Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova

The Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova (Romanian: Partidul Comuniștilor din Republica Moldova, Moldovan Cyrillic: Партидул Комуништилор дин Република Молдова; Russian: Партия коммунистов Республики Молдова, romanizedPartiya kommunistov Respubliki Moldova, PCRM) is a communist party in Moldova led by Vladimir Voronin. It is the only communist party to have held a majority government in the post-Soviet states.[2][3][nb 1] It has been variously described as communist,[2] Moldovenist,[4] and Russophile.[5][6][7]

Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova
Партидул Комуништилор дин Република Молдова
Partidul Comuniștilor din Republica Moldova
AbbreviationPCRM
First SecretaryVladimir Voronin
Executive SecretaryOleg Reidman
FounderVladimir Voronin
Founded22 October 1993; 28 years ago (1993-10-22)
Preceded byCommunist Party of Moldavia
HeadquartersStr. Iorga Nicolae 11, Chişinău
NewspaperComunistul
Youth wingKomsomol
Membership (2018)11,700[1][needs update]
Ideology
Political positionFar-left
National affiliationElectoral Bloc of Communists and Socialists
European affiliationParty of the European Left
International affiliationIMCWP
Continental affiliationUPC–CPSU
Colours  Red
SloganRepublică! Puterea poporului! Socialism![1] ("Republic! Power to the People! Socialism!")
Parliament
7 / 101
District Presidents
1 / 32
Website
www.pcrm.md

Affiliated with the Union of Communist Parties – Communist Party of the Soviet Union, it is also a member of the Party of the European Left[8] and the International Meeting of Communist and Workers Parties.[9] In contrast to most like-minded left-wing and communist parties, especially in the Western world, the party has a conservative outlook on social issues,[10][11] reflecting Voronin's views,[12] low LGBT rights in Moldova, the country's strong social conservatism, and the influence of the Moldovan Orthodox Church.[13] The party holds pro-Soviet views.[14]

HistoryEdit

The PCRM was registered as a political party in 1994. The PCRM was part of the Popular Patriotic Forces Front at the time of the 1996 presidential election, in which Voronin stood as the coalition's candidate and won 10.3% of the vote, placing third. The party supported Petru Lucinschi in the second round of the election, and following Lucinschi's victory the PCRM was given two positions in the government. Romanian historian Dorin Cimpoeșu has described the party as Moldovenist.[15]

1998 parliamentary electionEdit

In the 1998 Moldovan parliamentary election, the PCRM won 30.1% of the vote and 40 seats, becoming the largest party in parliament; in its platform, it called for "the rebirth of a socialist society". Despite its strong showing, the PCRM was left in opposition due to the formation of a center-right coalition government, Alliance for Democracy and Reforms (ADR). Although Lucinschi later nominated Vladimir Voronin as Prime Minister of Moldova in late 1999, the nomination was unsuccessful because Voronin did not have enough support in parliament.

2001 parliamentary electionEdit

The PCRM received 49.9% of the vote in the 2001 Moldovan parliamentary election, winning 71 out of the 101 seats in parliament.[16] With a PCRM parliamentary majority, Voronin was elected as president by parliament in April 2001. The Constitutional Court ruled that the President could also lead a political party, and Voronin was re-elected as party leader.[16]

2005 parliamentary electionEdit

As the ruling political party in Moldova, it won the 2005 Moldovan parliamentary election, and provided the President, Vladimir Voronin, the Prime Minister, Zinaida Greceanîi, and the Speaker of the Moldovan Parliament, Marian Lupu. Under Voronin, it privatized several state-owned industries and governed in a multi-party fashion. It also favors European integration and eventual EU membership.

2009 parliamentary electionsEdit

After April 2009 Moldovan parliamentary election and the 2009 Moldova civil unrest, the political and civic climate in Moldova became very polarized.[17] The parliament failed to elect a new president. For this reason, the parliament was dissolved and, consequently, snap elections were held. At the July 2009 Moldovan parliamentary election, the party received 44.7% of the vote. That gave the former ruling party 48 MPs and the remaining 53 seats in the 101-member chamber went to four opposition parties which subsequently formed the governing Alliance For European Integration (AIE). For the first time since 2001, the Communists were pushed in opposition.

2010 parliamentary electionEdit

 
Vladimir Voronin was President of Moldova and the party's most prominent personality.

After the Parliament failed to elect a new President of the Republic, 2010 Moldovan parliamentary election were called. In the election, PCRM obtained 39.34% of votes, winning 42 seats, going again into opposition to the Alliance of European Integration (AIE). In 2011, Igor Dodon and Zinaida Greceanîi left the party and joined the Party of Socialists of the Republic of Moldova (PSRM).

