Martinique (/ˌmɑːrtɪˈnk/ MAR-tin-EEK, French: [maʁtinik] ; Martinican Creole: Matinik or Matnik;[6] Kalinago: Madinina or Madiana) is an island in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies, in the eastern Caribbean Sea. A part of the French West Indies (Antilles), Martinique is an overseas department and region and a single territorial collectivity of the French Republic. It is a part of the European Union as an outermost region within the special territories of members of the European Economic Area, and an associate member of the CARICOM, but is not part of the Schengen Area or the European Union Customs Union. The currency in use is the euro.

Matinik or Matnik (Martinican Creole)
Territorial Collectivity of Martinique
Collectivité Territoriale de Martinique (French)
La collectivité au service du pays[1]
Anthem: La Marseillaise
("The Marseillaise")
Coordinates: 14°39′00″N 61°00′54″W / 14.65000°N 61.01500°W / 14.65000; -61.01500
Sovereign state France
 • President of Executive CouncilSerge Letchimy (PPM)
 • LegislatureAssembly of Martinique
 • Total1,128 km2 (436 sq mi)
 • Rank17th region
Highest elevation1,397 m (4,583 ft)
 (Jan. 1, 2024)[4]
 • Total349,925
 • Density310/km2 (800/sq mi)
 • Ethnic groups
[2] [verification needed]
 • Religion


Demonym(s)Martinican (English)
Martiniquais (m)
Martiniquaise (f) (French)
 • Official languageFrench
 • Vernacular languageMartinican French Creole
 • Total€9.082 billion
 • Per capita€24,700
Time zoneUTC−04:00 (ECT)
ISO 3166 code
CurrencyEuro () (EUR)
WebsitePrefecture, Territorial collectivity

Martinique has a land area of 1,128 km2 (436 sq mi) and a population of 349,925 inhabitants as of January 2024.[4] One of the Windward Islands, it lies directly north of Saint Lucia, northwest of Barbados and south of Dominica. Virtually the entire population speaks both French (the sole official language) and Martinican Creole.[7]

The Cape Saint Martin cliffs and the Dominica channel, as seen from Grand Rivière at the northern tip of the island

Etymology edit

It is thought that Martinique is a corruption of the Taíno name for the island (Madiana/Madinina, meaning 'island of flowers', or Matinino, 'island of women'), as relayed to Christopher Columbus when he visited the island in 1502.[8] According to historian Sydney Daney, the island was called Jouanacaëra or Iouanacaera by the Caribs, which means 'the island of iguanas'.[9]

History edit

Pre-European contact and early colonial periods edit

The island was occupied first by Arawaks, then by Caribs. The Arawaks were described as gentle timorous Indians and the Caribs as ferocious cannibal warriors. The Arawaks came from Central America in the 1st century AD and the Caribs came from the Venezuelan coast around the 11th century.

Christopher Columbus charted Martinique (without landing) in 1493, during his first voyage, but Spain had little interest in the territory.[8] Columbus landed during a later voyage, on 15 June 1502, after a 21-day trade wind passage, his fastest ocean voyage.[8] He spent three days there refilling his water casks, bathing and washing laundry.[10]

The indigenous people Columbus encountered called Martinique "Matinino". He was told by indigenous people of San Salvador that "the island of Matinino was entirely populated by women on whom the Caribs descended at certain seasons of the year; and if these women bore sons they were entrusted to the father to bring up."[11]

On 15 September 1635, Pierre Belain d'Esnambuc, French governor of the island of St. Kitts, landed in the harbour of St. Pierre with 80 to 150 French settlers after being driven off St. Kitts by the English. D'Esnambuc claimed Martinique for the French king Louis XIII and the French "Compagnie des Îles de l'Amérique" (Company of the American Islands), and established the first European settlement at Fort Saint-Pierre (now St. Pierre).[8] D'Esnambuc died in 1636, leaving the company and Martinique in the hands of his nephew, Jacques Dyel du Parquet, who in 1637 became governor of the island.[8]

In 1636, in the first of many skirmishes, the indigenous Caribs rose against the settlers to drive them off the island.[citation needed] The French repelled the natives and forced them to retreat to the eastern part of the island, on the Caravelle Peninsula in the region then known as the Capesterre. When the Caribs revolted against French rule in 1658, the governor Charles Houël du Petit Pré retaliated with war against them. Many were killed, and those who survived were taken captive and expelled from the island. Some Caribs fled to Dominica or St. Vincent, where the French agreed to leave them at peace.[citation needed]

After the death of du Parquet in 1658, his widow Marie Bonnard du Parquet tried to govern Martinique, but dislike of her rule led King Louis XIV to take over the sovereignty of the island.[8] In 1654, Dutch Jews expelled from Portuguese Brazil introduced sugar plantations worked by large numbers of enslaved Africans.[8]

In 1667, the Second Anglo-Dutch War spilled out into the Caribbean, with Britain attacking the pro-Dutch French fleet in Martinique, virtually destroying it and further cementing British preeminence in the region.[12] In 1674, the Dutch attempted to conquer the island, but were repulsed.[8]

The attack on the French ships at Martinique in 1667

Because there were few Catholic priests in the French Antilles, many of the earliest French settlers were Huguenots who sought religious freedom.[13] Others were transported there as a punishment for refusing to convert to Catholicism, many of them dying en route.[citation needed][14] Those who survived were quite industrious and over time prospered, though the less fortunate were reduced to the status of indentured servants. Although edicts from King Louis XIV's court regularly came to the islands to suppress the Protestant "heretics", these were mostly ignored by island authorities until Louis XIV's Edict of Revocation in 1685.[15]

As many of the planters on Martinique were Huguenots suffering under the harsh strictures of the Revocation, they began plotting to emigrate from Martinique with many of their recently arrived brethren. Many of them were encouraged by the Catholics, who looked forward to their departure and the opportunities for seizing their property. By 1688, nearly all of Martinique's French Protestant population had escaped to the British American colonies or Protestant countries in Europe.[citation needed] The policy decimated the population of Martinique and the rest of the French Antilles and set back their colonisation by decades, causing the French king to relax his policies in the region, which left the islands susceptible to British occupation over the next century.[16]

Post-1688 period edit

Under governor of the Antilles Charles de Courbon, comte de Blénac, Martinique served as a home port for French pirates, including Captain Crapeau, Étienne de Montauban, and Mathurin Desmarestz.[17] In later years, pirate Bartholomew Roberts styled his jolly roger as a black flag depicting a pirate standing on two skulls labeled "ABH" and "AMH" for "A Barbadian's Head" and "A Martinican's Head" after governors of those two islands sent warships to capture Roberts.[18]

The Battle of Martinique between British and French fleets in 1779

Martinique was attacked or occupied several times by the British, in 1693, 1759, 1762 and 1779.[8] Excepting a period from 1802 to 1809 following signing of the Treaty of Amiens, Britain controlled the island for most of the time from 1794 to 1815, when it was traded back to France at the conclusion of the Napoleonic Wars.[8][19] Martinique has remained a French possession since then.

Despite the introduction of successful coffee plantations in the 1720s to Martinique, the first coffee-growing area in the Western hemisphere,[20] as sugar prices declined in the early 1800s, the planter class lost political influence. Slave rebellions in 1789, 1815 and 1822, plus the campaigns of abolitionists such as Cyrille Bissette and Victor Schœlcher, persuaded the French government to end slavery in the French West Indies in 1848.[21][22][8][19][23] Martinique was the first French overseas territory in which the abolition decree came into force, on 23 May of the same year.[24]

As a result, some plantation owners imported workers from India and China.[8] Despite the abolition of slavery, life scarcely improved for most Martinicans; class and racial tensions exploded into rioting in southern Martinique in 1870 following the arrest of Léopold Lubin, a trader of African ancestry who retaliated after he was beaten by a Frenchman. After several deaths, the revolt was crushed by French militia.[25]

20th–21st centuries edit

On 8 May 1902, Mont Pelée erupted and completely destroyed St. Pierre, killing 30,000 people.[8] Refugees from Martinique travelled by boat to the southern villages of Dominica, and some of them remained permanently on the island. The only survivor in the town of Saint-Pierre, Ludger Sylbaris, was saved by the thick walls of his prison cell.[26] Shortly thereafter, the capital shifted to Fort-de-France, where it remains today.[19]

During World War II, the pro-Nazi Vichy government controlled Martinique under Admiral Georges Robert.[8] German U-boats used Martinique for refuelling and re-supply during the Battle of the Caribbean.[27] In 1942, 182 ships were sunk in the Caribbean, dropping to 45 in 1943, and five in 1944.[28] Free French forces took over on the island on Bastille Day, 14 July 1943.[8][29]

In 1946, the French National Assembly voted unanimously to transform the colony into an Overseas Department of France.[8] Meanwhile, the post-war period saw a growing campaign for full independence; a notable proponent of this was the author Aimé Césaire, who founded the Progressive Party of Martinique in the 1950s. Tensions boiled over in December 1959 when riots broke out following a racially-charged altercation between two motorists, resulting in three deaths.[30] In 1962, as a result of this and the global turn against colonialism, the strongly pro-independence OJAM (Organisation de la jeunesse anticolonialiste de la Martinique) was formed. Its leaders were later arrested by the French authorities. However, they were later acquitted.[30] Tensions rose again in 1974, when gendarmes shot dead two striking banana workers.[30] However the independence movement lost steam as Martinique's economy faltered in the 1970s, resulting in large-scale emigration.[31] Hurricanes in 1979–80 severely affected agricultural output, further straining the economy.[8] Greater autonomy was granted by France to the island in the 1970s–80s.[8]

In 2009, Martinique was convulsed by the French Caribbean general strikes. Initially focusing on cost-of-living issues, the movement soon took on a racial dimension as strikers challenged the continued economic dominance of the Béké, descendants of French European settlers.[32][33] President Nicolas Sarkozy later visited the island, promising reform.[34] While ruling out full independence, which he said was desired neither by France nor by Martinique, Sarkozy offered Martiniquans a referendum on the island's future status and degree of autonomy.[34]

On 2 February 2023, Martinique adopted its independent activist flag, symbolising its three colors of Pan-Africanism.

Mont Pelée and Bay of St Pierre as seen from the Grande Savane trail

Governance edit

The special territories of the European Union

Like French Guiana, Martinique is a special collectivity[35] (Unique in French) of the French Republic. It is also an outermost region of the European Union. The inhabitants of Martinique are French citizens with full political and legal rights. Martinique sends four deputies to the French National Assembly and two senators to the French Senate.

On 24 January 2010, during a referendum, the inhabitants of Martinique approved by 68.4% the change to be a "special (unique) collectivity" within the framework of article 73 of the French Republic's Constitution. The new council replaces and exercises the powers of both the General Council and the regional council.

Administrative divisions edit

A map of Martinique showing the island's four arrondissements

Martinique is divided into four arrondissements and 34 communes. It had also been divided into 45 cantons, but these were abolished in 2015. The four arrondissements of the island, with their respective locations, are as follows:

Name Area (km2) Population (2019)[36] Arrondissement Map
L'Ajoupa-Bouillon 12.3 1,756 La Trinité  
Les Anses-d'Arlet 25.92 3,494 Le Marin  
Basse-Pointe 27.95 2,823 La Trinité  
Bellefontaine 11.89 1,813 Saint-Pierre  
Le Carbet 36 3,461 Saint-Pierre  
Case-Pilote 18.44 4,455 Saint-Pierre  
Le Diamant 27.34 5,511 Le Marin  
Ducos 37.69 17,655 Le Marin  
Fonds-Saint-Denis 24.28 680 Saint-Pierre  
Fort-de-France 44.21 76,512 Fort-de-France  
Le François 53.93 15,980 Le Marin  
Grand'Rivière 16.6 610 La Trinité  
Gros-Morne 54.25 9,689 La Trinité  
Le Lamentin 62.32 40,095 Fort-de-France  
Le Lorrain 50.33 6,768 La Trinité  
Macouba 16.93 1,050 La Trinité  
Le Marigot 21.63 3,117 La Trinité  
Le Marin 31.54 8,751 Le Marin  
Le Morne-Rouge 37.64 4,795 Saint-Pierre  
Le Morne-Vert 13.37 1,816 Saint-Pierre  
Le Prêcheur 29.92 1,203 Saint-Pierre  
Rivière-Pilote 35.78 11,877 Le Marin  
Rivière-Salée 39.38 11,874 Le Marin  
Le Robert 47.3 21,913 La Trinité  
Saint-Esprit 23.46 9,890 Le Marin  
Saint-Joseph 43.29 15,883 Fort-de-France  
Saint-Pierre 38.72 4,121 Saint-Pierre  
Sainte-Anne 38.42 4,444 Le Marin  
Sainte-Luce 28.02 9,487 Le Marin  
Sainte-Marie 44.55 15,487 La Trinité  
Schœlcher 21.17 19,612 Fort-de-France  
La Trinité 45.77 12,025 La Trinité  
Les Trois-Îlets 28.6 7,242 Le Marin  
Le Vauclin 39.06 8,619 Le Marin  
Diamant beach, and Diamond Rock, as seen from Dizac beach

Representation of the State edit

The prefecture of Martinique is Fort-de-France. The three sub-prefectures are Le Marin, Saint-Pierre and La Trinité. The French State is represented in Martinique by a prefect (Stanislas Cazelles since 5 February 2020), and by two sub-prefects in Le Marin (Corinne Blanchot-Prosper) and La Trinité / Saint-Pierre (Nicolas Onimus, appointed on 20 May 2020).

