rull and Joaquim Forn declared that they would join the hunger strike on the following day.[84]

On 19 December 2018, ex-presidents of the Generalitat, former speakers of the Catalan Parliament and the Catalan Ombudsman (Síndic de greuges) made a public request for the politicians on hunger strike to bring it to an end. They argued that the hunger strike had already given visibility to their situation and was putting their lives in danger. A day later, the prisoners declared that they were stopping the hunger strike, since the protest "has awakened the Constitutional Court" and also since the court had already scheduled the resolution of the appeals filed.

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The rejected witnesses include the King of Spain Felipe VI, Alfredo Pérez Rubalcaba (former Deputy Prime Minister of Spain), Pilar Rahola, Noam Chomsky or Ignacio Cosidó. The participation of international figures with no clear connection to the events as witnesses was also rejected as their testimony in that capacity was considered dispensable in the scope of shedding light on the deeds subject to trial.[24] The participation of Carles Puigdemont and Marta Rovira as witnesses, also requested by the defenses, was rejected as it was deemed incompatible given they were contumace accused.[24]
  2. ^ Roger Torrent, Speaker of the Parliament of Catalonia did not attend as he had to chair a plenary session of the regional legislature on that date.[26]
  3. ^ Baños and Reguant, as they refused to answer questions from the popular action, Vox, were expelled from the court and were sactioned with a € 2,500 fine. The Supreme Court gave the witnesses 5 days to reconsider their stance.[39]
  4. ^ Baños and Reguant, as they refused to answer questions from the popular action, Vox, were expelled from the court and were sactioned with a € 2,500 fine. The Supreme Court gave the witnesses 5 days to reconsider their stance.[39]
  5. ^ Pérez de los Cobos also testified on 6 March morning.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "The trial of Catalan referendum leaders casts a long shadow over the EU's credibility". www.euronews.com. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
  2. ^ Congostrina, Alfonso L. (1 February 2019). "Catalan independence leaders moved to Madrid jails ahead of trial". El País. ISSN 1134-6582. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
  3. ^ "Document". www.amnesty.org. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
  4. ^ "OHCHR - High Commissioner's global update of human rights concerns". www.ohchr.org. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
  5. ^ "Last day of trial for Catalan leaders". euronews. 12 June 2019. Retrieved 17 August 2019.
  6. ^ Minder, Raphael (12 June 2019). "Trial of Catalan Independence Leaders Ends in Spain". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 17 August 2019.
  7. ^ "Catalans await verdict in trial of separatist leaders". TRT World. 5 July 2019.
  8. ^ "UNPO: Catalonia: Spanish Supreme Court to Issue Final Verdict on Catalan Leaders". unpo.org. Retrieved 17 August 2019.
  9. ^ Jones, Sam (12 June 2019). "Catalan leader defends push for independence on final day of trial". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 17 August 2019.
  10. ^ "El Tribunal Constitucional suspèn cautelarment la convocatòria del referèndum de l'1-O". 3/24 (in Catalan). 7 September 2017. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
  11. ^ "El Constitucional suspende el referéndum del 1-O y advierte a los alcaldes de su deber de "impedirlo"". RTVE.es. 7 September 2017. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
  12. ^ Madrid, Owen Bowcott Sam Jones in (2 March 2018). "Exclusive: Puigdemont vows to lead Catalan government in exile". The Guardian. The Guardian. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
  13. ^ "Spain's attorney general dies at 66". BBC. 18 November 2017. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
  14. ^ Periódico, El (5 December 2018). "Justicia nombra a la nueva abogada del Estado que llevará el juicio del 'procés'". elperiodico (in Spanish). Retrieved 9 February 2019.
  15. ^ "El TSJC admite a Vox como acusación popular en la causa contra Forcadell". La Vanguardia. 6 November 2017. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
  16. ^ Periódico, El (3 November 2018). "Vox pide 74 years de cárcel para Junqueras por dos delitos de rebelión y malversación". elperiodico (in Spanish). Retrieved 9 February 2019.
  17. ^ Catalunya, eldiario es. "El Supremo rechaza la petición de Cuixart de expulsar a Vox de la causa del 'procés'". eldiario.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 9 February 2019.
  18. ^ "'El 1 de octubre España estuvo al borde del precipicio'". La Gaceta (in Spanish). 9 June 2018. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
  19. ^ "El Supremo abre juicio oral contra la cúpula del 'procés' por rebelión, malversación y desobediencia". www.publico.es. Eldiario.es. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
  20. ^ Infography (2 November 2018). "Graphic: Trial against Catalan independence leaders". El País. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
  21. ^ [1]
  22. ^ "La Fiscalia acusa Trapero de rebel·lió i demana 11 anys de presó".
