Latin Americans (Spanish: Latinoamericanos; Portuguese: Latino-americanos; French: Latino-américains), sometimes referred to as Latinos, are the citizens of Latin American countries (or people with cultural, ancestral or national origins in Latin America). Latin American countries and their diasporas are multi-ethnic and multi-racial. Latin Americans are a pan-ethnicity consisting of people of different ethnic and national backgrounds. As a result, some Latin Americans do not take their nationality as an ethnicity, but identify themselves with a combination of their nationality, ethnicity and their ancestral origins. Aside from the indigenous population, all Latin Americans have some Old World ancestors who arrived since 1492. Latin America has the largest diasporas of Spaniards, Portuguese, Africans, Italians, Lebanese and Japanese in the world. The region also has large German (second largest after the United States), French, Palestinian (largest outside the Arab states), Chinese and Jewish diasporas.
or more (in 2021)
|Regions with significant populations|
|Primarily Spanish and Portuguese|
Regionally Haitian Creole, Quechua, Mayan languages, Guaraní, French, Aymara, Nahuatl and others
The specific ethnic and/or racial composition varies from country to country and diaspora community to diaspora community: many have a predominance of mixed indigenous and European descent or mestizo, population; in others, native Americans are a majority; some are mostly inhabited by people of European ancestry; others are primarily mulatto. The largest single group are white Latin Americans. Together with the people of part European ancestry, they combine for almost the totality of the population.
Latin Americans and their descendants can be found almost everywhere in the world, particularly in densely populated urban areas. The most important migratory destinations for Latin Americans are found in the United States, Spain, France, Canada and Italy.
Latin America (Spanish: América Latina or Latinoamérica; Portuguese: América Latina; French: Amérique latine) is the region of the Americas where Romance languages (i.e., those derived from Latin)—particularly Spanish and Portuguese, as well as French—are primarily spoken.
It includes 21 countries or territories: Mexico in North America; Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama in Central America; Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Chile, Argentina and Uruguay in South America; and Cuba, Haiti, the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico in the Caribbean—in summary, Hispanic America, plus Brazil and Haiti. Canada and the United States, despite having sizeable Romance-speaking communities, are almost never included in the definition, primarily for being predominantly English-speaking Anglosphere countries.
Latin America, therefore, can be defined as all those parts of the Americas that were once part of the Spanish, Portuguese or French colonial empires, namely Spanish America, Colonial Brazil and New France.
Ethnic and Racial groupsEdit
The population of Latin America comprises a variety of ancestries, ethnic groups and races, making the region one of the most diverse in the world. The specific composition varies from country to country: many have a predominance of mixed European and native American, or mestizo, population; in others, native Americans are a majority; some are dominated by inhabitants of European ancestry; and some countries' populations are primarily mulatto. Black, Asian, and zambo (mixed black and native American) minorities are also identified regularly. White Latin Americans are the largest single group, accounting for more than one-third of the population.
- Asians. People of Asian descent number several million in Latin America. The majority of Asian descendants in the country are either of West Asian (such as Lebanese or Syrian) or East Asian (like Chinese or Japanese) descent. The first Asians to settle in the region were Filipino, as a result of Spain's trade involving Asia and the Americas. The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics states that the country's largest Asian communities are from West Asia and East Asia. It is estimated that 7 to 10 million Brazilians are of Lebanese descent. Around 2 million Brazilians self-identify as being "Yellow" (amarela or of East Asian descent) according to the 2010 census. The country is home to the largest ethnic Japanese community outside Japan itself, estimated as high as 1.5 million, and circa 200,000 ethnic Chinese and 100,000 ethnic Koreans. Ethnic Koreans also number tens of thousands of individuals in Argentina and Mexico. The 2017 census stated that under 40,000 Peruvians self-identified as having Chinese or Japanese ancestry. Though other estimates claim as much as 1.47 million people of East Asian descent reside in the country. Lebanese and Syrian descendants have also formed notable communities in countries like Mexico and Argentina. The Martiniquais population includes a mixed African, European and native American descent, and an East Indian (Asian Indian) population is also present in Martinique. In Guadeloupe, an estimated 14% of the population is of East Asian descent.