The prefecture was criticized for racism following the publication on its Twitter account of a poster calling for physical distancing against the coronavirus and showing a black man and a white man separated by pineapples.[37]

Institutions edit

Former town hall or Mayor's office of Fort-de-France

The President of the Executive Council of Martinique is Serge Letchimy as of 2 July 2021.

The Executive Council of Martinique is composed of nine members (a president and eight executive councilors).[38]

The deliberative assembly of the territorial collectivity is the Assembly of Martinique, composed of 51 elected members and chaired by Lucien Saliber as of 2 July 2021.[39]

The advisory council of the territorial collectivity of Martinique is the Economic, Social, Environmental, Cultural and Educational Council of Martinique (Conseil économique, social, environnemental, de la culture et de l'éducation de Martinique), composed of 68 members. Its president is Justin Daniel since 20 May 2021.[40]

National representation edit

Martinique has been represented since 17 June 2017, in the National Assembly by four deputies (Serge Letchimy, Jean-Philippe Nilor, Josette Manin and Manuéla Kéclard-Mondésir) and in the Senate by two senators (Maurice Antiste and Catherine Conconne) since 24 September 2017.

Martinique is also represented in the Economic, Social and Environmental Council by Pierre Marie-Joseph since 26 April 2021.[41]

Institutional and statutory evolution of the island edit

During the 2000s, the political debate in Martinique focused on the question of the evolution of the island's status.[42] Two political ideologies, assimilationism and autonomism, clashed. On the one hand, there are those who want a change of status based on Article 73 of the French Constitution, i.e., that all French laws apply in Martinique as of right, which in law is called legislative identity, and on the other hand, the autonomists who want a change of status based on Article 74 of the French Constitution, i.e., an autonomous status subject to the regime of legislative specialty following the example of St. Martin and St. Barthelemy.

Since the constitutional revision of 28 March 2003, Martinique has four options:

  • First possibility: the status quo,[43] Martinique retains its status as an Overseas Department and Region, under Article 73 of the Constitution. The DROMs are under the regime of legislative identity. In this framework, the laws and regulations are applicable as of right, with the adaptations required by the particular characteristics and constraints of the communities concerned.
    Old City Hall, Fort-de-France
    Second possibility: if the local stakeholders, and first and foremost the elected representatives, agree, they can, within the framework of Article 73 of the Constitution,[44] propose an institutional evolution such as the creation of a single assembly (merger of the general council and the regional council). However, the department and the region will remain. The government may propose to the President of the Republic to consult the voters on this issue. In case of a negative answer, nothing will be possible. In case of positive response, the final decision will be taken by the Parliament, which will finally decide whether the reform is carried out by passing an ordinary law.[45]
  • Third possibility: those elected may propose the creation of a new collectivity within the framework of Article 73 of the French Constitution.[46] This new community will replace the department and the region. It will bring together the competences currently attributed to the General Council and the Regional Council. This community governed by Article 73 is subject to the regime of legislative identity and is therefore not autonomous. It will have as institutions an executive council, a deliberative assembly and an economic and social council.[47]
  • Fourth possibility: if a consensus is reached, the elected representatives may propose to the government a change of status, i.e., the transformation of Martinique into an overseas collectivity (COM).[48] Indeed, since the constitutional revision of 28 March 2003, the overseas departments may, under Article 74, become an overseas collectivity (COM) like St. Martin and St. Barthélemy.

Unlike the overseas departments, the overseas collectivities are subject to legislative specialization.[42] The laws and decrees of the Republic apply to them under certain conditions established by the organic law defining their status. The overseas departments have a greater degree of autonomy than the DOMs. They have an executive council, a territorial council and an economic and social council. The prefect is the representative of the French State in the overseas collectivity.[citation needed]

Salines Beach, St Anne peninsula

However, the French Constitution specifies in Article 72-4[42] that "no change may be made, for all or part of one of the communities mentioned in the second paragraph of Article 72-3, from one of the regimes provided for in Articles 73 and 74, without the prior consent of the electors of the community or part of the community concerned having been obtained, under the conditions provided for in the following paragraph.[42]

In 2003, a new organization is envisaged, in which the regional and departmental institutions would be merged into a single institution. This proposal was rejected in Martinique (but also in Guadeloupe) by 50.48% in a referendum held on 7 December 2003.[49]

On 10 January 2010, a consultation of the population was held. Voters were asked to vote in a referendum on a possible change in the status of their territory. The ballot proposed voters to "approve or reject the transition to the regime provided for in Article 74 of the Constitution". The majority of voters, 79.3%, said "no".[47]

The following 24 January, in a second referendum, 68.4% of the population of Martinique approved the transition to a "single collectivity" under Article 73 of the Constitution, i.e., a single assembly that would exercise the powers of the General Council and the Regional Council.[46]

New collectivity of Martinique edit

The project of the elected representatives of Martinique to the government proposes a single territorial community[45] governed by Article 73 of the Constitution,[44] whose name is "Territorial Community of Martinique". The single assembly that replaces the General Council and the Regional Council is called the "Assembly of Martinique". The Assembly of Martinique is composed of 51 councilors, elected for a six-year term of office by the proportional representation system (the electoral district is divided into four sections). A majority bonus of 20% is granted to the first place list.[citation needed]

The executive body of this community is called the "executive council",[50] which is composed of nine executive councilors, including a president. The president of the community of Martinique is the president of the executive council. The executive council is responsible to the Assembly of Martinique, which may overrule it by a motion of constructive censure. Unlike the previous functioning of the General Council and the Regional Council, the Assembly of Martinique is separate from the Executive Council and is headed by a bureau and a president.

Anses d'Arlet and its churchside beach, a landmark of Martinique

The new collectivity of Martinique combines the powers of the general and regional councils, but may obtain new powers through empowerments under Article 73. The executive council is assisted by an advisory council, the Economic, Social, Environmental, Cultural and Educational Council of Martinique.[50]

The bill was approved on 26 January 2011, by the French Government. The ordinary law was submitted to Parliament during the first half of 2011 and resulted in the adoption of Law No. 2011-884 27 July 2011, on the territorial communities of French Guiana and Martinique.[50]

Political forces edit

Political life in Martinique is essentially based on Martinican political parties and local federations of national parties (PS and LR). The following classification takes into account their position with regard to the statutory evolution of the island: there are the assimilationists (in favor of an institutional or statutory evolution within the framework of Article 73 of the French Constitution), the autonomists and the independentists (in favor of a statutory evolution based on Article 74 of the French Constitution).

Indeed, on 18 December 2008, during the congress of Martinique's departmental and regional elected representatives, the thirty-three pro-independence elected representatives (MIM/CNCP/MODEMAS/PALIMA) of the two assemblies voted unanimously in favor of a change in the island's status based on Article 74 of the French Constitution, which allows access to autonomy; this change in status was massively rejected (79.3%) by the population during the referendum of 10 January 2010.[51]

Defence edit

The defence of the department is the responsibility of the French Armed Forces. Some 1,400 military personnel are deployed in Martinique and Guadeloupe – centred on the 33e régiment d'infanterie de Marine in Martinique and incorporating a reserve company of the regiment located in Guadeloupe.[52][53][54]

Five French Navy vessels are based in Martinique, including: the surveillance frigates Ventôse and Germinal, the patrol and support ship Dumont d'Urville, the Confiance-class patrol vessel Combattante and the coastal harbor tug (RPC) Maïtos.[55][56] The naval aviation element includes Eurocopter AS565 Panther and Eurocopter AS365 Dauphin helicopters able to embark on the Floréal-class frigates as required.[57][52] One Engins de Débarquement Amphibie – Standards (EDA-S) landing craft is to be delivered to naval forces based in Martinique by 2025. The landing craft is to better support operations in the territory and region.[58]

About 700 National Gendarmerie are also stationed in Martinique.[59]

Geography edit

Diamond Rock and the Sleeping Woman, the defining landscape of the southwest peninsula

Part of the archipelago of the Antilles, Martinique is located in the Caribbean Sea about 450 km (280 mi) northeast of the coast of South America and about 700 km (435 mi) southeast of the Dominican Republic. It is north of St. Lucia, northwest of Barbados and south of Dominica. The total area of Martinique is 1,128 km2 (436 sq mi), of which 40 km2 (15 sq mi) is water and the rest land.[8] Martinique is the 3rd largest island in The Lesser Antilles after Trinidad and Guadeloupe. It stretches 70 km (43 mi) in length and 30 km (19 mi) in width. The highest point is the volcano of Mount Pelée at 1,397 m (4,583 ft) above sea level. There are numerous small islands, particularly off the east coast.

Caravelle Peninsula and Martinique's Atlantic coast, as seen from the Phare de la Caravelle

The Atlantic, or "windward" coast of Martinique is difficult to navigate by ship. A combination of coastal cliffs, shallow coral reefs and cays, and strong winds make the area notoriously hazardous for sea traffic. The Caravelle peninsula clearly separates the north Atlantic and south Atlantic coast.

The Caribbean, or "leeward" coast of Martinique is much more favourable to sea traffic. Besides being shielded from the harsh Atlantic trade winds by the island, the sea bed itself descends steeply from the shore. This ensures that most potential hazards are deep underwater, and prevents the growth of corals.

Pitons du Carbet rainforest, as seen from the Fontaine Didier route in Fort de France

The north of the island is especially mountainous. It features four ensembles of pitons (volcanoes) and mornes (mountains): the Piton Conil on the extreme North, which dominates the Dominica Channel; Mont Pelée, an active volcano; the Morne Jacob; and the Pitons du Carbet, an ensemble of five extinct volcanoes covered with rainforest and dominating the Bay of Fort de France at 1,196 m (3,924 ft). Mont Pelée's volcanic ash has created grey and black sand beaches in the north (in particular between Anse Ceron and Anse des Gallets), contrasting markedly from the white sands of Les Salines in the south.

Grand Anse beach, a haven for sea turtles, southwest peninsula

The south is more easily traversed, though it still features impressive geographic features. Because it is easier to travel to, and due to the many beaches and food facilities throughout this region, the south receives most of the tourism. The beaches from Pointe de Bout, through Diamant (which features right off the coast of Roche de Diamant), St. Luce, the department of St. Anne and down to Les Salines are popular.

Relief edit

The terrain is mountainous on this island of volcanic origin. The oldest areas correspond to the volcanic zones at the southern end of the island and towards the peninsula of La Caravelle to the east. The island developed over the last 20 million years according to a sequence of movements and volcanic eruptions to the north.

The volcanic activity is due to the subduction fault located here, where the South American Plate slides beneath the Caribbean Plate.[60] Martinique has eight centres of volcanic activity. The oldest rocks are andesitic lavas dated to about 24 million years ago, mixed with tholeiitic magma containing iron and magnesium. Mount Pelée, the island's most dramatic feature, formed about 400,000 years ago.[61] Pelée erupted in 1792, 1851, and twice in 1902.[26] The eruption of 8 May 1902, destroyed Saint-Pierre and killed 28,000 people in 2 minutes; that of 30 August 1902, killed nearly 1,100, mostly in Le Morne-Rouge and Ajoupa-Bouillon.[62][63]

The east coast, coast of the wind or of the islands, has been called in the Caribbean "cabesterre". This term in Martinique designates more specifically the area of La Caravelle. This windward coast, bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, is directly exposed to the trade winds and the sea bottom. The northern part of the Grand River in Sainte-Marie is basically surrounded by cliffs, with very few mooring points; access to maritime navigation is limited to inshore fishing with small traditional Martinique boats.

Flora and fauna edit

The Trou d'eau of the Pitons du Carbet forest, Rivière du Lorrain, as seen from the Trace des Jésuites trail
Beach of Anse Grosse Roche, St Anne peninsula
The Jamaican fruit bat can be found throughout the island

The northern end of the island catches most of the rainfall and is heavily forested, featuring species such as bamboo, mahogany, rosewood and West Indian locust. The south is drier and dominated by savanna-like brush, including cacti, Copaiba balsam, logwood and acacia.

Anole lizards and fer-de-lance snakes are native to the island. Mongooses (Urva auropunctata), introduced in the 1800s to control the snake population, have become a particularly cumbersome introduced species[64] as they prey upon bird eggs and have exterminated or endangered a number of native birds, including the Martinique trembler, white-breasted trembler and White-breasted Thrasher.[19] Bat species include the Jamaican fruit bat, the Antillean fruit-eating bat, the Little yellow-shouldered bat, Davy's naked-backed bat, the Greater bulldog bat, Schwartz's myotis, and the Mexican free-tailed bat.

Beaches edit

Martinique has many beaches:[65] those in the south of the island are of white sand, unlike those in the north which are of volcanic origin and therefore of black or gray sand.

Most of the beaches are wild, without services and without surveillance, but some are organized and give the possibility to do sports and activities related to the sea.

Hydrography edit

Due to the island's geographic and morphological characteristics, it has short and torrential rivers. The Lézarde, 30 km long, is the longest on the island.

Major urban areas edit

The most populous urban unit is Le Robert, which covers 11 communes in the southeastern part of the department. The three largest urban units are:[66]

Urban unit Population (2019)
Le Robert 130,179
Fort-de-France 116,462
Le Lamentin 40,095

Economy edit

Dillon's distillery

In 2014, Martinique had a total GDP of 8.4 billion euros. Its economy is heavily dependent on tourism, limited agricultural production, and grant aid from mainland France.[8]

Historically, Martinique's economy relied on agriculture, notably sugar and bananas, but by the beginning of the 21st century this sector had dwindled considerably. Sugar production has declined, with most of the sugarcane now used for the production of rum.[8] Banana exports are increasing, going mostly to mainland France. Chlordecone, a pesticide used in the cultivation of bananas before a ban in 1993, has been found to have contaminated farming ground, rivers and fish, and affected the health of islanders. Fishing and agriculture has had to stop in affected areas, having a significant effect on the economy.[67] The bulk of meat, vegetable and grain requirements must be imported. This contributes to a chronic trade deficit that requires large annual transfers of aid from mainland France.[8]

All goods entering Martinique are charged a variable "sea toll" which may reach 30% of the value of the cargo and provides 40% of the island's total revenue. Additionally the government charges an "annual due" of 1–2.5% and a value added tax of 2.2–8.5%.[68]

Exports and imports edit

Exports of goods and services in 2015 amounted to €1,102 million (€504 million of goods), of which more than 20% were refined petroleum products (SARA refinery located in the town of Le Lamentin), €95.9 million of agricultural, forestry, fish and aquaculture products, €62.4 million of agri-food industry products and €54.8 million of other goods.