2014 parliamentary electionEdit

The 2014 Moldovan parliamentary election saw a great defeat for PCRM, which received only 17.48% of votes, losing more than half of its electors to PSRM and electing 21 seats. Following the elections, the party agreed to give confidence and supply to the new Gaburici Cabinet. The agreement collapsed in June 2015 and the PCRM went back into opposition.

In 2016, the party suffered a large split as 14 MPS left PCRM faction and established the Social Democratic Platform for Moldova, joining the majority of Filip Cabinet. On 10 March 2017, all 14 MPs joined the Democratic Party of Moldova (PDM). Since then, the party rapidly declined in polls, losing most of its votes to PSRM and PDM.

2019 parliamentary electionEdit

At the 2019 Moldovan parliamentary election, the PCRM collapsed, receiving only 3.75% of votes and losing all representation in the parliament for the first time since the Russian Revolution.

2021 parliamentary electionEdit

At the 2021 Moldovan parliamentary election, the PCRM decided to join forces with the PSRM in order to re-enter the parliament as the Electoral Bloc of Communists and Socialists (BECS). The party won 10 out of 101 seats in the parliament as part of the aforementioned electoral bloc, thus regaining parliamentary presence after 2019.

IdeologyEdit

According to Art. 1 of its statute adopted in 2008, the PCRM is the "lawful successor and heir of the Communist Party of Moldova both in terms of ideas and traditions." While officially espousing a Leninist communist doctrine, there is debate over their policies. In 2009, The Economist considered it a centre-right party, communist-in-name only.[18][19] Romanian political scientist Vladimir Tismăneanu posits that the party is not communist in the classical sense because of the many changes since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, but it is the clear successor to the Communist Party of Moldova, and not something foreign to it, for its Soviet nostalgia.[20]

For its latest period of governance, the PCRM has outlined a new quality of life, economic modernisation, European integration, and consolidation of the society as goals for the country. During the party's time in government, the party has adopted pro-Russian policies, while remaining committed to European integration. Despite being known for gaining most of its support from pensioners, since 2009 it also started to attract more votes from young people and adopting a populist outlook,[2] which was downplayed during the PCRM's time in government but has resurfaced at the opposition and extra-parliamntary level.[21] In contrast to social populist parties, some of which combine left-wing policies on welfare with more right-wing nationalist stances, the PCRM is only marginally populist, and its main ideology continues to be Marxism–Leninism and European socialism.[21]

The party is known for its Moldovenist position, supporting the existence of Moldovan language and ethnicity.[22] The party considers June 28 1940 as "the day Moldova was liberated by the Soviet Union from the Romanian occupation".[23][24] For these reasons, part of the press (such as journalist Oleg Serebrian)[25] described the party as anti-Romanian.[26][27]

LeadershipEdit

Electoral resultsEdit

ParliamentEdit

Parliament of the Republic of Moldova
Election Leader Performance Rank Government
Votes % ± pp Seats +/–
1998 Vladimir Voronin 487,002
30.01%
New
40 / 101
New 1st Opposition (ADR: CDMPDMPPFD)
Opposition (ADR: CDMPDMPPFD)
Support (independentsBeAB)
2001 794,808
50.07%
  20.06
71 / 101
  31   1st Supermajority (PCRM)
2005 716,336
45.98%
  4.09
56 / 101
  15   1st Majority (PCRM)
Majority (PCRM)
2009
(April)
760,551
49.48%
  3.50
60 / 101
  4   1st Supermajority (PCRM)
2009
(July)
706,732
44.69%
  4.79
48 / 101
  12   1st Opposition (AIE: PLDMPDMPLAMN)
2010 677,069
39.34%
  5.35
42 / 101
  6   1st Opposition (AIE: PLDMPDMPL)
Opposition (CPE: PLDMPDMPLR)
2014 279,366
17.48%
  21.86
21 / 101
  17   3rd Opposition (APME: PLDMPDM)
Opposition (AIE III: PLDMPDMPL)
Opposition (PDMPPEMPL)
2019 53,175
3.75%
  13.73
0 / 101
  21   5th Extra-parliamentary (ACUM: (PASPPDA)–PSRM)
Extra-parliamentary (PSRMPDM)
2021 398,675
27.17%
(BECS)
  23.42
10 / 101
  10   3rd Opposition (PAS majority government)

PresidencyEdit

President of Moldova
Election Candidate First round Second round Result
Votes % Votes %
2001 Vladimir Voronin 71[a]
70.30%
Elected  Y
2005 Vladimir Voronin 75[a]
74.26%
Elected  Y
2009
(May–June)
Zinaida Greceanîi 60[a]
59.41%
No winner
2009
(November–December)
Boycotted the elections No winner
2011–2012 Lost  N
2016 Lost  N
2020 Lost  N

GalleryEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The Communist Party of the Russian Federation (CPRF) won two parliamentary elections in the 1990s by receiving a plurality (but notably not a majority) of seats in the Duma; however, since Russia is a presidential republic and Boris Yeltsin was its president at the time, the CPRF was unable to form a government. The Communist Party of South Ossetia, which was de facto independent at the time, won a majority of seats in the 1994 election.
  1. ^ a b c The president was elected by 101 members of the Parliament of the Republic of Moldova; 61 votes were needed to win.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Partidul Comuniştilor din Republica Moldova (PCRM)". E-democracy.md. ADEPTaccessdate=25 February 2019.
  2. ^ a b c Socor, Vladimir (7 April 2009). "Ten Reasons Why the Communist Party Won Moldova's Elections Again". Jamestown. Jamestown Foundation. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
  3. ^ Herd, Graeme P.; Moroney, Jennifer D. P. (2013). Security Dynamics in the Former Soviet Bloc. Routledge. p. 144. ISBN 9781136497889. Retrieved 29 October 2021 – via Google Books.
  4. ^ "Parliamentary Elections". CSIS. Center for Strategic and International Studies. 24 February 2019. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
  5. ^ Eftode, Alexander (22 July 2009). "Opportunistic Communist". Politico. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
  6. ^ Socon, Vladimir (17 July 2012). "Moldova's Communist Party Haunted by Its Past and Its Present". Jamestown. Jamestown Foundation.
  7. ^ "Moldova election: Will voters choose EU or Putin?". BBC. BBC News. 29 November 2014. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
  8. ^ "Our Parties". European Left. Party of the European Left. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
  9. ^ "Communist and Workers' Parties". Solidnet. International Meeting of Communist and Workers Parties. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
  10. ^ Ticudean, Mircea (17 May 2011). "Conservatives Angered By Moldova's Recognition Of Muslims". RFERL. Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
  11. ^ "Voronin vrea referendum 'anti-homosexuali'" [Voronin wants 'anti-gay' referendum]. Union.md (in Russian). 29 May 2012. Retrieved 29 October 2021 – via Point.md.
  12. ^ "Voronin, ieşire rasistă şi xenofobă în direct la TV: Vreţi să vină soldaţii NATO aici şi să vi se nască copii de culoare?" [Voronin, racist and xenophobic live broadcast on TV: Do you want NATO soldiers to come here and give birth to children of color?]. Adevărul (in Romanian). 16 May 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
  13. ^ Nescutu, Madalin (2018). "Moldova to Host Global Christian Right-Wing Congress". Balkan Insight. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
  14. ^ Dispatch, Peoples (18 April 2022). "Moldovan left protests law banning St. George Ribbons and other Soviet symbols". Peoples Dispatch. Retrieved 14 July 2022.
  15. ^ Cimpoeșu, Dorin Cimpoeșu (31 May 2017). "Moldovenism versus Românism (II)" (in Romanian). No. 2. Retrieved 29 October 2021 – via Limba Română.
  16. ^ a b Political Parties of the World (6th edition, 2005), ed. Bogdan Szajkowski, page 414.
  17. ^ The New York Times, A Polarized Moldova Votes, Mindful of West and Russia, July 29, 2009
  18. ^ "Street scenes". The Economist. 16 April 2009. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
  19. ^ "Who's left? Who's right?". The Economist. 23 April 2009. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
  20. ^ Tismăneanu, Vladimir (13 April 2009). "What Moldova's Protests Mean". RFERL. Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
  21. ^ a b Ochoa Espejo, Paulina; Ostiguy, Pierre; Rovira Kaltwasser, Cristóbal; Taggart, Paul A. (2017). The Oxford Handbook of Populism. Oxford University Press. p. 227. ISBN 9780198803560. Retrieved 29 October 2021 – via Google Books. Similarly, the Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova (which governed Moldova from 2001 to 2009) has a populist streak. Whilst this was much downplayed in government, the party has since re-radicalized in opposition, with parliamentary boycotts and extra-parliamentary "civil disobedience" mobilization. The party has denounced official corruption, "oligarchs," and "[economic] criminals in power," while aiming to defend Orthodox "moral values" against Western intrusions. However, once again, all of the above parties are at most marginally populist: their main ideological nucleus continues to be Marxism-Leninism and European socialism.
  22. ^ "Vladimir Voronin: Moldova nu renunta la limba si la trecutul comunist nici de dragul UE - International - HotNews.ro". 10 February 2008.
  23. ^ "Comuniștii moldoveni au consemnat eliberarea Moldovei de sub ocupația română".
  24. ^ "73 de ani de la ocuparea Basarabiei. Comuniştii de la Chişinău au sărbătorit "eliberarea de sub ocupaţia românească"".
  25. ^ "Oleg Serebrean: Comunistii moldoveni si-au facut din antiromanism un pilon doctrinar: ZIUA".
  26. ^ "Politicianismul de la Chişinău provoacă dezamăgire în România".
  27. ^ "Moldovenism versus Românism (II) - LimbaRomana".

External linksEdit