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Alliance of Independent Social Democrats

The Alliance of Independent Social Democrats (Serbian: Савез независних социјалдемократа/Savez nezavisnih socijaldemokrata or СНСД/SNSD), is a Serb political party in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Founded in 1996, it is the governing party in Republika Srpska, with its leader, Milorad Dodik, serving as the current Serb member of the presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Alliance of Independent
Social Democrats
Савез независних социјалдемократа
Savez nezavisnih socijaldemokrata
LeaderMilorad Dodik
Founded10 March 1996
HeadquartersPetra Kočića 5,
78000 Banja Luka
Membership170,000[1]
IdeologySocial democracy[2]
Serbian nationalism[2]
Separatism[2]
Political positionEconomics:Centre left
Social:Right-wing[3][4][5][6][7][8]
National affiliationSNSD-DNS-Socialist
International affiliationNone
Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina
1 / 3
House of Representatives of BiH
6 / 42
House of Peoples of BiH
4 / 15
National Assembly of Republika Srpska
28 / 83
Party flag
Flag of the Alliance of Independent Social Democrats
Website
www.snsd.org

The creation of SNSD can be traced back to the Independent Members of Parliament Group, which eventually grew to become the Party of Independent Social Democrats. During this time, the party served as the only opposition to the dominance of the ultra-nationalist Serb Democratic Party, which was led by Radovan Karadžić for the majority of the 1990s. SNSD was seen as a moderate and non-extremist alternative to SDS, with many of its members, including Dodik, being part of the former non-nationalist and multi-ethnic Union of Reform Forces of Yugoslavia.

SNSD's first real electoral success was recorded in 2006, where it won 41 of the 83 seats in the National Assembly of Republika Srpska, attracting 44.95% of the popular vote. Since then, the party has gradually abandoned its reformist ideology for a more aggressive advocacy of Serbian nationalism, threatening the secession of Republika Srpska from the rest of Bosnia and Herzegovina numerous times.[9][10][11][12] This has also led to the party being expelled from the Socialist International in 2012 for continuing to "espouse a nationalist and extremist" line.[13][14]

Contents

HistoryEdit

1991–96Edit

The party grew out of the Independent Members of Parliament Caucus (IMPC), known as "the club", of the National Assembly of Republika Srpska (NSRS) in 1996.[15] The club was in opposition to the Serb Democratic Party (SDS) during the Bosnian War (1992–96).[15] The IMPC was established from the caucus of ethnic Serb members of the Parliament of the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina elected in 1990 from the election list of the Union of Reform Forces.[citation needed] The Serb members of the Parliament of SR Bosnia and Herzegovina, the majority of the Serb Democratic Party (SDS), including the members of the IMPC, established the Assembly of the Serb People of Bosnia and Herzegovina on 24 October 1991 (later renamed National Assembly of the Republika Srpska), following the majority of the parliament (mostly Croats and Bosniaks) approved the "Memorandum on Sovereignty" on 15 October 1991. In 1992, the Bosnian parliament held an independence referendum which led to the declaration of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The absolute majority of the newly founded NSRS was from the SDS. The IMPC was the only parliamentary opposition from the founding of the National Assembly through the first post-war elections in September 1996. The Party of Independent Social Democrats (SNSD) participated in the elections in the "Union for Peace and Progress" coalition along with the Socialist Party of RS (SPRS) and a minor party.[15] The club and later party (SNSD) was chaired by Milorad Dodik.[15]

1997–presentEdit

In the early 1997 elections it cooperated with SPRS and the Serb National Alliance (SNS) in the Sloga ("Unity") coalition.[15] The SNS was founded by Biljana Plavšić, who had left the SDS following internal clashes.[16] Dodik was the RS PM in 1998–2001.[15]

In December 1999 the Social Liberal Party of Republika Srpska merged into the SNSD, and after local elections in 2000 Nikola Špirić's Democratic Socialist Party (DSP) merged into it in 2001, the SNSD then changed its name to the "Alliance of Independent Social Democrats", keeping its old abbreviation.[17] DSP was a splinter party of the SPRS. In August 2002 the New Labour Party of Republika Srpska merged into SNSD.

The SNSD was suspended from Socialist International in 2011 for continuing to "espouse a nationalist and extremist" line.[18] It was later expelled on 4 September 2012.[19]

IdeologyEdit

The party is nominally socialist, centre-left in the economic section, conservative in the social and cultural section, having transformed since the 1990s, and can now also be classified as nationalist and secessionist (see Proposed secession of Republika Srpska).