Imports of goods and services in 2015 were €3,038 million (of which €2,709 million were goods), of which approximately 40% were crude and refined petroleum products, €462.6 million were agricultural and agri-food products, and €442.8 million were mechanical, electrical, electronic and computer equipment.

Tourism edit

Les Salines, a wide sand beach at the southeastern end of the island

Tourism has become more important than agricultural exports as a source of foreign exchange.[8] Most visitors come from mainland France, Canada and the US.[8] Roughly 16% of the total businesses on the island (some 6,000 companies) provide tourist-related services.[68]

Agriculture edit

Banana edit

Banana cultivation is the main agricultural activity, with more than 7,200 hectares cultivated, nearly 220,000 tons produced and almost 12,000 jobs (direct + indirect) in 2006 figures. Its weight in the island's economy is low (1.6%); however, it generates more than 40% of the agricultural value added.[69]

Sugarcane Cultivation

Rum edit

Rum, and particularly agricultural rum, accounted for 23% of agri-food value added in 2005 and employed 380 people on the island (including traditional rum). The island's production is about 90,000 hl of pure alcohol in 2009, of which 79,116 hl of pure alcohol is agricultural rum (2009).[70]

Sugarcane edit

In 2009, sugarcane cultivation occupied 4,150 hectares, or 13.7% of agricultural land. The area under cultivation has increased by more than 20% in the last 20 years, a rapid increase explained by the high added value of the rum produced and the rise in world sugar prices. This production is increasingly concentrated, with farms of more than 50 hectares accounting for 6.2% of the farms and 73.4% of the area under production. Annual production was about 220,000 tons in 2009, of which almost 90,000 tons went to sugar production, and the rest was delivered to agricultural rum distilleries.[71]

Pineapples edit

Pineapples used to be an important part of agricultural production, but in 2005, according to IEDOM, they accounted for only 1% of agricultural production in value (2.5 million euros compared to 7.9 million in 2000).

Infrastructure edit

The A1 highway (972) in Fort-de-France

Transport edit

Martinique's main and only airport with commercial flights is Martinique Aimé Césaire International Airport. It serves flights to and from Europe, the Caribbean, Venezuela, the United States, and Canada.[26] See List of airports in Martinique.

Fort-de-France is the major harbour. The island has regular ferry service to Guadeloupe, Dominica and St. Lucia.[19][26] There are also several local ferry companies that connect Fort-de-France with Pointe du Bout.[19]

The road network is extensive and well-maintained, with freeways in the area around Fort-de-France. Buses run frequently between the capital and St. Pierre.[19]

Roads edit

In 2019, Martinique's road network consisted of 2,123 km:[72]

  • 7 km of highway (A1 between Fort-de-France and Le Lamentin) ;
  • 919 km of departmental and national roads
    Lighthouse of La Caravelle, Martinique
    1,197 km of communal roads.

In proportion to its population, Martinique is the French department with the highest number of vehicle registrations.[73]

In 2019, 19,137 new vehicles were registered in Martinique, i.e. 42 new vehicles were purchased per 1,000 inhabitants (+14 in 5 years), to the great benefit of dealers.[74]

Public transport edit

The public entity "Martinique Transport" was created in December 2014. This establishment is in charge of urban, intercity passenger (cabs), maritime, school and disabled student transport throughout the island, as well as the bus network.[73]

The first exclusive right-of-way public transport line in Martinique (TCSP), served by high service level buses between Fort-de-France and Le Lamentin airport, was put into service on 13 August 2018. Extensions to Schœlcher, Robert and Ducos are planned.

Ports edit

Given the insular nature of Martinique, its supply by sea is important. The port of Fort-de-France is the seventh largest French port in terms of container traffic.[75] After 2012, it became the Grand Port Maritime Port (GPM) of Martinique, following the State's decision to modernize port infrastructures of national interest.

Air services edit

The island's airport is Martinique Aimé Césaire International Airport. It is located in the municipality of Le Lamentin. Its civilian traffic (1,696,071 passengers in 2015) ranks it thirteenth among French airports, behind those of two other overseas departments (Guadeloupe – Pôle Caraïbes de Pointe-à-Pitre Airport, Guadeloupe, and La Réunion-Roland-Garros Airport).[76] Its traffic is very strongly polarized by metropolitan France, with very limited (192,244 passengers in 2017) and declining international traffic.

Former Martinique Plantation train (030-T-Corpet)

Railroads edit

At the beginning of the 20th century, Martinique had more than 240 km of railways serving the sugar factories (cane transport). Only one tourist train remains in Sainte-Marie between the Saint-James house and the banana museum.[75]

Communications edit

The country code top-level domain for Martinique is .mq, but .fr is often used instead. The country code for international dialling is 596. The entire island uses a single area code (also 596) for landline phones and 696 for cell phones. (596 is dialled twice when calling a Martinique landline from another country.)[77]

Mobile telephony edit

There are three mobile telephone networks in Martinique: Orange, SFR Caraïbe and Digicel. The arrival of Free, in partnership with Digicel, was planned for 2020.45

According to Arcep, by mid-2018, Martinique is 99% covered by 4G.[78]

Television edit

The DTT package includes 10 free channels: 4 national channels of the France Télévisions group, the news channel France 24, Arte and 4 local channels Martinique 1re, ViàATV, KMT Télévision. Zouk TV stopped broadcasting in April 2021 and will be subsequently replaced by Zitata TV, whose broadcasting is delayed following the COVID-19 pandemic.

Viewers in Martinique do not have free access to other free national channels in the DTT package in mainland France (TF1 group, M6 group, etc.).

Viewers in the French overseas territories also do not have free access to the public service cultural channel Culturebox, which is not broadcast locally on DTT.[79]

The French-language satellite package Canal+ Caraïbes is available in the territory.

Telephone and Internet edit

In early 2019, Orange put into service "Kanawa", a new submarine cable linking Martinique to French Guiana.

Martinique is also connected by other submarine cables: ECFS (en), Americas-2 (en) and Southern Caribbean Fiber.[80]

Demographics edit

Population edit

Martinique had a population of 349,925 as of January 2024.[4] The population has been decreasing by 0.9% per year since 2013.[81] There are an estimated 260,000 people of Martinican origin living in mainland France, most of them in the Paris region. Emigration was highest in the 1970s, causing population growth to almost stop, but it is comparatively light today.[8]

Religion in Martinique[82]

  Catholic (86%)
  Protestant (5.6%)
  Muslim (0.5%)
  Baháʼí (0.5%)
  Hindu (0.3%)
  Others (7.1%)
Historical population
24,000 74,000 120,400 152,925 157,805 162,861 167,119 175,863 189,599 203,781 239,130
292,062 320,030 324,832 328,566 359,572 381,325 394,173 380,877 360,749 349,925
Official figures from past censuses and INSEE estimates

Ethnic groups edit

The population of Martinique is mainly of African descent generally mixed with European, Amerindian (Carib), Indian (descendants of 19th-century Tamil and Telugu immigrants from South India), Lebanese, Syrian or Chinese. Martinique also has a small Syro-Lebanese community, a small Indian community, a small but increasing Chinese community, and the Béké community, descendants of the first European settlers.[8]

The Béké population represents around 1% of Martinique's population,[83] mostly of noble ancestry or members of the old bourgeoisie. In addition to the island population, the island hosts a mainland French community, most of which live on the island on a temporary basis (generally from 3 to 5 years).[citation needed]

Religion edit

Cathédrale Saint Louis

About 90% of Martiniquans are Christian, predominantly Roman Catholic as well as smaller numbers of various Protestant denominations.[8] There are much smaller communities of other faiths such as Islam, Hinduism and the Baháʼí Faith.

The island has 49 parishes[84] and several historic places of worship, such as the Saint-Louis Cathedral of Fort de France,[85] the Sacred Heart Church of Balata,[86] and the Co-Cathedral of Our Lady of Assumption, Saint-Pierre.[87]

Catholic Church edit

Catholic parishes are present in each municipality and village of the territory.[88] The island has the following places of worship classified as historic monuments:

The Archdiocese of Saint-Pierre and Fort-de-France (Latin: archidioecesis Sancti Petri et Arcis Gallicae seu Martinicensis) is an ecclesiastical circumscription of the Catholic Church in the Caribbean, based in Saint-Pierre and Fort-de-France, on the island of Martinique. The archdiocese of Saint-Pierre and Fort-de-France is metropolitan and its suffragan dioceses are Basse-Terre and Pointe-à-Pitre and Cayenne.

Languages edit

Multilingual welcome sign in Fort-de-France. Kontan wè zot is Martiniquan Creole for "Happy to see you."

The official language of Martinique is French, which is spoken by most of the population. The department was integrated into France in 1946, and consequently became French.[89] Most residents also speak Martinican Creole (Martinique Creole, Kréyol Mat'nik, Kreyòl), a form of Antillean Creole closely related to the varieties spoken in neighboring English-dominated islands of Saint Lucia and Dominica. Martiniquan Creole is based on French, Carib and African languages with elements of English, Spanish, and Portuguese.[citation needed] Also, unlike other varieties of French creole, such as Mauritian Creole, Martinican Creole is not readily understood by speakers of Standard French due to significant differences in grammar, syntax, vocabulary and pronunciation.[citation needed] It continues to be used in oral storytelling traditions and other forms of speech and to a lesser extent in writing.[citation needed]

French and Creole are in a diglossic situation in Martinique,[90][91] where French is used in official dialogue and Martinican Creole is used in casual or familial contexts.[91] Creole was a spoken language with a developed "oraliture"; it was not until the mid 20th century that Martinican Creole began to be written.[91] Since then, decreolization of the language has taken place via the adoption of Standard French features, mostly unconsciously, but some speakers have noticed that they do not speak Creole like their parents once did.[91]

Being an overseas department of France, the island has European, French, Caribbean, Martinican, black and Creole markers of identity, all being influenced by foreign factors, social factors, cultural factors and, as a reportedly important marker, linguistic practices.[89] Martinican and Creole identities are specifically asserted through encouragement of Creole and its use in literature, in a movement known as Créolité, that was started by Patrick Chamoiseau, Jean Bernabé and Raphaël Confiant.[89][92] Martinican Creole used to be a shameful language, and it was not until the 1970s that it has been revalorized through literature and increasing code switching.[89][91][92] People now speak Martinican Creole more often and in more contexts.[92]

Speaking Creole in public schools was forbidden until 1982, which is thought to have discouraged parents from using Creole in the home.[93] In collaboration with GEREC (Groupe d'Etudes et de Recherches en Espace Créolophone) Raphaël Confiant created KAPES KREYOL[90] (CAPES for Creole, Certificat d'aptitude au professorat de l'enseignement du second degré), which is an aptitude exam that allowed Creole teachers in secondary school.[91] This debuted 9 February 2001.[90] Recently, the education authority, Académie de la Martinique, launched "Parcours Creole +" in 2019, a project trialling bilingual education of children in French and Martinican. Rather than being a topic to be learned itself, Creole became a language that classes were taught in, such as arts, math, physical activity, etc.[94] Parents can also choose the "Parcours Anglais +", learning in classes conducted in French and English from kindergarten until their final year, as in the Creole + course.[95] A "Parcours Espagnol +", where children learn in and with French and Spanish, is in the planning stages.[96]

Though Creole is normally not used in professional situations, members of the media and politicians have begun to use it more frequently as a way to redeem national identity and prevent cultural assimilation by mainland France.[citation needed]

Linguistic features of Martinican Creole edit

Martinican Creole has general locative marking (GLM, also called general locative adposition, goal/source (in)difference and motion-to=motion-from). This means that source locations, final locations and static entity locations are expressed morphologically identically.[97] Some West African languages that are possibly contributors to Martinican Creole also present GLM.[97] Martinican Creole locative marking exists in 3 morphological types, including:

  1. spatial prepositions as free morphemes;
    • These include "an" (in), "adan" (inside), "douvan" (in front), "anba" (under) and "anlè" (on).
  2. spatial morphemes "a-", "an(n)-", and "o(z)-" bound to the noun on their right;
    • Only bare lexemes that depict certain locations will take on these particles
  3. phonologically null locative markers
    • In ambiguous sentences, these are added to polysyllabic city names[97]

Culture edit

Martinique dancers in traditional dress

As an overseas département of France, Martinique's culture blends French and Caribbean influences. The city of Saint-Pierre (destroyed by a volcanic eruption of Mount Pelée), was often referred to as the "Paris of the Lesser Antilles". Following traditional French custom, many businesses close at midday to allow a lengthy lunch, then reopen later in the afternoon.

Today, Martinique has a higher standard of living than most other Caribbean countries. French products are easily available, from Chanel fashions to Limoges porcelain. Studying in the métropole (mainland France, especially Paris) is common for young adults. Martinique has been a vacation hotspot for many years, attracting both upper-class French and more budget-conscious travelers.