- Blacks. Millions of African slaves were brought to Latin America from the 16th century onward, most of whom were sent to the Caribbean region and Brazil. Today, people identified as "black" are most numerous in Brazil (more than 10 million) and in Haiti (more than 7 million). Significant populations are also found in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Panama and Colombia. Latin Americans of mixed black and white ancestry, called mulattoes, are far more numerous than blacks.
- Native Americans. The indigenous population of Latin America arrived during the Lithic stage. In post-Columbian times, they experienced tremendous population decline, particularly in the early decades of colonization. They have since recovered in numbers, surpassing sixty million (by some estimates), though, with the growth of the other groups, they now comprise a majority only in Bolivia and Peru. In Guatemala, native Americans are a large minority that comprises 41% of the population. Mexico's 21% (9.8% in the official 2005 census) is the next largest ratio, and one of the largest indigenous population in the Americas in absolute numbers. Most of the remaining countries have native American minorities, in every case making up less than one-tenth of the respective country's population. In many countries, people of mixed indigenous and European ancestry, known as mestizos, make up the majority of the population.
- Mestizos. Intermixing between Europeans and native Americans began early in the colonial period and was extensive. The resulting people, known as mestizos, make up the majority of the population in half of the countries of Latin America. Additionally, mestizos comprise large minorities in nearly all the other mainland countries.
- Mulattoes. Mulattoes are people of mixed European and African ancestry, mostly descended from Spanish or Portuguese settlers on one side and African slaves on the other, during the colonial period. Brazil is home to Latin America's largest mulatto population. Mulattoes form a majority in the Dominican Republic, and are also numerous in Cuba, Puerto Rico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Colombia and Ecuador. Smaller populations of mulattoes are found in other Latin American countries.
- Whites. Beginning in the late 15th century, large numbers of Iberian colonists settled in what became Latin America (Portuguese in Brazil and Spaniards elsewhere in the region), and at present most white Latin Americans are of Spanish, Portuguese or Italian ancestry. Iberians brought the Spanish and Portuguese languages, the Catholic faith, and many Iberian traditions. Brazil, Argentina, Mexico and Venezuela contain the largest numbers of Europeans in Latin America in pure numbers. They make up the majority of the population of Argentina, Costa Rica, Cuba and Uruguay and roughly half of Brazil's, Chile's and Venezuela's population. Of the millions of immigrants since most of Latin America gained independence in the 1810s–1820s, Italians formed the largest group, and next were Spaniards and Portuguese. Many others arrived, such as French, Germans, Greeks, Poles, Ukrainians, Russians, Croats, Serbs, Latvians, Lithuanians, English, Jews, Irish and Welsh. Most Latin Americans have some degree of European ancestry, when talking into account those of either mixed or full European descent.
- Zambos: Intermixing between blacks and native Americans was especially prevalent in Colombia and Brazil, often due to slaves running away (becoming cimarrones: maroons) and being taken in by indigenous villagers. In Spanish-speaking nations, people of this mixed ancestry are known as zambos, and they are also known as cafuzos in Brazil.
- Multi-ethnic/Multi-racials: In addition to the foregoing groups, Latin America also has millions of peoples who belong to multiracial backgrounds.
|Puerto Rico[sn 1]||3,285,874||0.5%||17.1%||2.3%||10.5%||7.0%||0.0%||0.1%|
- ^ Note: Puerto Rico is a territory of the United States.
Racial groups according to self-identificationEdit
The Latinobarómetro surveys have asked respondents in 18 Latin American countries what race they considered themselves to belong to. The figures shown below are averages for 2007 through 2011.
1 Don't know/No response.
2 Weighted using 2011 population.
Spanish and Portuguese are the predominant languages of Latin America. Spanish is the official language of most of the countries on the Latin American mainland, as well as in Puerto Rico (where it is co-official with English), Cuba and the Dominican Republic. Portuguese is spoken only in Brazil, the biggest and most populous country in the region. French is spoken in Haiti, as well as in the French overseas departments of French Guiana in South America and Guadeloupe and Martinique in the Caribbean. Dutch is the official language of some Caribbean islands and in Suriname on the continent; however, as Dutch is a Germanic language, these territories are not considered part of Latin America.