International cooperationEdit

Alliance of Independent Social Democrats cooperates with several Eastern European pro-Russian parties and the ruling party in the Russian Federation, United Russia. On several occasions, representatives of the Alliance of Independent Social Democrats signed cooperation agreements with representatives of United Russia.[20] In 2016, the Alliance of Independent Social Democrats joined a declaration that supported a declaration of Balkan parties that supported the idea of military neutrality in the region.[21] In 2018, representatives of the Alliance of Independent Social Democrats signed a cooperation agreement with the South Ossetian ruling party United Ossetia.[22]

PresidentsEdit

# President Born–Died Term start Term end
1 Milorad Dodik   1959– 10 March 1996 Incumbent

Electoral resultsEdit

Parliamentary electionsEdit

Parliament of Republika Srpska
Year Popular vote % of popular vote # of seats Seat change Coalition Government
1996 125.372 11.05%
2 / 83
  2 NSSM opposition
1997 Unknown 2.41%
2 / 83
  government
1998 53.802 7.30%
6 / 83
  4 government
2000 81.467 13%
11 / 83
  5 opposition
2002 111.226 21.79%
19 / 83
  8 opposition
2006 244.251 44.95%
41 / 83
  22 government
2010 240.727 38%
37 / 83
  4 government
2014 213.665 32.28%
29 / 83
  8 government
2018 218.203 31.87%
28 / 83
  1 government

Presidential electionsEdit

Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Election year # Candidate Votes % Notes
1998   1st Živko Radišić 359,937 51,3% Sloga coalition
2002   2nd Nebojša Radmanović 101,119 19.9%
2006   1st Nebojša Radmanović 287,675 53.3%
2010   1st Nebojša Radmanović 295,629 48.9%
2014   2nd Željka Cvijanović 310,658 47.5%
2018   1st Milorad Dodik 368,210 53.9%
President of Republika Srpska
Election year # Candidate Votes %
2000   2nd Milorad Dodik 161.942 25.7%
2002   2nd Milan Jelić 112.612 22.1%
2006   1st Milan Jelić 271.022 48.87%
2007   1st Rajko Kuzmanović 169.863 41.33%
2010   1st Milorad Dodik 319.618 50.52%
2014   1st Milorad Dodik 303.496 45.39%
2018   1st Željka Cvijanović 319.187 46.97%

Positions heldEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ http://www.snsd.org/images/dokumenti/SNSD_za_nove_clanove_A4.pdf
  2. ^ a b c Nordsieck, Wolfram (2018). "Bosnia-Herzegovina". Parties and Elections in Europe. Retrieved 11 October 2018.
  3. ^ https://balkaninsight.com/2019/03/22/why-serb-nationalism-still-inspires-europes-far-right/,
  4. ^ https://books.google.com.au/books?id=7WUxBwAAQBAJ&pg=PA343&lpg=PA343&dq=snsd+right-wing&source=bl&ots=A35g8YNx2O&sig=LmzA84Wtei_YWUHbZhclNXZO4p4&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwj6woqjzYPfAhXYfSsKHRpND5wQ6AEwAnoECAgQAQ#v=onepage&q=snsd%20right-wing&f=false
  5. ^ https://books.google.com.au/books?id=YsFqDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA87&lpg=PA87&dq=snsd+right-wing&source=bl&ots=vqMrfe_USC&sig=DsomD0_8Xxl2lWJvEJ0ziLiVw4Y&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwj6woqjzYPfAhXYfSsKHRpND5wQ6AEwDXoECAYQAQ#v=onepage&q=snsd%20right-wing&f=false
  6. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20110704005354/http://www.dnevniavaz.ba/vijesti/iz-minute-u-minutu/42976-snsd-suspendovan-iz-socijalisticke-internacionale.html
  7. ^ https://www.opendemocracy.net/can-europe-make-it/othon-anastasakis/five-infections-of-social-democratic-family-in-western-balkans?
  8. ^ https://jacobinmag.com/2018/11/bosnia-herzegovina-elections-nationalism
  9. ^ https://www.rferl.org/a/republika-srpska-statehood-day-defying-court-ban/28964699.html
  10. ^ https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-sanctions-bosnia-dodik/u-s-imposes-sanctions-on-bosnian-serb-nationalist-leader-dodik-idUSKBN1512WI
  11. ^ http://www.balkanalysis.com/bosnia/2016/10/04/the-2016-local-elections-in-bosnia-a-win-for-the-major-ethno-nationalist-parties/
  12. ^ http://cps.ba/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/POLITICAL-SYSTEM-OF-BiH_FINAL.pdf
  13. ^ "SNSD suspended from the Socialist International" (in Croatian). 2 July 2011. Archived from the original on 4 July 2011. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
  14. ^ "Member Parties of the Socialist International". Retrieved 9 September 2012.
  15. ^ a b c d e f Stojarová & Emerson 2013, p. 94.
  16. ^ Stojarová & Emerson 2013, p. 88.
  17. ^ Stojarová & Emerson 2013, p. 89.
  18. ^ "SNSD suspended from the Socialist International" (in Croatian). 2 July 2011. Archived from the original on 4 July 2011. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
  19. ^ "Member Parties of the Socialist International". Retrieved 9 September 2012.
  20. ^ Russia: Bosnian Serb PM Visits To Discuss Balkans, Energy, stratfor.com 15 September 2010.
  21. ^ Putin’s Party Signs ‘Military Neutrality’ Agreements with Balkan Parties, medium.com 29 June 2016.
  22. ^ The ruling parties of South Ossetia and Republika Srpska agreed to cooperate, cominf.org 11 January 2018.

SourcesEdit

External linksEdit