Cuisine edit

Martinique has a hybrid cuisine, mixing elements of African, French, Carib Amerindian and Indian subcontinental traditions. One of its most famous dishes is the Colombo (compare kuzhambu (Tamil: குழம்பு) for gravy or broth), a unique curry of chicken (curry chicken), meat or fish with vegetables, spiced with a distinctive masala of Tamil origins, sparked with tamarind, and often containing wine, coconut milk, cassava and rum. A strong tradition of Martiniquan desserts includes cakes made with pineapple, rum, and a wide range of local ingredients.

Literature edit

Schoelcher Library

Sisters Jeanne Nardal and Paulette Nardal were involved in the creation of the Négritude movement. Yva Léro was a writer and painter who co-founded the Women's Union of Martinique. Anna Marie-Magdeleine wrote with her partner under the pseudonym Carbet.

Aimé Césaire is perhaps Martinique's most famous writer; he was one of the main figures in the Négritude literary movement.[98] René Ménil was a surrealist writer who founded the journal Tropiques with Aimé and Suzanne Césaire and later formulated the concept of Antillanité. Other surrealist writers of that era included Étienne Léro and Jules Monnerot, who co-founded the journal Légitime Défense with Simone Yoyotte and Ménil. Édouard Glissant was later influenced by Césaire and Ménil, and in turn had an influence on Patrick Chamoiseau, who founded the Créolité movement with Raphaël Confiant and Jean Bernabé.[citation needed] Raphaël Confiant was a poetry, prose and non-fiction writer who supports Creole and tries to bring both French and Creole (Martinican and Guadeloupean) together in his work.[90] He is specifically known for his contribution to the Créolité movement.

Frantz Fanon, a prominent critic of colonialism and racism, was also from Martinique.

Music edit

Martinique has a large popular music industry, which gained in international renown after the success of zouk music in the later 20th century. Zouk's popularity was particularly intense in France, where the genre became an important symbol of identity for Martinique and Guadeloupe.[99] Zouk's origins are in the folk music of Martinique and Guadeloupe, especially Martinican chouval bwa, and Guadeloupan gwo ka. There's also notable influence of the pan-Caribbean calypso tradition and Haitian kompa.

Symbols and flags edit

Martinique adopted a new flag on February 2, 2023, featuring a red triangle at the hoist and two horizontal bands of green and black. The flag of France is also flown alongside it as the country's parent country. A previous competition to create a flag in 2018 was annulled by the local administrative tribunal, but the island began a new public vote in 2022, with the hummingbird design being selected as the winner. However, the designer withdrew her design due to accusations of plagiarism, and the runner-up design, the rouge-vert-noir ("red-green-black"), was adopted. This flag is also the preferred symbol of Martinique's independence movement.

Sport edit

Louis Achille Stadium

Association football edit

The Martinique national football team[101] is affiliated with CONCACAF,[101] but not FIFA,[102] so it does not play in World Cup Qualifiers, but can play friendly matches and CONCACAF tournaments such as the CONCACAF Nations League and Gold Cup.[102] Since Martiniquais people are French citizens, they may choose to represent France in international competitions. Several French players also have had roots in Martinique although they were born or raised in France. Among the most famous include Thierry Henry, Eric Abidal, Raphaël Varane, Sylvain Wiltord and Loïc Rémy, all of whom represented France on multiple occasions and in Henry's case won the European Golden Boot twice. Henry and Varane also have won a FIFA World Cup each.

Martinique has its own soccer league known as the Ligue de Football de Martinique.[103] The Martinique men's soccer championship, known as the Regional 1 (R1)[104] – Trophée Gérard Janvion, is a premier local soccer competition in the territory. It is held annually in the form of a championship between fourteen amateur clubs between the months of September and May. The competition is organized by the Martinique Football League and, although the clubs in the league are affiliated with the French Football Federation, there is no promotion to the French national championships.

At the end of the twenty-six-day (two-stage) championship, the top four teams qualify for the Ligue Antilles, while the bottom three are relegated to the lower division, the Régionale 2.[105]

Surf edit

153rd International Surfing Championship, Basse-Pointe, Martinique

The Martinique Surf Pro[106] is an international surfing competition held every year in April in Basse-Pointe (Martinique).[107] It was created in 2015 by two Martinicans, Nicolas Ursulet and Nicolas Clémenté[108] and is organized by the Caribbean Surf Project (CSP).51 It is the only Caribbean competition in the World Surf League, the world surfing championship. It is part of the World Qualifying Series calendar, the entry league to the WSL's elite circuit, the Championship Tour.[109]

Regattas edit

Le Tour de Yoles Rondes de Martinique is an annual sailing regatta,[110] the island's largest sporting event, which takes place in late July and early August and is very popular with spectators.[111]

The event is organized by the Fédération des yoles rondes. Crews circumnavigate Martinique on a 180-kilometer course over eight stages. The race begins with a prologue time trial from the starting town.

The time trial determines the starting order of the first ten boats, and the time between starts is determined by the advantage of each boat over the next during the prologue; all Boats below the top ten start simultaneously. The next seven legs circumnavigate the island. The leg around the southern part of the island, starting in the commune of Le Diamant, passing through Sainte-Anne and finishing in Le François, is known as the Défi de l'Espace Sud (Southern Challenge Zone).

Tour des Yoles

Handball edit

The Martinique Handball Championship, organized by the Martinique Handball League,[112] concludes with the Poule des As (play-off) which determines the Martinique champion in the women's and men's categories. The Poule des As is a very popular event in Martinique, the pavilions are filled for the finals held at the Palais des Sports de Lamentin.

The highest division is the Pré-Nationale, equivalent to the Pré-Nationale (or even the Nationale 3) in metropolitan France. The champions of the Poule des As come every year to Metropolitan France to play in the finals of the French Handball Championships of N1, N2 and N3 Women, N2 and N3 Men Metropolitan/Ultra Marines.

The winners (female and male) of the Martinique Handball Cup, receive a reward of 10 000 Euros. The main players of the Martinique Handball Championship in recent years have been: Katty Piejos, Cédric Sorhaindo, Joël Abati.

Notable Martinique people edit

Below is a list of notable people born in Martinique, with at least one parent or grandparent born in Martinique, or who are living or have lived in Martinique.

Painters and sculptors edit

Film-makers, screenwriters, directors and actors edit

Viktor Lazlo (Paris Book Fair 2011).

Singers, musicians or music groups edit

Jocelyne Béroard at the Mons International Film Festival (May 2007). She was made Officier des l'ordre des Arts et des Lettres in 2020 and National Order of the Legion of Honor in 2014.
Joeystarr at Art Rock 2007, Saint-Brieuc (February 2011).
Kalash, rapper and singer of Dancehall and Trap.

Sports personalities edit

Athletics / Parathletics edit

Basketball edit

Mélanie de Jesus dos Santos is the 2019 European Artistic Gymnastics all-around champion, a two time European champion on floor exercise (2018, 2019), and the 2021 European champion on the balance beam
Coralie Balmy, freestyle swimmer, at the parade of French medallists of the 2012 Olympics (August 2012).
Wendie Renard at the 2011 FIFA Women's World Cup (July 2011).
Ronny Turiaf at a New York Knicks practice (October 2010).

Football edit

Handball edit

Judo edit

Tennis edit

Volleyball edit

Politics edit

Contemporary political figures edit

Serge Letchimy, President of the Executive Council of Martinique since 2 July 2021, President of the Regional Council of Martinique from 2010 to 2015, Mayor of Fort-de-France from 2001 to 2010 and President of the Martinican Progressive Party since 2005
Pierre-Marie Pory-Papy, Abolitionist and anti-slavery Member of Parliament from 1848 to 1849 and 1871-1874

Politicians of Martinique edit

Cyrille Bissette deputy from 1849 to 1851 and one of the fathers of the abolition of slavery in Martinique

Martinican writers and intellectuals edit

Aimé Césaire poet, playwright and author of Cahier d'un retour au pays natal. He is one of the founders of Négritude
Édouard Glissant, novelist, poet, essayist and philosopher, he won the Prix Renaudot in 1958, the Prix Puterbaugh in the United States in 1989 and the Prix Roger Caillois in 1991. Edouard Glissant is the founder of the literary movement L'Antillanité and the philosophical concept "Le Tout Monde"
René Ménil, Philosopher, essayist, and winner of the Frantz Fanon prize in 1999. In 1932, he was amongst Martinique literary figures engaged in publishing Légitime Défense[140]
Patrick Chamoiseau, novelist awarded the Prix Goncourt in 1992 for his novel Texaco and Commander of the ordre des Arts et des Lettres in 2010. He is a co-founder of the literary movement, Créolité
René Maran, novelist awarded the Prix Goncourt in 1921 for his novel Batouala
Raphaël Confiant, novelist and cofounder of the literary movement Créolité. He has won several literary prizes including the prix Novembre in 1991 for his novel Eau de café, the Shibusawa-Claudel Prize in Japan, the Antigone Prize, the Caribbean Literary Prize, the Carbet Prize and the Casa de las Américas Prize in Cuba.

A non-exhaustive list of the main novelists, poets, playwrights, essayists, sociologists, economists and historians from Martinique:

  • Jacques Adélaïde-Merlande : Historian. In 2000, he was awarded an honorary degree by the University of the West Indies. He is the author of "Histoire générale des Antilles et des Guyanes, des Précolombiens à nos jours" and directed the publication of volumes 3 and 4 of the "Historial antillais" series.[141][142]
  • Alfred Alexandre : a writer, he won the Prix des Amériques insulaires et de la Guyane in 2006 for his novel "Bord de canal".[143] In 2020, he won the Prix Carbet de la Caraïbe et du Tout-Monde for his collection of poems "The walk of Leïla Khane".
  • Sabine Andrivon-Milton : historian, founder of the Association for the Military History of Martinique and Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur, she is the author of "La Martinique pendant la Grande Guerre" a collection of poems and songs, and "Anatole dans la tourmente du Morne Siphon".[144]
  • Jean Bernabé : a writer, linguist and author of several novels including Le Bailleur d'étincelle and Le Partage des ancêtres
  • Daniel Boukman : writer, he won the Carbet Prize in 1992, writing Et jusqu'à la dernière pulsation de nos veines, Délivrans, and Chants pour hâter la mort du temps des Orphées ou Madinina île esclave[145]
  • Roland Brival : writer, awarded the prix RFO du livre in 2000 and chevalier de l'ordre des Arts et des Lettres in 2013[146]
  • Guy Cabort-Masson : novelist, who won the Prix de la Fondation Frantz Fanon in 1998 for La Mangrove mulâtre, Martinique, comportements et mentalité[147]
  • Nicole Cage-Florentiny : novelist who won the prix Casa de las Américas 1996 (Cuba) for Arc-en-Ciel, l'espoir, also writing C'est vole que je vole and a bilingual collection of poems, Dèyè pawol sé lanmou / Par-delà les mots l'amour[148]
  • Mayotte Capécia : novelist born in Le Carbet in 1916, the author of two major novels "I Am a Martinican Woman" and "The White Negress". She won the France-Antilles prize for "Je suis martiniquaise" in 1949
  • Marie-Magdeleine Carbet : a novelist, whose best-known work is a volume of poetry titled "Rose de ta grâce". She received the Prix littéraire des Caraïbes in 1970
  • Paule Cassius de Linval, writer, storyteller and poet. In 1961, his collection of tales "Mon pays à travers les légendes" won the prix Montyon[149]
  • Aimé Césaire : poet and playwright and father of the concept of négritude, Cahier d'un retour au pays natal, Discourse on Colonialism, The Tragedy of King Christophe
  • Suzanne Césaire : author of Léo Frobénius et le problème des civilisations and Aurore de la liberté
  • Patrick Chamoiseau : novelist awarded the prix Goncourt in 1992 for Texaco, Chronique des sept misères, Une enfance créole [150]
  • Nadia Chonville : Sociologist and novelist. She is the author of the fantasy novel "Rose de Wégastrie".[151]
  • Raphaël Confiant : novelist awarded the prix Antigone and the prix Novembre for his work Eau de café, Adèle et la Pacotilleuse, La Panse du chacal
  • Jean Crusol : economist and author of Les Antilles Guyane et la Caraïbe : coopération et globalisation, Le tourisme et la Caraïbe and L'enjeu des petites Économies insulaires[152]
  • Camille Darsières : and author of : Des origines de la nation martiniquaise, Joseph Lagrosillière, socialiste colonial
  • Marie-Reine de Jaham, novelist, made officer of the ordre des Arts et des Lettres in 2013, awarded the Prix littéraire des Caraïbes in 1997 and author of the best-selling novel "La Grande Béké"
  • Édouard de Lépine : historian and essayist, Sur la Question dite du Statut de la Martinique, Questions sur l'histoire antillaise : trois essais sur l'abolition, l'assimilation, l'autonomie, Dix semaines qui ébranlèrent la Martinique :
  • Tony Delsham : a journalist and best selling novelist in the Antilles; he is author of Xavier : Le drame d'un émigré antillais, Papa, est-ce que je peux venir mourir à la maison? and "Tribunal des femmes bafouées".[153]
  • Georges Desportes : novelist, poet and essayist, the author of : Cette île qui est la nôtre, Sous l'œil fixe du soleil and Le Patrimoine martiniquais, souvenirs et réflexions.[154]
  • Suzanne Dracius : novelist awarded the prix de la Société des Poètes français Jacques Raphaël-Leygues in 2010 : Negzagonal et Moun le Sid, and in 2009 Prix Fetkann Maryse Condé in the poetry category for Exquise déréliction métisse[155]
  • Miguel Duplan, a writer and teacher, he won the Prix Carbet de la Caraïbe in 2007 for his novel "L'Acier". He is also the author of the following novels "Le Discours profane" and "Un long silence de Carnaval".
  • Victor Duquesnay : Martinican poet. His best-known works are "Les Martiniquaises" and "Les Chansons des Isles".[156]
  • Jude Duranty : writer in French and Martinican Creole. He is the author of "Zouki ici danse", de "La fugue de Sopaltéba" and "Les contes de Layou".[157]
  • Frantz Fanon : essayist, author of Black Skin, White Masks and The Wretched of the Earth
  • Georges Fitt-Duval : poet, author of the following collections of poems : "Salut ma patrie", "Floralies-florilèges" and "Environnement, tropiques rayonnants".[158]
  • Édouard Glissant : novelist awarded the prix Renaudot in 1958. He is the author of La Lézarde, La Case du commandeur. In 1992, Edouard Glissant was a finalist for the Nobel prize in Literature, but it was the St. Lucian poet and playwright Derek Walcott who won by one vote.
  • Gilbert Gratiant : a pioneer of literature Martinican Creole, writing : Fab' Compè Zicaque, Poèmes en vers faux, Sel et Sargasses.[159]
  • Simonne Henry-Valmore : ethno-psychoanalyst and essayist. She won the prix Frantz Fanon in 1988 for "Dieu en exil". She co-wrote "Aimé Césaire, le nègre inconsolé" with Roger Toumson in 1992, then "objet perdu" in 2013.[160]
  • Fabienne Kanor, novelist, awarded the Prix RFO du livre in 2007 for her novel "Humus". In 2014, she won the Prix Carbet De la Caraïbe for her novel "Faire l'aventure".
  • Viktor Lazlo : novelist, singer and actor
  • Étienne Léro : co-author of the literary journal Légitime défense and the journal Tropiques
  • Yva Léro : novelist, Yva Léro authored "La Plaie", "Peau d'ébène" and "Doucherie".
  • Georges-Henri Léotin : novelist in French and Martinician Creole. He is the author of "Memwè la tè", "Mango vèt", and "Bèlè li sid".[161]
  • Marie-Hélène Léotin, historian and executive advisor to the Territorial Collectivity of Martinique in charge of Heritage and Culture, she is the author of "Habiter le monde, Martinique 1946-2006" ;[162]
  • Térèz Léotin : writer in French and Martinican Creole. She is the author of the novels "Le génie de la mer", "La panthère" et "Un bonheur à crédit".[163]
  • André Lucrèce : sociologist and writer author of La pluie de Dieu, Civilisés et énergumènes, and Société et modernité[164]
  • J. Q. Louison : poet and author of the fantasy novel series Le Crocodile assassiné, Le Canari brisé and L'Ère du serpent.[165]
  • Marie-Thérèse Julien Lung-Fou : Martinican writer best known for her collections of "créole tales" published in three volumes in 1979: "Contes mes", "Contes diaboliques, fabliaux" and "Contes animaux, proverbes, titimes ou devinettes". She also wrote the essay entitled "Le Carnaval aux Antilles".[166]
  • Marcel Manville : essayist, and winner of the Frantz Fanon Prize in 1992 for his essay Les Antilles sans fard.[167]
  • René Maran : novelist awarded the prix Goncourt in 1921 for Batouala, Un homme pareil aux autres
  • Georges Mauvois : novelist, playwright he won the Casa de las Américas Prize 2004 for Ovando ou Le magicien de Saint-Domingue, Agénor Cacoul, Man Chomil.
  • Alfred Melon-Degras, writer, poet and academic. He is the author of"Le silence", "Battre le rappel" and "Avec des si, avec des mains".[168]
  • René Ménil, philosopher and essayist. In 1999, he received the Frantz Fanon Prize for his essay "Antilles déjà jadis".He was also co-founder in 1932 of the journal Légitime Défense and with Aimé Césaire of the cultural review Tropiques in 1941. He is the author of "Tracées : Identité, négritude, esthétique aux Antilles" and "Pour l'émancipation et l'identité du peuple martiniquais". René Ménil, and with Césaire, Fanon and Glissant is one of Martinique's greatest thinkers.
  • Monchoachi : the pen name of André Pierre-Louis, a writer in French and Martinician Creole, he won the Carbet Prize and the prix Max-Jacob in 2003. His works include L'Espère-geste, Lakouzémi, Nostrom and Lémistè [169]
  • Paulette Nardal : co-founder of the journal, La Revue du Monde Noir in 1932 and one of the inspirations of the négritude movement [170]
  • Jeanne Nardal : Writer, philosopher and essayist, sister of Paulette Nardal
  • Armand Nicolas : Martinican historian. He is the author of "Histoire de la Martinique", "La révolution antiesclavagiste de mai 1848 à La Martinique", and "L'Insurrection du Sud à la Martinique, septembre 1870".[171]
  • Gaël Octavia, writer, playwright[172]
  • Xavier Orville : novelist, who won the Frantz Fanon prize in 1993. He wrote Le Corps absent de Prosper Ventura, Le Parfum des belles de nuit.[173]
  • Gilbert Pago : historian and author of "1848 : Chronique de l'abolition de l'esclavage en Martinique", "L'insurrection de Martinique 1870-1871", and "Lumina Sophie dite Surprise (1848-1879) : insurgée et bagnarde".[174]
  • Roger Parsemain : Poet and novelist. He is the author of "L'œuvre des volcans", "l'absence du destin" and "Il chantait des boléros".[175]
  • Eric Pézo, Writer and novelist in French and Martinican Creole, author of the novels : "L'amour sinon rien"; in Martinician Creole, "lanmou épi sé tout", "Marie-Noire", and "Passeurs de rives" and "Lasotjè", a work of poetry.[176]
  • Daniel Picouly : writer, tv host and winner of the Prix Renaudot for L'Enfant Léopard
  • Vincent Placoly : winner of the prix Frantz Fanon in 1991. Author of Une journée torride, La vie et la mort de Marcel Gonstran, L'eau-de-mort guildive[177]
  • Alain Rapon, novelist and storyteller. He is the author of the novel "La Présence de l'Absent" and received the Prix littéraire des Caraïbes in 1983. He is also the author of "Ti soleil", "Ti-Fène et la rivière qui chante", "Itinéraire d'un Esprit perdu" and "Danse, petit nègre danse".
  • Clément Richer : Martinican novelist and author of "L'homme de la Caravelle". In 1941 and 1948 he was awarded the Prix Paul Flat by the Académie française for his novel "Le dernier voyage de Pembroke" and "La croisière de la Priscilla" and the Prix Marianne in 1939. His novel "Ti Coyo et son requin" has been translated into English, German, Spanish, Danish and Dutch and adapted for film by Italo Calvino as Tiko and the Shark.
  • Jean-Marc Rosier : writer in French and Martinican Creole. He won the prix Sonny Rupaire for his novel in Creole, "An lavi chimérik" in 1999, then the prix Carbet de la Caraïbe for his novel "Noirs néons" in 2008 and in the poetry category of the prix Fetkann Maryse Condé for "Urbanîle" in 2015.
  • Julienne Salvat : writer, poet, she is the author of Feuillesonge, La lettre d'Avignon
  • Juliette Sméralda : sociologist, author of L'Indo-Antillais entre Noirs et Békés, Peau noire cheveu crépu, l'histoire d'une aliénation
  • Daniel Thaly : Martinican poet, and librarian of the Schœlcher Library from 1939 to 1945.[178]
  • Raphaël Tardon : writer, author of "La Caldeira" and "Starkenfirst", which received the grand prix littéraire des Antilles in 1948. In 1967, Raphaël Tardon was posthumously awarded the Prix littéraire des Caraïbes in recognition of his life's work.
  • Louis-Georges Tin : essayist and academic, the author of Esclavage et réparations : Comment faire face aux crimes de l'histoire and author of a dictionary that documents the history of the treatment of homosexuals in all regions of the world.[179][180]
  • Simone Yoyotte : She was the only woman to participate in producing the literary journal Légitime Défense published in 1932 by young Martinican intellectuals in Paris and considered one of the founding acts of the Négritude movement.
  • Joseph Zobel : A novelist, and winner of the Frantz Fanon Prize in 1994. He is the author of : La Rue Cases-Nègres

Other personalities edit

Energy edit

Martinique is part of the zones not interconnected to the continental metropolitan network (ZNI), which must therefore produce the electricity they consume themselves. For this reason, the ZNI have specific legislation on electricity production and distribution.

Martinique's energy mix is marked by a very strong importance of thermal energy production. At the same time, the island's electricity consumption has decreased slightly. These results can be attributed to the information and awareness-raising efforts of the regions, the Agency for the Environment and Energy Management (ADEME) and energy companies in favor of energy savings, but also to the context of demographic decline of the territory.

Despite these results, the control of the Territory's electricity consumption remains a central issue, given the Territory's low energy potential[187] compared to other overseas territories, such as Guadeloupe[188] and Reunion.[189]

Martinique and its inhabitants are therefore faced with a twofold need: to further strengthen the control of electricity consumption and at the same time develop renewable energies to reduce environmental pollution due to thermal electricity production.

Saut-Gendarme waterfall

Renewable energies edit

The exploitation of renewable energies in Martinique started late, as the characteristics of the island were previously considered unfavorable for their development. However, the efforts of the population and energy suppliers are moving towards a higher proportion of renewable energies in Martinique's future energy mix.

Article 56 of the Grenelle I Law No. 2009-967 3 August 2009, on the implementation of the Grenelle Environment Forum, sets out the provisions for overseas: in the case of Martinique, the energy objective is to reach 50% renewable energy in final consumption by 2020. Energy autonomy is planned for 2030.

As Martinique's electricity distribution grid is not interconnected with neighboring islands, let alone with the mainland's metropolitan grid, the decree of 23 April 2008, applies to the management of so-called intermittent energies: wind, photovoltaic and marine: any solar and wind power production facility with a capacity exceeding 3 kWp and not equipped with a storage system is liable to be disconnected from the grid by the grid manager once the threshold of 30% of random active power injected into the grid has been reached.

Thus, the achievement of the objectives of the Grenelle I law is subject to the development of Structures with a maximum power of 3 kWp or less, or to the incorporation of storage devices in production facilities.

Water edit

90% of the water distributed by Martinique's drinking water network comes from Rainwater intakes in five catchment areas. Thus, although there is no shortage of water, the situation becomes very critical in the Lenten period, with abstractions leading to the drying up of several rivers.[190]

Water resources are abundant but unevenly distributed: Four municipalities (Saint-Joseph, Gros-Morne, le Lorrain and Fort-de-France) provide 85% of Martinique's drinking water.

There is no water catchment in the south of the island. The water consumed in the South comes exclusively from abstractions from the North and the center (mainly from the Blanche River which flows into the Lézarde, the Capot, and the Dumauzé). Thus, 60% of the total is extracted from a single river (the Lézarde and its tributary, the Blanche river). This concentration of abstractions can constitute a risk in a crisis situation, such as a drought for example.[191]

Health edit

A patient is transferred between aircraft and ambulance at Martinique Aimé Césaire International Airport.

Regional health agency edit

A regional health agency for Martinique (Agence régionale de santé Martinique) was set up in 2010. It is responsible for applying French health policy in the territory, managing public health and health care regulations.[192]

Healthcare professionals edit

As of 1 January 2018, Martinique had a workforce of 1,091 doctors. For each 100,000 people of its population, there was a density of 141 general practitioners, 150 specialists, 53 dentists, 1,156 state certified nurses and 90 pharmacists.[193] Self-employed doctors are represented by URML Martinique, created under the Hospital, patients, health, territories bill. URML Martinique works in partnership with ARS Martinique, l'Assurance Maladie, the Ministry of Health and Local Authorities to manage regional health policy.[194]

Health facilities edit

The University Hospital of Martinique (Le Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Martinique) is a teaching hospital based in Fort-de-France, in an agreement with the University of the French Antilles. It is the largest French- and English-speaking university hospital in the Caribbean, having more than 1600 beds. These include 680 medical, 273 surgical and 100 obstetrics beds, with another 30 in its intensive care unit. The hospital operates a 24-hour emergency service.[195]

Chlordecone controversy edit

Actions of the French government edit

After the discovery of the toxicity of chlordecone, a dangerous insecticide, and the health risks it posed, the French state put in place certain measures to protect the Martinican and Guadeloupean populations, allocating nearly 100 million euros towards the implementation of these measures.[196] The soils are regularly tested and subjected to strict regulations related to the standards of potability.[196][197] Martinique is also subject to regular mapping processes to delineate highly contaminated areas. River fishing is also prohibited in order to limit health risks, as rivers represent high-risk contamination areas.[196]

Since 2008, the French state has developed three action plans establishing strategies to protect local populations, raise awareness regarding the effects of chlordecone, as well as to support the agriculture and fisheries sectors.[198]

A French parliamentary commission revealed in 2019 that more than 90% of Martinicans have been exposed to chlordecone, which was authorized for use between 1972 and 1993 in the banana plantations of the Antilles. The committee judged the three "Chlordecone Plans" launched by the State since 2008 to be inadequate; recommendations were provided via its rapporteur, Justine Benin MP, to address prevention and research into cleanup methods for a fourth plan, scheduled for 2020.[199]

The parliamentary commission of inquiry called the French state into question for having authorized the sale of chlordecone as an insecticide, as its toxicity was known, but "responsibilities are shared with economic actors. Firstly, industrialists, but also groups of planters and certain elected officials."[200]

Health consequences edit

Chlordecone is known to have harmful effects on human health, with scientific research identifying it as an endocrine disruptor or hormonally-active chemical agent, as well as a probable carcinogen, particularly in relation to increasing chances of prostate cancer occurrence and recurrence.[198][196] As an endocrine disruptor, chlordecone can also lead to delayed cognitive development in infants, an increased likelihood of pregnancy complications, and may disrupt the reproductive process.[196]