Indigenous languages are widely spoken in Peru, Guatemala, Bolivia and Paraguay, and, to a lesser degree, in Mexico, Chile and Ecuador. In Latin American countries not named above, the population of speakers of indigenous languages is small or non-existent.
In Peru, Quechua is an official language, alongside Spanish and any other indigenous language in the areas where they predominate. In Ecuador, while holding no official status, the closely related Quichua is a recognized language of the indigenous people under the country's constitution; however, it is only spoken by a few groups in the country's highlands. In Bolivia, Aymara, Quechua and Guaraní hold official status alongside Spanish. Guarani is, along with Spanish, an official language of Paraguay, and is spoken by a majority of the population (who are, for the most part, bilingual), and it is co-official with Spanish in the Argentine province of Corrientes. In Nicaragua, Spanish is the official language, but, on the country's Caribbean coast English and indigenous languages such as Miskito, Sumo, and Rama also hold official status. Colombia recognizes all indigenous languages spoken within its territory as official, though fewer than 1% of its population are native speakers of these. Nahuatl is one of the 62 native languages spoken by indigenous people in Mexico that are officially recognized by the government as "national languages" along with Spanish.
Other European languages spoken in Latin America include: English, by some groups in Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama and Puerto Rico, as well as in nearby countries that may or may not be considered Latin American, such as Belize and Guyana; English is also used as a major foreign language in Latin American commerce and education. Other languages spoken in parts of Latin America include German in southern Brazil, southern Chile, Argentina, portions of northern Venezuela and Paraguay; Italian in Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Venezuela; Polish, Ukrainian and Russian in southern Brazil; and Welsh in southern Argentina. Hebrew and Yiddish are used by Jewish diasporas in Argentina and Brazil.
In several nations, especially in the Caribbean region, creole languages are spoken. The most widely spoken creole language in the Caribbean and Latin America in general is Haitian Creole, the predominant language of Haiti; it is derived primarily from French and certain West African tongues with indigenous, English, Portuguese and Spanish influences as well. Creole languages of mainland Latin America, similarly, are derived from European languages and various African tongues.
The vast majority of Latin Americans are Christians (90%), mostly Roman Catholics. About 71% of the Latin American population consider themselves Catholic. Membership in Protestant denominations is increasing, particularly in Brazil, Guatemala and Puerto Rico. Argentina hosts the largest communities of both Jews and Muslims in Latin America. Indigenous religions and rituals are practiced in countries with large indigenous populations, especially Bolivia, Guatemala, Mexico and Peru, and Afro-Latin American religions such as Santería, Candomblé, Umbanda, Macumba and Vodou are practiced in countries with large Afro-Latin American populations, especially Cuba, Brazil, Dominican Republic and Haiti. Latin America constitutes, in absolute terms, the world's second largest Christian population, after Europe.
According to the 2005 Colombian census or DANE, about 3,331,107 Colombians currently live abroad. The number of Brazilians living overseas is estimated at about 2 million people. An estimated 1.5 to two million Salvadorians reside in the United States. At least 1.5 million Ecuadorians have gone abroad, mainly to the United States and Spain. Approximately 1.5 million Dominicans live abroad, mostly in the United States. More than 1.3 million Cubans live abroad, most of them in the United States. It is estimated that over 800,000 Chileans live abroad, mainly in Argentina, Canada, United States and Spain. Other Chilean nationals may be located in countries like Costa Rica, Mexico and Sweden. An estimated 700,000 Bolivians were living in Argentina as of 2006 and another 33,000 in the United States. Central Americans living abroad in 2005 were 3,314,300, of which 1,128,701 were Salvadorans, 685,713 were Guatemalans, 683,520 were Nicaraguans, 414,955 were Hondurans, 215,240 were Panamanians and 127,061 were Costa Rica.
As of 2006, Costa Rica and Chile were the only two countries with global positive migration rates.
Notable Latin AmericansEdit
- Costa Ricans
- History of Latin America
- Japanese Mexicans
- Latin American culture
- Los Angeles, California
- Puerto Ricans
- Québécois people
- ^ a b c d "World Population Prospects 2022". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved July 17, 2022.