  23. ^ "Llega la hora de la verdad: el juicio oral al "procés" y la sentencia de los ERE". abc (in Spanish). ABC. 9 September 2018. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
  24. ^ a b El Tribunal Supremo rechaza casi medio centenar de testigos de las defensas (in Spanish)
  25. ^ Rajoy, Torrent y Mas declaran como testigos ante el Supremo el próximo martes (in Spanish)
  26. ^ Torrent informa al Tribunal Supremo que no puede declarar el miércoles porque hay pleno del Parlament (in Spanish)
  27. ^ Joan Tardà niega la violencia en el 1-O: "Fue voluntad del pueblo indefenso después de que le negaran un referéndum pactado" (in Spanish)
  28. ^ Artur Mas invocará como testigo al 9-N para socorrer a sus sucesores (in Spanish)
  29. ^ Las frases de Artur Mas en el juicio del 'procés': "Puigdemont alteró la hoja de ruta" (in Spanish)
  30. ^ Rajoy, Sáenz de Santamaría y Torrent, entre los testigos citados la próxima semana en el juicio del «procés» (in Spanish)
  31. ^ Santamaría: "La DUI no fue simbólica, por eso aplicamos el 155" (in Spanish)
  32. ^ Rajoy: "Eran conscientes de que yo no iba a liquidar la soberanía nacional" (in Spanish)
  33. ^ Spain's former PM Rajoy testifies in Catalan trial
  34. ^ Former Spanish PM Rajoy gives evidence at Catalan separatist trial
  35. ^ Los testigos del juicio del procés: declararán Montoro y Rajoy y queda fuera Cosidó (in Spanish)
  36. ^ Montoro asegura ante el TS que vio "indicios de irregularidades" en los gastos de la Generalitat (in Spanish)
  37. ^ Pascal ratifica que recomendó a Puigdemont evitar la DUI (in Spanish)
  38. ^ El tribunal ejerce acciones contra Baños y Reguant por no responder a Vox (in Spanish)
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  40. ^ a b El tribunal impone 2.500 euros de multa a los dos exdiputados de la CUP por negarse a contestar a Vox (in Spanish)
  41. ^ Reguant se niega responder a Vox y Marchena la echa con la advertencia de sanción (in Spanish)
  42. ^ De Gispert respalda la actuación de Forcadell por no entrar a valorar las iniciativas legislativas (in Spanish)
  43. ^ Urkullu declara que Puigdemont rompió el acuerdo de adelanto electoral porque la calle "se le rebelaba" (in Spanish)
  44. ^ Juicio al 'procés' | Urkullu describe a un Rajoy vacilante: no quería el 155 pero tampoco elecciones catalanas (in Spanish)
  45. ^ Zoido, Urkullu, Rufián y Colau, entre los testigos citados este jueves en el juicio del 'procés' (in Spanish)
  46. ^ Rufián sí responde a Vox pero dice que le parece una vergüenza que sean acusación popular (in Spanish)
  47. ^ Fachin: "Nos golpearon por ir a votar" (in Spanish)
  48. ^ Las incógnitas que deberán resolver los testigos (II) (in Spanish)
  49. ^ Benach: “Nunca se dio el caso” de aprobar un orden del día contra el dictamen de los letrados (in Spanish)
  50. ^ Zoido, Urkullu, Rufián y Colau, entre los testigos citados mañana en el juicio (in Spanish)
  51. ^ Ada Colau, al tribunal del procés: "Si estamos aquí por el 1-O, aquí deberíamos estar millones de personas" (in Spanish)
  52. ^ Zoido: “Yo no diseñé el operativo del 1-O” (in Spanish)
  53. ^ Vox cita a Domenèch, pero sólo le hace dos preguntas al descubrir que el 20-S estaba en Madrid (in Spanish)
  54. ^ El ‘ex número dos’ de Interior acusa a los Mossos de dejación en la consulta ilegal del 1-O (in Spanish)
  55. ^ Roger Torrent asegura en el juicio del 'procés' que volverán a votar: "Esto se resuelve con un referéndum" (in Spanish)
  56. ^ ‘procés’ Espejo-Saavedra y Pérez refutan a Forcadell por la admisión de iniciativas contrarias al TC (in Spanish)
  57. ^ Pérez no se moja sobre qué se votó: "Ya habíamos abandonado el pleno" (in Spanish)
  58. ^ El ex letrado mayor del Parlament contradice a Forcadell y asegura que la Mesa puede inadmitir iniciativas (in Spanish)
  59. ^ Millo dice en el juicio del procés que Junqueras no quería prisas y le insinuó tensiones en el Govern (in Spanish)
  60. ^ Munté: “Puigdemont tenía la voluntad de conseguir un acuerdo con el Estado” (in Spanish)
  61. ^ El coronel Pérez de los Cobos acusa a los Mossos de “favorecer” el referéndum (in Spanish)
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