The chlordecone molecule has physical and chemical characteristics that allow it to remain for several centuries in soil, river-water and groundwater, thus spreading beyond the location of the banana plantations where this insecticide was initially administered.[196][201] Although chlordecone has not been used since the 1990s, the health risks remain. Chlordecone contamination occurs through contaminated food and drink.[198]

Local community response edit

In the streets of Fort-de-France, approximately 5,000 to 15,000 residents of Martinique demonstrated in protest on 27 March 2021, denouncing the possible statute of limitations on a complaint filed by civil parties for the use of chlordecone in causing life endangerment (mise en danger de la vie d'autrui).[202] The complaint was issued on 23 February 2006.[202][203]

The French government's actions in response to the historical authorization of chlordecone are often criticized by residents of Martinique and local associations involved in the "Chlordecone Scandal." The lack of information transmitted to the population concerning the danger of chlordecone between 1993 and 2004 is one of the main concerns expressed.[202]

The civil complaint in 2006 was issued by several associations from the islands of Martinique and Guadeloupe, and was in response to the long-term impacts of government-authorized chlordecone use in polluting the islands' natural environments and affecting the health of inhabitants.[204]

COVID-19 pandemic edit

Martinique's first cases of coronavirus (COVID-19) were confirmed in March 2020.[205] The pandemic has since put provision of health services under significant stress; as of 2 September 2021, Martinique had recorded an excess mortality at all ages, and of all causes since the week beginning 26 July 2021.[206]