- ^ a b c d "World Population Prospects 2022: Demographic indicators by region, subregion and country, annually for 1950-2100" (XSLX). population.un.org ("Total Population, as of 1 July (thousands)"). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved July 17, 2022.
- ^ Based on recent estimates, as of 2010. Sources by country: Australia Australian Bureau of Statistics 20680-Ancestry (full classification list) by Sex - Australia; Canada 2006 census "Ethnocultural Portrait of Canada Highlight Tables, 2006 Census". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on 2008-05-07. Retrieved 2008-05-10.; Sweden  Portugal POPULAÇÃO ESTRANGEIRA EM TERRITÓRIO NACIONAL, SERVIÇODE ESTRANGEIROS E FRONTEIRAS 2008; Spain INE, Revisión del Padrón municipal 2007. Datos a nivel nacional, comunidad autónoma y provincia. (in Spanish); INE, Notas de Prensa 2008 (in Spanish); USA (Self-identified ethnicity rather than birthplace) "Detailed Hispanic Origin: 2007" (PDF). Pew Hispanic Center. Retrieved 2009-04-13.; "United States - Selected Population Profile in the United States (Brazilian (360-364))". 2008 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2020-02-12. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
- ^ (Self-identified ethnicity rather than birthplace) "Detailed Hispanic Origin: 2007" (PDF). Pew Hispanic Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-05-01. Retrieved 2009-04-13.
- ^ "United States - Selected Population Profile in the United States (Brazilian (360-364))". 2008 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2020-02-12. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
- ^ Foreign population in Spain (2009), Spanish National Statistics Institute press report. June 3, 2009. (Spanish)
- ^ "Population des régions et taux d'évolution de la population". Retrieved 5 July 2021.
- ^ "List of countries in Latin America". Encyclopaedia Britannica. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 31 August 2021.
- ^ "Measuring the Latin American population in Canada – why is it important?". Retrieved 29 November 2022.
- ^ "E' latinoamericano il 7,7% della popolazione straniera in Italia. In testa il Perù | Ufficio Pastorale Migranti - Arcidiocesi di Torino".
- ^ "Registered Foreigners in Japan by Nationality" (PDF). Statistics Bureau. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 August 2005. Retrieved 7 November 2011.
- ^ "Alemania - Emigrantes totales". Retrieved 20 June 2019.
- ^ "No Longer Invisible: The Latin American community in London" (PDF). Trust for London. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 March 2012. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
- ^ POPULAÇÃO ESTRANGEIRA EM TERRITÓRIO NACIONAL, SERVIÇO DE ESTRANGEIROS E FRONTEIRAS 2008;
- ^ "Redirect to Census data page". abs.gov.au. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- ^ "Population by country of birth, age and sex. Year 2000 - 2020".
- ^ "Religion in Latin America". 13 November 2014.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i Lizcano Fernández, Francisco (May–August 2005). "Composición Étnica de las Tres Áreas Culturales del Continente Americano al Comienzo del Siglo XXI" (PDF). Convergencia (in Spanish). Mexico: Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Centro de Investigación en Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades. 38: 185–232, table on p. 218. ISSN 1405-1435. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-09-20.[page range too broad]
- ^ Pozzetta, George E., Bruno Ramirez and Robert F. Harney. The Italian Diaspora: Migration across the Globe. Toronto: Multicultural History Society of Ontario, 1992.
- ^ King, Russell (1978-01-01). "Report: The Italian Diaspora". Area. 10 (5): 386. JSTOR 20001401.
- ^ "Fact Sheet 3. Brazil - the Country and its People" (PDF). Embassy of Brazil in London - Schools' Pack, Brazil 2009. 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 December 2011.
- ^ Wilhelm Bleek (2003). "Auslandsdeutsche" [Germans abroad] (in German). German Federal Agency for Civic Education. Archived from the original on 2011-03-10.
- ^ Baeza, Cecilia (1 February 2014). "Palestinians in Latin America: Between Assimilation and Long-Distance Nationalism". Journal of Palestine Studies. 43 (2): 59–72. doi:10.1525/jps.2014.43.2.59. Retrieved 22 December 2021.
- ^ "América Latina". monografias.com. 15 July 2001. Archived from the original on 9 August 2005.
- ^ Colburn, Forrest D (2002). Latin America at the End of Politics. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09181-1.
- ^ "Latin America."The New Oxford Dictionary of English. Pearsall, J., ed. 2001. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; p. 1040: "The parts of the American continent where Spanish or Portuguese is the main national language (i.e.Mexico and, in effect, the whole of Central and South America including many of the Caribbean islands)."
- ^ Rangel, Carlos (1977). The Latin Americans: Their Love-Hate Relationship with the United States. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. pp. 3–5. ISBN 0-15-148795-2. Skidmore, Thomas E.; Peter H. Smith (2005). Modern Latin America (6 ed.). Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 1–10. ISBN 0-19-517013-X.
- ^ Gordon A. Bridger (2013). Britain and the Making of Argentina. p. 101. ISBN 9781845646844.
Some 86% identify themselves as being of European descent, of whom 60% would claim Italian links
- ^ Departamento de Derecho y Ciencias Políticas de la Universidad Nacional de La Matanza (14 November 2011). "Historias de inmigrantes italianos en Argentina" (in Spanish). infouniversidades.siu.edu.ar.
Se estima que en la actualidad, el 90% de la población argentina tiene alguna ascendencia europea y que al menos 25 millones están relacionados con algún inmigrante de Italia.
- ^ a b c "CIA — The World Factbook -- Field Listing — Ethnic groups". Archived from the original on June 13, 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-20.
- ^ Lizcano Fernández, Francisco. "Composición Étnica de las Tres Áreas Culturales del Continente Americano al Comienzo del Siglo XXI" [Ethnic Composition of the Three Cultural Areas of the American Continent at the Beginning of the 21st Century] (PDF). Convergencia. Revista de Ciencias Sociales (in Spanish). Toluca, México: Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México: 194–195. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 June 2013.
En principio, se pueden distinguir dos grupos muy distintos al interior de esta etnia: el que procede de Asia occidental (sobre todo árabes cristianos llegados desde Siria y Líbano) y el que salió de Asia oriental (chinos y japoneses principalmente).
- ^ Petruccelli, Jose Luis; Saboia, Ana Lucia. "Caracteristicas Etnico-raciais da Populacao Classificacoes e identidades" (PDF). IBGE. p. 53. Retrieved 28 July 2021.
descendentes e os asiáticos – japoneses, chineses, coreanos, libaneses, sírios, entre outros
- ^ "Brazilian Ministry of Foreign Affaires". Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- ^ "Lebanon: Geography". Embassy of Lebanon in Brazil (in Portuguese). 1996. Archived from the original on 29 May 2008.
- ^ "Censo Demográfi co 2010 Características da população e dos domicílios Resultados do universo" (PDF). 8 November 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2013. Retrieved 5 November 2022.
- ^ Shoji, Rafael (2004), "Reinterpretação do Budismo Chinês e Coreano no Brasil" (PDF), Revista de Estudos da Religião, no. Nº 3, pp. 74–87, ISSN 1677-1222, retrieved 2010-06-02
- ^ "Japan-Brazil Relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- ^ 재외동포현황/Current Status of Overseas Compatriots, South Korea: Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 2009, archived from the original on 2010-10-23, retrieved 2009-05-21
- ^ "Perú: Perfil Sociodemográfico" (PDF). Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. p. 216.
- ^ ":: Overseas Compatriot Affairs Commission, R.O.C. ::". Ocac.gov.tw. 2004-08-24. Archived from the original on 2013-11-23. Retrieved 2010-07-26.
- ^ "DESAFIOS-QUE-NOS-ACERCAN — Noticias — Universia Perú". Univeria.edu.pe. Archived from the original on 2009-04-15. Retrieved 2010-07-26.
- ^ "Recopilaron casi 200 años de los sirio libaneses en Argentina". El Independiente (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 8 September 2014. Retrieved 9 November 2021.
González convenció a sus pares de rechazarla, con el argumento de que eran "los más europeos del Asia y son sumisos y laboriosos".
- ^ "The World Factbook". USA: CIA. 2003. Archived from the original on 2018-09-11. Retrieved 2013-09-23.
- ^ "La trata de negros". Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- ^ https://www.censopoblacion.gt/dondeestamos[bare URL]
- ^ "Resultado Básico del XIV Censo Nacional de Población y Vivienda 2011" (PDF) (in Spanish). Ine.gov.ve. p. 14. Retrieved 2012-11-25.