In popular culture edit

  • In 1887, the artist Paul Gauguin lived in Martinique.[207] Gauguin painted the tropical landscape and the native women. The Paul Gauguin Interpretation Centre (former Gauguin Museum) is dedicated to his stay on the island.
  • Aimé Césaire's seminal poem Cahier d'un retour au pays natal (Notebook of a Return to the Native Land) envisions the poet's imagined journey back to his homeland Martinique to find it in a state of colossal poverty and psychological inferiority due to the French colonial presence.[208][209]
  • Lafcadio Hearn in 1890 published a travel book titled Two Years in the French West Indies, in which Martinique [Martinique Sketches] is its main topic; his descriptions of the island, people and history are lively observations of life before the Mont Pelée eruption in 1902 that would change the island forever. The Library of America republished his works in 2009 entitled Hearn: American Writings.[210][211]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "What is the motto of Martinique?". System1. 2015. Retrieved 26 May 2022. La collective au service du pays
  2. ^ "Statistiques ethniques". Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques (INSEE). Retrieved 24 June 2022.
  3. ^ "National Profiles | World Religion".
  4. ^ a b c "Estimation de population par région, sexe et grande classe d'âge – Années 1975 à 2024" (in French). Retrieved 17 January 2024.
  5. ^ "EU regions by GDP, Eurostat". Retrieved 18 September 2023.
  6. ^ BWETAMO KREYOL MATNIK – Potomitan – Site de promotion des cultures et des langues créoles – Annou voyé kreyòl douvan douvan Archived 17 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Dictionnaire du créole martiniquais, Raphaël Confiant
  7. ^ Baker, Colin; Jones, Sylvia Prys (1998), Encyclopedia of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education, Multilingual Matters, p. 390, ISBN 978-1-85359-362-8, archived from the original on 20 August 2020, retrieved 17 March 2015
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa "Encyclopedia Britannica- Martinique". Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
  9. ^ "Martinique (English)". French II. Archived from the original on 3 June 2021. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
  10. ^ Morison, Samuel (1942). Admiral of the Ocean Sea. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. pp. 588–589. ISBN 978-0-316-58478-4.
  11. ^ Columbus, Christopher, The Four Voyages. Penguin Classics 1969. Translated by J. M. Cohen. p. 98.
  12. ^ "Battle of Martinique, 25 June 1667". Archived from the original on 10 July 2019. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
  13. ^ "Martinique — History and Culture". Archived from the original on 1 March 2021. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
  14. ^ Baird, Charles (1885). History of the Huguenot Emigration to America. New York: Dodd, Mead and Co. p. 226.
  15. ^ Smiles, Samuel. The Huguenots in France. Retrieved 13 October 2022 – via Project Gutenberg.
  16. ^ History of the Huguenot Migration to America. New York: Dodd, Mead & Company. 1885. pp. 205–107.
  17. ^ Gasser, Jacques (1992–1993). "De la mer des Antilles à l'océan Indien (From the Caribbean Sea to the Indian Ocean)". Bulletin du Cercle Généalogique de Bourbon (Bulletin of the Bourbon Genealogical Circle). 38–41. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 31 August 2017. French language original, as reprinted in Le Diable Volant: Une histoire de la flibuste: de la mer des Antilles à l'océan Indien (1688–1700) / (The Flying Devil: A History of the Filibusters: From the Antilles to the Indian Ocean (1688–1700)).
  18. ^ Little, Benerson (2016). The Golden Age of Piracy: The Truth Behind Pirate Myths. New York: Skyhorse Publishing, Inc. ISBN 978-1-5107-1304-8. Archived from the original on 18 August 2021. Retrieved 15 September 2017.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g Ver Berkmoes, Ryan (2008). Caribbean Islands. Jens Porup, Michael Grossberg, et al. Footscray, Vic. & Oakland, CA: Lonely Planet Publications. ISBN 978-1-74059-575-9.
  20. ^ Auguste Lacour, Histoire de la Guadeloupe, vol. 1 (1635–1789). Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe, 1855 full text at Google Books Archived 26 July 2020 at the Wayback Machine, p. 235ff.
  21. ^ Robin Blackburn, The Overthrow of Colonial Slavery, 1776–1848 (Verso, 1988), p. 492.
  22. ^ Dessalles, Pierre (1996). Sugar and slavery, family and race : the letters and diary of Pierre Dessalles, planter in Martinique, 1808-1856. Elborg Forster, Robert Forster. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 52. ISBN 0-8018-5153-X. OCLC 32856639.
  23. ^ "Important Information". Martinique - Best Caribbean Islands, Caribbean Tourism, Best Caribbean Destination. Retrieved 27 August 2022.
  24. ^ Project manifest EU:
  25. ^ "MARTINIQUE 1870 : LA GRANDE INSURRECTION DU SUD". 27 June 2015. Archived from the original on 10 July 2019. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
  26. ^ a b c d The Caribbean. Christopher P. Baker. London: Dorling Kindersley. 2009. ISBN 978-0-7566-5372-9. OCLC 457910974.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  27. ^ Stromberg Childers, Kristen (1 December 2012). "The Second World War as a watershed in the French Caribbean". Atlantic Studies. 9 (4): 409–430. doi:10.1080/14788810.2012.719323. ISSN 1478-8810. S2CID 218622195.
  28. ^ Yardley, Christopher B. (21 April 2022). The Second World War Volume Two: Representing World Conflict on Postage Stamps. Balboa Press. ISBN 978-1-9822-9300-0.
  29. ^ Hubbard, Vincent (2002). A History of St. Kitts. Macmillan Caribbean. pp. 136–139. ISBN 978-0-333-74760-5.
  30. ^ a b c "Emeutes de 1959 : la Martinique règle ses comptes avec le colonialisme". 16 December 2016. Archived from the original on 10 July 2019. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
  31. ^ "Le drame de février 1974 marque encore les esprits". 15 February 2013. Archived from the original on 10 July 2019. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
  32. ^ "Blacks slam white minority in Martinique strike". International Herald Tribune. Associated Press. 13 February 2009. Archived from the original on 16 February 2009. Retrieved 15 February 2009.
  33. ^ "Race, class fuel social conflict on French Caribbean islands", Agence France-Presse (AFP), 17 February 2009, archived from the original on 21 February 2014[dead link]
  34. ^ a b "Sarkozy offers autonomy vote for Martinique" Archived 9 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine, AFP
  35. ^ "Quelles sont les collectivités territoriales situées outre-mer ?". Archived from the original on 21 June 2020.
  36. ^ a b c d e Populations légales 2019: 972 Martinique, INSEE
  37. ^ ""1 mètre ou cinq ananas" : la préfecture de Martinique s'excuse après un tweet sur la distanciation". LCI (in French). 23 May 2020. Archived from the original on 15 July 2021. Retrieved 23 July 2021.
  38. ^ "Les élus de la Collectivité Territoriale de Martinique sont au complet". Martinique la 1ère (in French). 3 July 2021. Archived from the original on 13 July 2021. Retrieved 23 July 2021.
  39. ^ "Lucien Saliber élu président de l'Assemblée de la Collectivité Territoriale de Martinique". Martinique la 1ère (in French). 2 July 2021. Archived from the original on 9 July 2021. Retrieved 23 July 2021.
  40. ^ "Justin Daniel a été élu Président du CÉSECÉM". RCI (in French). Archived from the original on 23 May 2021. Retrieved 23 July 2021.
  41. ^ "Le Martiniquais Pierre Marie-Joseph est nommé au Conseil économique, social et environnemental". Martinique la 1ère (in French). 29 April 2021. Archived from the original on 16 August 2021. Retrieved 23 July 2021.
  42. ^ a b c d "Les collectivités territoriales régies par l'article 73 | Conseil constitutionnel". (in French). Archived from the original on 3 August 2021. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  43. ^ William, Jean-Claude (15 December 2007). "Du brouillage. Droite et gauche en Martinique. Quelle réalité ?". Pouvoirs dans la Caraïbe. Revue du CRPLC (in French) (15): 121–149. doi:10.4000/plc.173. ISSN 1279-8657. Archived from the original on 2 June 2018. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  44. ^ a b "Assemblée nationale – Outre-mer : mesures organiques relatives aux collectivités régies par l'article 73 de la Constitution". Archived from the original on 23 June 2020. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  45. ^ a b "Guyane et Martinique – Sénat". 26 January 2011. Archived from the original on 3 August 2021. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  46. ^ a b "Le référendum a recueilli 68,3 % de réponses positives parmi les suffrages exprimés en Martinique pour un taux de participation de 35,81 % (Résultats de la consultation du 25 janvier 2010 en Guyane et en Martinique". Archived from the original on 10 January 2011. Retrieved 29 July 2021.
  47. ^ a b "Guyane et Martinique se prononcent sur une collectivité unique". (in French). Archived from the original on 29 April 2014. Retrieved 29 July 2021.
  48. ^ Daniel, Justin (2014). "Guyane et Martinique : enjeux et défis de la collectivité unique". Informations Sociales (6): 98–107. doi:10.3917/inso.186.0098. Archived from the original on 3 August 2021. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  49. ^ "Martinique, Référendum 2003, France. MJP, univesité de Perpignan". Archived from the original on 10 July 2021. Retrieved 29 July 2021.
  50. ^ a b c "LOI n° 2011-884 du 27 juillet 2011 relative aux collectivités territoriales de Guyane et de Martinique". Archived from the original on 3 August 2021. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  51. ^ Enero, 11 De; 2010 – 07h47 (11 January 2010). "Guayana Francesa y Martinica rechazan más autonomía". El Universo (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 29 July 2021. Retrieved 29 July 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  52. ^ a b "Forces armées aux Antilles". Ministère des Armées. Retrieved 26 December 2022.
  53. ^ "French forces in the West Indies | REGIONAL SECURITY SYSTEM". Archived from the original on 24 September 2022. Retrieved 24 September 2022.
  54. ^ "33e RIMa".
  55. ^ "La "Violette" des forces armées aux Antilles à la rencontre de Guirec Soudée".
  56. ^ "Marine Nationale Dossier d'Information, pp. 19 and 23" (PDF). Cols Bleus (in French). January 2023. Retrieved 4 March 2023.
  57. ^ "Marine Nationale Dossier d'Information, p. 23" (PDF). Cols Bleus (in French). January 2023. Retrieved 4 March 2023.
  58. ^ "First Two EDA-S Next Gen Amphibious Landing Craft Delivered to French DGA". 25 November 2021.
  59. ^ "Les DOM, défi pour la République, chance pour la France, 100 propositions pour fonder l'avenir (Volume 2, comptes rendus des auditions et des déplacements de la mission)". 3 April 2023.
  60. ^ Atlas of the World (10th ed.). National Geographic. 2007. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-471-74117-6.
  61. ^ Explore Volcanoes: Mount Pelée, Martinique (web), Maple Creative, c. 2010, archived from the original on 5 March 2013, retrieved 8 April 2013
  62. ^ Scarth, Alwyn (2002). La catastrophe : the eruption of Mount Pelee, the worst volcanic eruption of the twentieth century. Oxford: Oxford University.
  63. ^ "Notes". Nature. 66 (1701): 134–138. 1 June 1902. Bibcode:1902Natur..66..134.. doi:10.1038/066134a0. ISSN 1476-4687.
  64. ^ Global Invasive Species Database:Martinique, archived from the original on 16 October 2015, retrieved 23 December 2014
  65. ^ Morneau, Claude (6 August 2015). Martinique – Les Saline et la route des plages du Sud (in French). Ulysse. ISBN 978-2-7658-2598-2. Archived from the original on 18 August 2021. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
  66. ^ "Statistiques locales: France par unité urbaine, population municipale 2019". INSEE. Retrieved 12 July 2022.
  67. ^ "Pesticide poisoned French paradise islands in Caribbean". BBC News. 24 October 2019. Archived from the original on 22 January 2021. Retrieved 4 January 2021.
  68. ^ a b Informations Economie Martinique, archived from the original on 28 May 2007, retrieved 15 September 2013
  69. ^ "La filière banane en Martinique : état des lieux et perspectives,, juillet 2007" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 July 2021. Retrieved 29 July 2021.
  70. ^ "Production de rhum en Martinique»". Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 29 July 2021.
  71. ^ "Production de canne à sucre en Martinique»". Archived from the original on 2 October 2010. Retrieved 29 July 2021.
  72. ^ "Les infrastructures – Martinique Développement" (in French). Archived from the original on 30 March 2021. Retrieved 31 July 2021.
  73. ^ a b "Transport – Collectivité Territoriale de Martinique" (in French). Archived from the original on 13 August 2021. Retrieved 31 July 2021.
  74. ^ "Les ventes de voitures se portent toujours mieux en Martinique". RCI (in French). Archived from the original on 15 August 2021. Retrieved 31 July 2021.
  75. ^ a b "Insularité, transports et mobilités. L'exemple de la Martinique — Géoconfluences". (in French). Archived from the original on 29 January 2021. Retrieved 31 July 2021.
  76. ^ ""Résultats d'activité des aéroports français 2015»" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 September 2016. Retrieved 31 July 2021.
  77. ^ Martinique Telephones, IIWINC, 2013, archived from the original on 29 April 2013, retrieved 23 April 2013
  78. ^ "Quelle couverture mobile Outre-mer ? [DATA]". Outre-mer la 1ère (in French). 10 July 2018. Archived from the original on 12 July 2021. Retrieved 31 July 2021.
  79. ^ Jonathan. "(MàJ-3 : myCANAL) Concernant la diffusion de la chaîne éphémère " Culturebox " en Outre-Mer !". ActuMédias Outre-Mer (in French). Archived from the original on 7 March 2021. Retrieved 31 July 2021.
  80. ^ Lausson, Julien (2 February 2017). "Orange annonce un câble sous-marin de 5 Tbits/s dans les DOM-TOM pour 2018". Numerama (in French). Archived from the original on 12 July 2021. Retrieved 31 July 2021.
  81. ^ INSEE (29 December 2021). "Recensement de la population en Martinique : 364 508 habitants au 1ᵉʳ janvier 2019" (in French).
  82. ^ "MIDDLE AMERICA & CARIBBEAN MARTINIQUE Snapshot Section" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 October 2018. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
  83. ^ Béatrice Gurrey et Benoît Hopquin (28 February 2009), "Békés : Une affaire d'héritage", Le Monde (in French), archived from the original on 5 May 2015, retrieved 3 September 2014
  84. ^ "Paroisses – Eglise catholique de Martinique". Archived from the original on 18 August 2016. Retrieved 9 November 2020.
  85. ^ "Cathédrale Saint-Louis – Fort de France". Eglise catholique de Martinique (in French). Archived from the original on 8 August 2020. Retrieved 9 November 2020.
  86. ^ "Balata – Sacré Coeur". Eglise catholique de Martinique (in French). Archived from the original on 14 August 2020. Retrieved 9 November 2020.
  87. ^ "Cathédrale Notre-Dame de l\'Assomption – Saint-Pierre". Eglise catholique de Martinique (in French). Archived from the original on 8 August 2020. Retrieved 9 November 2020.
  88. ^ "Religion en Martinique – Tropicalement Vôtre". Archived from the original on 11 July 2021. Retrieved 13 July 2021.
  89. ^ a b c d Sheringham, Olivia (26 January 2016). "Markers of identity in Martinique: being French, Black, Creole". Ethnic and Racial Studies. 39 (2): 243–262. doi:10.1080/01419870.2016.1105992. ISSN 0141-9870. S2CID 146477601.
  90. ^ a b c d Hardwick, Louise (12 September 2006). "Du franais-banane au crole-dragon: entretien avec Raphal Confiant". International Journal of Francophone Studies. 9 (2): 257–276. doi:10.1386/ijfs.9.2.257_7. ISSN 1368-2679.
  91. ^ a b c d e f Bernabé, Jean; Confiant, Raphaël (2002). "Le CAPES de Créole: stratégies et enjeux". Hermès. 32–33 (1): 211. doi:10.4267/2042/14377. ISSN 0767-9513.
  92. ^ a b c Burton, Richard D.E. (February 1992). "Towards 1992: political-cultural assimilation and opposition in contemporary Martinique". French Cultural Studies. 3 (7): 061–86. doi:10.1177/095715589200300705. ISSN 0957-1558. S2CID 154426892.
  93. ^ Bojsen, Heidi (22 October 2014). "Creole Practices as Prescriptive Guidelines for Language Didactics? A selective overview of Glissant's thoughts on language and social identity" (PDF). Karib: Nordic Journal for Caribbean Studies. 1 (1): 94. doi:10.16993/karib.20. ISSN 2387-6743.
  94. ^ "Parcours Créole +". Académie de Martinique (in French). Archived from the original on 18 October 2019. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  95. ^ "Parcours Anglais Plus, Un projet académique pour promouvoir l'apprentissage de l'anglais dès la maternelle | ANGLAIS". Académie de la Martinique (in French). Archived from the original on 8 February 2023. Retrieved 20 July 2023.
  96. ^ "Les projets +". Académie de Martinique (in French). Archived from the original on 5 February 2023. Retrieved 20 July 2023.
  97. ^ a b c Zribi-Hertz, Anne; Loïc, Jean-Louis (17 September 2018). "General Locative Marking in Martinican Creole (Matinitjè): A Case Study in Grammatical Economy". Quaderni di Linguistica e Studi Orientali. 4: 151–176. doi:10.13128/QULSO-2421-7220-23843. ISSN 2421-7220.
  98. ^ Ben A. Heller "Césaire, Aimé", in Daniel Balderston et al. (eds) Encyclopedia of Latin American and Caribbean Literature, 1900–2003, London: Routledge, pp. 128–30, 128.
  99. ^ Ledesma and Scaramuzzo, pp. 289–303
  100. ^ "By order of the President, the gendarmerie in Martinique will no longer wear the emblem with the 4 snakes!". Makacla. Retrieved 14 October 2020.
  101. ^ a b "Martinique national football team: overview". Archived from the original on 3 August 2021. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  102. ^ a b "Martinica, la revelación de la Copa Oro que no está afiliada a la FIFA". BBC News Mundo (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 3 August 2021. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  103. ^ Boutrin, Louis (1 January 1997). Le sport à la Martinique: Approches historiques et organisationnelles – Enjeux (in French). Editions L'Harmattan. ISBN 978-2-296-35093-9. Archived from the original on 18 August 2021. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
  104. ^ "La première phase du championnat de Régional 1 est terminée". Martinique la 1ère (in French). 14 March 2021. Archived from the original on 3 August 2021. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  105. ^ "Régionale 2 et 3 : résultats de la 6e journée". Martinique la 1ère (in French). 30 October 2016. Archived from the original on 3 August 2021. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  106. ^ "Martinique Surf Pro 2018". Martinique Surf Pro. Archived from the original on 3 August 2021. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  107. ^ "Latinos en el Martinique Surf Pro". Surfos Magazine (in European Spanish). 19 March 2018. Archived from the original on 3 August 2021. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  108. ^ "II Martinique Surf Pro, más grande y mejor". 28 October 2018. Archived from the original on 3 August 2021. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  109. ^ "" Les conditions de l'accueil du Martinique Surf Pro à Basse-Pointe ne sont plus réunies » – Journal France-Antilles – Toute l'actualité de votre région en Martinique – FranceAntilles.f"". France-Antilles Martinique (in French). 15 July 2019. Archived from the original on 13 July 2021. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  110. ^ "Le tour des yoles rondes de la Martinique»". Archived from the original on 9 May 2019. Retrieved 31 July 2021.
  111. ^ "Accueil – FEDERATION DES YOLES RONDES DE LA MARTINIQUE". 31 October 2014. Archived from the original on 31 October 2014. Retrieved 31 July 2021.
  112. ^ "Creation de site internet gratuit pour club sportif". (in French). Archived from the original on 22 July 2021. Retrieved 31 July 2021.
  113. ^ "34th Bienal de São Paulo – Artist". Archived from the original on 4 December 2021. Retrieved 4 December 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  114. ^ "Jean François Boclé Martinica, 1971". XXXI Bienial Pontevedra. Archived from the original on 21 September 2010. Retrieved 30 October 2022.
  115. ^ "Statue of the nègre marron in Diamant | Cartographie des Mémoires de l'Esclavage". Archived from the original on 4 December 2021. Retrieved 4 December 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  116. ^ "Exposition " Art beau et sens " d' Hector Charpentier". Tropiques Atrium. Archived from the original on 4 December 2021. Retrieved 4 December 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  117. ^ "Henri Guédon, peintre, sculpteur, musicien". Le (in French). 16 February 2006. Archived from the original on 12 April 2021. Retrieved 3 December 2021.
  118. ^ "Accueil". RENE LOUISE (in French). Archived from the original on 6 March 2021. Retrieved 4 December 2021.
  119. ^ "Art des Caraïbes-Amériques". (in French). Archived from the original on 4 December 2021. Retrieved 4 December 2021.
  120. ^ Helenon, Veronique (30 November 2015). "10 Africa on their Mind: Rap, Blackness, and Citizenship in France". In Basu, Dipannita; Lemelle, Sidney J. (eds.). The Vinyl Ain't Final: Hip Hop and the Globalization of Black Popular Culture. Pluto Press. pp. 151–166. doi:10.2307/j.ctt18mbd22.15. ISBN 978-1-78371-952-5. JSTOR j.ctt18mbd22.
  121. ^ "Suprême NTM - Ma Benz (Clip officiel) ft. Lord Kossity". Suprême NTM. 25 October 2009. Archived from the original on 8 June 2021 – via YouTube.
  122. ^ "Princess Lovershow - YouTube". Archived from the original on 16 March 2021. Retrieved 4 December 2021.
  123. ^ "Un cru 2010-2011 peu banal!". France-Antilles Martinique. Press Antilles Guyane. 12 April 2011. Archived from the original on 9 July 2021. Retrieved 4 December 2021.
  124. ^ "Ronald Rubinel Prix Sacem - OPENZOUK". OPENZOUK. 19 February 2009. Archived from the original on 9 July 2021 – via Skyrock (social network site).
  125. ^ "Eddy Marc : videos de zouk love". Archived from the original on 31 October 2017. Retrieved 28 November 2021.
  126. ^ "BET Awards 2020: See who won at the BET Awards". CNN Entertainment. 29 June 2020. Archived from the original on 28 November 2021. Retrieved 4 December 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  127. ^ Handisport : Mandy François-Elie reine du sprint européen, francetvinfo, 5 juin 2021
  128. ^ "Organigramme des services de CAP Nord Martinique" (PDF). CAP Nord Martinique. Communauté d'agglomération du Pays Nord Martinique. 2019. Archived from the original on 28 November 2021. Retrieved 28 November 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  129. ^ "Le Bureau Communataire de la Communaute d'Agglomeration du Centre de la Martinique". Communauté d'agglomération du Centre de la Martinique. Communauté d'agglomération du Centre de la Martinique. Archived from the original on 28 November 2021. Retrieved 28 November 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  130. ^ "L'organigramme de l'Espace Sud" (PDF). L'Espace Sud Martinique. Communauté d'agglomération de l'Espace Sud de la Martinique. Archived from the original on 28 November 2021. Retrieved 28 November 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  131. ^ Figaro, Le (11 September 2021). "Le Port-Marly (78560) : résultats de l'élection Présidentielle 2022". Le Figaro (in French). Archived from the original on 20 April 2021. Retrieved 2 December 2021.
  132. ^ "Martinique TROIS-ILETS 1763". Archived from the original on 27 November 2021. Retrieved 28 November 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  133. ^ Dessalles, Pierre (1996). Sugar and slavery, family and race : the letters and diary of Pierre Dessalles, planter in Martinique, 1808-1856. Elborg Forster, Robert Forster. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-8018-5153-7. OCLC 32856639.
  134. ^ "France and Belgium". Current History. 38 (4): 482.
  135. ^ "Le buste d'Ernest Deproge déboulonné à Fort-de-France". RCI (in French). Archived from the original on 1 December 2021. Retrieved 1 December 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  136. ^ "Osman Duquesnay". AZ Martinique (in French). Archived from the original on 28 November 2021. Retrieved 28 November 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  137. ^ "Lamentin | AZ Martinique". Archived from the original on 28 November 2021. Retrieved 28 November 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  138. ^ "History of the French Caribbean Woman from Martinique, the "poto mitan"". AZ Martinique. Archived from the original on 28 November 2021. Retrieved 28 November 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  139. ^ "La Martinique durant la Première Guerre Mondiale". AZ Martinique (in French). Archived from the original on 28 November 2021. Retrieved 28 November 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  140. ^ Ménil, René (1996). Refusal of the shadow : surrealism and the Caribbean. Michael Richardson, Krzysztof Fijałkowski. London: Verso. pp. 37–39. ISBN 978-1-85984-018-4. OCLC 34029876.
  141. ^ "The French Lesser Antilles". obo. Archived from the original on 3 March 2021. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  142. ^ Adélaïde-Merlande, Jacques (1994). Histoire générale des Antilles et des Guyanes : des Précolombiens à nos jours. Paris: Editions caribéennes. ISBN 978-2-87679-083-4. OCLC 32365293.
  143. ^ "Prix 2006". Prix des Amériques insulaires et de la Guyane. Archived from the original on 23 March 2016. Retrieved 27 November 2021.
  144. ^ Hélénon, Véronique (2011), Hélénon, Véronique (ed.), "The Dimensions of Caribbean Assimilationism", French Caribbeans in Africa: Diasporic Connections and Colonial Administration, 1880–1939, New York: Palgrave Macmillan US, pp. 49–75, doi:10.1057/9780230118751_3, ISBN 978-0-230-11875-1, retrieved 1 December 2021
  145. ^ "Boukman Daniel | Archives | Congrès international des écrivains de la Caraïbe". Association of Caribbean writers. Archived from the original on 22 October 2020. Retrieved 28 November 2021.
  146. ^ "Caribbean writers, from Jacques-Stéphen Alexis to Alejo Carpentier". Kariculture. 14 February 2017. Archived from the original on 19 November 2019. Retrieved 28 November 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  147. ^ Bongie, Chris (2008). Friends and enemies : the scribal politics of post/colonial literature. UPSO eCollections. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. p. 190. ISBN 978-1-84631-529-9. OCLC 872395732.
  148. ^ "Cage Nicole | Archives | Congrès international des écrivains de la Caraïbe". Association of Caribbean writers. Archived from the original on 25 October 2020. Retrieved 28 November 2021.
  149. ^ Goslinga, Marian (1996). A bibliography of the Caribbean. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-8108-3097-4. OCLC 33209218.
  150. ^ Watrous, Peter (27 May 1997). "Author's Quest for Identity Uncovers Universal Themes". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 28 December 2017. Retrieved 30 November 2021.
  151. ^ "Chonville, Nadia 1989-". WorldCat Identities. Archived from the original on 8 December 2021. Retrieved 3 December 2021. Author, Publishing director{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  152. ^ "Crusol, Jean [WorldCat Identities]". WorldCat. Archived from the original on 4 March 2021. Retrieved 2 December 2021. Author, Publishing director, Redactor, Thesis advisor, Opponent, Editor
  153. ^ Dempsey Marshall, Rosalie (2011). "On Being West Indian in Post-War Metropolitan France: Perspectives from French West Indian Literature" (PDF). University of Birmingham eTheses Repository. University of Birmingham. pp. 199–221. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  154. ^ "Desportes, Georges 1921-". WorldCat Identities. Archived from the original on 6 December 2021. Retrieved 2 December 2021. Criticism, interpretation, etc Fiction Poetry{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  155. ^ "Dracius Suzanne | Archives | Congrès international des écrivains de la Caraïbe". Association of Caribbean writers. Archived from the original on 27 September 2020. Retrieved 28 November 2021.
  156. ^ "Duquesnay, Victor". WorldCat Identities. Archived from the original on 9 December 2021. Retrieved 2 December 2021. Author{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  157. ^ "Duranty, Jude". WorldCat Identities. Archived from the original on 9 December 2021. Retrieved 2 December 2021. Author, Translator, Compiler{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  158. ^ "George Fitt-Duval". Banque Numérique des Patrimoines Martiniquais. Archived from the original on 5 March 2021.
  159. ^ "Gratiant, Gilbert". WorldCat Identities. Archived from the original on 8 December 2021. Retrieved 2 December 2021. Author, Author of introduction, Creator, Other, Translator{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  160. ^ "Henry Valmore, Simonne". WorldCat Indentities. Archived from the original on 8 December 2021. Retrieved 3 December 2021. Biographies Criticism, interpretation, etc Fiction{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  161. ^ "Léotin, Georges-Henri 1947-". WorldCat Identities. Archived from the original on 6 December 2021. Retrieved 3 December 2021. Author{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  162. ^ "Marie-Hélène Léotin : Martinique A nu". Martinique á nu. Archived from the original on 2 December 2020. Retrieved 28 November 2021.
  163. ^ "Térèz Léotin - Biographie, publications (livres, articles)". Éditions L'Harmattan (in French). Archived from the original on 26 February 2018. Retrieved 3 December 2021.
  164. ^ "André Lucrèce". Île en île (in French). 17 June 2004. Archived from the original on 23 May 2021. Retrieved 3 December 2021.
  165. ^ "Louison, Jacqueline Q." WorldCat Identities. Archived from the original on 8 December 2021. Retrieved 3 December 2021. Author{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  166. ^ Larrier, Renée Brenda (2000). Francophone women writers of Africa and the Caribbean. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-8130-2288-8. OCLC 47008638.
  167. ^ "Manville, Marcel 1922-". WorldCat Identities. Archived from the original on 6 December 2021. Retrieved 3 December 2021. Biographies Criticism, interpretation, etc Conference papers and proceedings{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  168. ^ Morrison, Anthea (1 January 1993). "'Americanité' or 'Antillanité'? Changing perspectives on identity in post-négritude Francophone Caribbean poetry". New West Indian Guide / Nieuwe West-Indische Gids. 67 (1–2): 33–45. doi:10.1163/13822373-90002672. ISSN 2213-4360.
  169. ^ "Monchoachi". World Literature Today. Archived from the original on 11 April 2021. Retrieved 28 November 2021.
  170. ^ "La Revue du monde noir". Index of Modernist Magazines. 9 June 2016. Archived from the original on 16 November 2021. Retrieved 28 November 2021.
  171. ^ "Armand Nicolas". Goodreads. Archived from the original on 3 December 2021. Retrieved 3 December 2021.
  172. ^ "Matrimoine". Matrimoine Afro-Américano-Caribéen (MAAC) (in French). Archived from the original on 1 June 2021. Retrieved 28 November 2021.
  173. ^ "Entre Nous : Xavier Orville, écrivain martiniquais (2) / Radio Haiti Archive / Duke Digital Repository". Duke Digital Collections. Retrieved 28 November 2021.
  174. ^ "Pago, Gilbert". WorldCat Identities. Archived from the original on 9 December 2021. Retrieved 3 December 2021. Author, Author of introduction, Editor, Film editor, Scientific advisor{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  175. ^ "Parsemain, Roger 1944-". WorldCat Identities. Archived from the original on 9 December 2021. Retrieved 3 December 2021. Author, Adapter{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  176. ^ "Pezo, Eric". WorldCat Identities. Archived from the original on 6 December 2021. Retrieved 3 December 2021. Author{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  177. ^ "Placoly, Vincent 1946-". WorldCat Identities. Archived from the original on 9 December 2021. Retrieved 3 December 2021. Author, Bibliographic antecedent{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  178. ^ "Daniel Thaly (1879-1950)" (PDF). BnF Data. Bibliothèque nationale de France. Archived from the original on 1 December 2021. Retrieved 1 December 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  179. ^ Tin, Louis-Georges; Redburn, Marek; Michaud, Alice; Mathers, Kyle (2008). The dictionary of homophobia: a global history of gay & lesbian experience. Vancouver: Arsenal Pulp Press. ISBN 978-1-55152-314-9. OCLC 503446128.
  180. ^ "Tin, Louis-Georges". WorldCat Identities. Archived from the original on 9 December 2021. Retrieved 4 December 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  181. ^ Rondot, P. (1 April 2000). "Raymond Garcin (1897–1971)". Journal of Neurology. 247 (4): 315–316. doi:10.1007/s004150050594. ISSN 1432-1459. PMID 10836629. S2CID 39802292.
  182. ^ "Le Breton, Georges". WorldCat Identities. Archived from the original on 4 December 2021. Retrieved 4 December 2021. Author, Thesis advisor, Creator, Editor{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  183. ^ "Attuly, Robert 1884-1963". WorldCat Identities. Archived from the original on 4 December 2021. Retrieved 4 December 2021. Author, Author of introduction{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  184. ^ "JT de France 2, voir et revoir en direct et replay, aujourd'hui, hier, archives, journal tv". Franceinfo (in French). Archived from the original on 27 November 2021. Retrieved 28 November 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  185. ^ "Soa de Muse : une Martiniquaise dans le premier drag show télévisé français". la1ere (in French). 2 July 2022. Archived from the original on 2 July 2022. Retrieved 5 August 2022.
  186. ^ June 02, Joey Nolfi; EDT, 2022 at 09:15 AM. "Bonjour, ladies! Meet the queens of 'Drag Race France'". Retrieved 6 August 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  187. ^ ADEME, Vers l'autonomie énergétique en zone non-interconnectée à l'horizon 2030. Rapport final d'étude pour l'île de la Martinique
  188. ^ Agence de l'environnement et de la maîtrise de l'énergie, Vers l'autonomie énergétique en zone non-interconnectée à l'horizon 2030 Rapport final d'étude pour l'île de la Guadeloupe Agencia del Medio Ambiente y de la Gestión de la Energía, Hacia la autonomía energética en zona no interconectada en el horizonte 2030. Informe final del estudio para la isla de Guadalupe
  189. ^ ADEME, Vers l'autonomie énergétique en zone non-interconnectée à l'horizon 2030 Rapport final d'étude pour l'île de la Réunion ADEME,
  190. ^ "Martinique | BRGM". (in French). Archived from the original on 25 July 2021. Retrieved 31 July 2021.
  191. ^ RAIMBAUD, Guillaume. "Les chiffres de l'eau potable en Martinique". Observatoire de l'Eau – Martinique. Archived from the original on 8 February 2020. Retrieved 31 July 2021.
  192. ^ "L'ARS Martinique, une agence engagée pour la santé des martiniquais". (in French). 29 April 2021. Archived from the original on 26 November 2020. Retrieved 6 September 2021.
  193. ^ "Professionnels de santé au 1er janvier 2018 | Insee". Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. 14 April 2020. Archived from the original on 6 September 2021. Retrieved 6 September 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  194. ^ "Qui sommes-nous ?". Urml Martinique (in French). Unions Régionales des Médecins Libéraux Martinique. 7 July 2020. Archived from the original on 27 February 2021. Retrieved 6 September 2021.
  195. ^ "University Hospital Of Martinique (UHM,CHU de Martinique)". Archived from the original on 11 March 2021. Retrieved 5 September 2021.
  196. ^ a b c d e f Ferdinand, Malcom (5 January 2020). Le chlordécone au prisme des sciences humaines et sociales. Rapport scientifique du workshop organisé les 6 et 7 novembre 2019 à l'Université Paris Dauphine (Report).
  198. ^ a b c "Saison 1 / La Chlordécone en vidéos (explications, conseils, mesures) / Chlordécone / Environnement, santé publique / Politiques publiques / Accueil - Les services de l'État en Martinique". Retrieved 20 October 2021.
  199. ^ "La commission d'enquête sur le chlordécone rend ses conclusions". (in French). 24 November 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2021.
  200. ^ "Antilles : l'État, "premier responsable" de la pollution au chlordécone". LEFIGARO (in French). 26 November 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2021.
  201. ^ Martouzet, Denis (2022). "Jessica Oublié et al., Tropiques toxiques. Le scandale du chlordécone". Géocarrefour (in French). 96 (2). doi:10.4000/geocarrefour.17224. ISSN 1627-4873. S2CID 251047096.
  202. ^ a b c "Scandale du chlordécone : "L'empoisonnement" à ce pesticide en Guadeloupe et en Martinique "n'est pas prescrit", clament les parties civiles". Franceinfo (in French). 17 March 2021. Retrieved 18 October 2021.
  203. ^ AFP, GEO avec (16 March 2021). "Chlordécone en Guadeloupe et en Martinique : vers une ordonnance de non-lieu ?". (in French). Retrieved 18 October 2021.
  204. ^ "Scandale du chlordécone : plusieurs milliers de manifestants en Martinique contre " l'impunité "". Le (in French). 27 February 2021. Retrieved 18 October 2021.
  205. ^ "Coronavirus : deux cas confirmés en Martinique". Martinique la 1ère (in French). 5 March 2020. Archived from the original on 6 March 2020. Retrieved 5 September 2021.
  206. ^ "COVID-19 : point épidémiologique en Martinique du 2 septembre 2021". Santé Publique France (in French). 2 September 2021. Archived from the original on 5 September 2021. Retrieved 5 September 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  207. ^ "Gauguin and Martinique," Karen Kristine Reichnitzer Pope, 1981.
  208. ^ "Aimé Césaire", in Donald E. Herdeck (ed.), Caribbean Writers: A Bio-Bibliographical-Critical Encyclopedia, Washington, DC: Three Continents Press, 1979, pp. 324–25.
  209. ^ "Commentary", Notebook of a Return to the Native Land (Middleton, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2001), p. 53.
  210. ^ Two Years in the French West Indies. 1890. Archived from the original on 22 August 2017. Retrieved 22 August 2017 – via World Digital Library.
  211. ^ Hearn, Lafcadio (1890). Youma: Story of a Western Indian Slave. New York: Harper & Brothers. ISBN 978-1-4047-6737-9. Archived from the original on 18 August 2021. Retrieved 16 November 2020.