- ^ "South America :: Postindependence overseas immigrants". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2008-02-10.
- ^ "Latinoamérica". Retrieved 2013-09-23.[dead link]
- ^ Stranded in Paradise: Shipwrecked Hundreds of Years Ago, the Garifuna Are Still Trying to Find Their Way by Teresa Wiltz, The Washington Post.
- ^ "Cor ou Raça" (PDF). Censo Demográfico 2010: Características gerais da população, religião e pessoas com deficiência. Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. 2010. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
- ^ Bureau, US Census. "Puerto Rico Population Declined 11.8% From 2010 to 2020". Census.gov.
- ^ "Atlas Sociodemografico y de la Desigualdad en Uruguay, 2011: Ancestry" (PDF) (in Spanish). National Institute of Statistics. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 September 2014.
- ^ Informe Latinobarómetro, Latinobarómetro.
- ^ Not Panicking Ltd (21 November 2011). "h2g2 - Y Wladfa - The Welsh in Patagonia - Edited Entry". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- ^ "The Welsh Immigration to Argentina". 1stclassargentina.com. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- ^ Jeremy Howat. "Opening page: The Welsh in Patagonia". argbrit.org. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- ^ "Gaiman, Trelew y Rawson". patagonline.com. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- ^ "Y Wladfa - Patagonia". andesceltig.com. Archived from the original on 17 September 2017. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- ^ "Reference for Welsh language in southern Argentina, Welsh immigration to Patagonia". Archived from the original on 2016-08-08. Retrieved 2010-07-05.
- ^ "Christians". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 18 December 2012. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- ^ "CIA — The World Factbook -- Field Listing — Religions". Archived from the original on June 13, 2007. Retrieved 2009-03-17.
- ^ Fraser, Barbara J., In Latin America, Catholics down, church's credibility up, poll says Catholic News Service June 23, 2005
- ^ LeElef, Ner. "World Jewish Population". Retrieved 2008-01-09.
- ^ The Jewish People Policy Planning Institute; Annual Assessment, 2007
- ^ "United Jewish Communities; Global Jewish Populations". Archived from the original on May 31, 2008.
- ^ "Argentina". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- ^ "Argentina". U.S. Department of State. 19 September 2008. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- ^ "BBC Mundo - A fondo - Árabes y musulmanes en América Latina". bbc.co.uk. 17 March 2005. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- ^ "The Global Religious Landscape" (PDF). Pewforum.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 January 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
- ^ "Peter Stalker". www.pstalker.com. Archived from the original on January 31, 2009.
- ^ "Brasileiros no Exterior — Portal da Câmara dos Deputados". Archived from the original on July 21, 2009.
- ^ Country Overview: El Salvador Archived January 1, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, United States Agency for International Development
- ^ Chavistas in Quito, Forbes.com, January 7, 2008
- ^ "Dominican Republic: Remittances for Development". ipsnews.net. Archived from the original on 10 June 2011. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- ^ Cubans Abroad, Radiojamaica.com
- ^ Chile: Moving Towards a Migration Policy, Migration Information Source
- ^ "South America: Brazil, Mercosur - Migration News - Migration Dialogue". ucdavis.edu. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- ^ "Prospects - Migration and Remittances Factbook 2011". worldbank.org. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- ^ "Latin America & Caribbean (ElSalvador)" (PDF). World Bank. 2006. Retrieved 2010-07-26.
- ^ "Latin America & Caribbean (Guatemala)" (PDF). World Bank. 2006. Retrieved 2010-07-26.
- ^ "Latin America & Caribbean (Nicaragua)" (PDF). World Bank. 2006. Retrieved 2010-07-26.
- ^ "Latin America & Caribbean (Honduras)" (PDF). World Bank. 2006. Retrieved 2010-07-26.
- ^ "Latin America & Caribbean (Panama)" (PDF). World Bank. 2006. Retrieved 2010-07-26.
- ^ "Latin America & Caribbean (CostaRica)" (PDF). World Bank. 2006. Retrieved 2010-07-26.
- ^ "United Nations Population Division" (PDF).