Further reading edit

  • Forster, Elborg, Robert Forster, and Pierre Dessailes – Sugar and Slavery, Family and Race: The Letters and Diaries of Pierre Dessailes, Planter in Martinique, 1808–1856.
  • Gerstin, Julian and Dominique Cyrille – Martinique: Cane Fields and City Streets.
  • Haigh, Sam – An Introduction to Caribbean Francophone Writing: Guadeloupe and Martinique.
  • Heilprin, Angelo – Mont Pelee and the Tragedy of Martinique.
  • Heilprin, Angelo – The Tower of Pelee. New Studies of the Great Volcano of Martinique.
  • Kimber, Clarissa Therese – Martinique Revisited: The Changing Plant Geographies of a West Indian Island.
  • Lamont, Rosette C. and Richard Miller – New French Language Plays: Martinique, Quebec, Ivory Coast, Belgium.
  • Laguerre, Michel S. – Urban Poverty in the Caribbean: French Martinique as a Social Laboratory.
  • Murray, David A. B. – Opacity: Gender, Sexuality, Race and the 'Problem' of Identity in Martinique.
  • Slater, Mariam K. – The Caribbean Family: Legitimacy in Martinique.
  • Tomich, Dale W. – Slavery in the Circuit of Sugar: Martinique and the World Economy, 1830–1848.
  • Watts, David – The West Indies: Patterns of Development, Culture, and Environmental Change Since 1492.

External links edit

General information