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Mongoose is the popular English name for 29 of the 34 species in the family Herpestidae, which comprises 14 genera.[2] They are small carnivorans native to southern Eurasia and mainland Africa. The remaining species of this family are native to Africa and comprise four kusimanses in the genus Crossarchus, and the meerkat Suricata suricatta.

Mongoose[1]
Temporal range: Oligocene to present
Mongoose collection.png
Top left: Meerkat
Top right: Yellow mongoose
Bottom left: Slender mongoose
Bottom right: Indian gray mongoose
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Suborder: Feliformia
Family: Herpestidae
Bonaparte, 1845
Type genus
Herpestes
Genera
Herpestidae.png
Synonyms
  • Cynictidae, Cope, 1882
  • Herpestoidei, Winge, 1895
  • Mongotidae, Pocock, 1920
  • Rhinogalidae, Gray, 1869
  • Suricatidae, Cope, 1882
  • Suricatinae, Thomas, 1882

Herpestidae is placed within the suborder Feliformia, together with the Felidae, hyena, and Viverridae families.

EtymologyEdit

The name "mongoose" is likely derived from the Marathi name muṅgūs (मुंगूस) (pronounced as [ˈmʊŋɡuːs]) and ultimately from the Telugu name muṅgisa or Kannada muṅgisi.[3] The form of the English name (since 1698) was altered to its "-goose" ending by folk-etymology.[4] The plural form is "mongooses".[5]

Historically, it has also been spelled "mungoose".[6]

CharacteristicsEdit

Mongooses have long faces and bodies, small, rounded ears, short legs, and long, tapering tails. Most are brindled or grizzly; a few have strongly marked coats bear a striking resemblance to mustelids. Their nonretractile claws are used primarily for digging. Mongooses, much like goats, have narrow, ovular pupils. Most species have a large anal scent gland, used for territorial marking and signaling reproductive status. The dental formula of mongooses is 3.1.3–4.1–23.1.3–4.1–2. They range from 24 to 58 cm (9.4 to 22.8 in) in head-to-body length, excluding the tail. In weight, they range from 320 g (11 oz) to 5 kg (11 lb).[7]

Mongooses also have receptors for acetylcholine that, like the receptors in snakes, are shaped so that it is impossible for snake neurotoxin venom to attach to them. Mongooses are one of four known mammalian taxa with mutations in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor that protect against snake venom.[8] Their modified receptors prevent the snake venom α-neurotoxin from binding. These represent four separate, independent mutations. In the mongoose, this change is effected uniquely, by glycosylation.[9]

TaxonomyEdit

Herpestina was a scientific name proposed by Charles Lucien Bonaparte in 1845 who considered the mongooses a subfamily of the Viverridae.[10] In 1864, John Edward Gray classified the mongooses into three subfamilies: Galiidinae, Herpestinae and Mungotinae.[11] This grouping was supported by Reginald Innes Pocock in 1919 who referred to the family as "Mungotidae".[12]

Genetic research based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA analyses revealed that the galidiines are more closely related to Madagascar carnivores, including the fossa and Malagasy civet.[13][14] Galiidinae is presently considered a subfamily of Eupleridae.[15]

Subfamily Genus Species Image of type species
Herpestinae
Herpestes Illiger, 1811  
Atilax Cuvier, 1826 Marsh mongoose (A. paludinosus) Cuvier, 1829  
Cynictis Ogilby, 1833 Yellow mongoose (C. penicillata) (Cuvier, 1829)  
Ichneumia Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1837 White-tailed mongoose (I. albicauda)  
Bdeogale Peters, 1850
Galerella Gray, 1864  
Rhynchogale Thomas, 1894 Meller's mongoose (R. melleri)  
Paracynictis Pocock, 1916 Selous's mongoose (P. selousi)
XenogaleAllen, 1919[16] Long-nosed mongoose (X. naso)[16]
Kichecia[17]
  • K. savagei
  • K. zamanae
Mungotinae Mungos E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire & F. Cuvier, 1795  
Suricata Desmarest, 1804 Meerkat (S. suricatta) (Schreber, 1776)  
Crossarchus Cuvier, 1825  
Helogale Gray, 1861  
Dologale Thomas, 1920 Pousargues's mongoose (D. dybowskii)  
Liberiictis Hayman, 1958 Liberian mongoose (L. kuhni)

Phylogenetic relationshipsEdit

In 1989, zoologist W. Christopher Wozencraft noted that while the phylogenetic relationships in Mungotinae were obscure, studies in the latter part of 20th century supported two monophyletic clades in Herpestinae: one consisting of Atilax and Herpestes, and the other comprising Bdeogale, Ichneumia and Rhynchogale.[18] Like other feliformian carnivorans, mongooses descended from the viverravines, which were civet- or genet-like mammals.

The phylogenetic relationships of Herpestidae are shown in the following cladogram:[19][16]

 Herpestidae 
 Mungotinae 
 Helogale 

Helogale parvula (Common dwarf mongoose)

Helogale hirtula (Ethiopian dwarf mongoose)

 Dologale 

Dologale dybowskii (Pousargues's mongoose)

 Crossarchus 

Crossarchus alexandri (Alexander's kusimanse)

Crossarchus ansorgei (Angolan kusimanse)

Crossarchus platycephalus (Flat-headed kusimanse)

Crossarchus obscurus (Common kusimanse)  

 Liberiictis 

Liberiictis kuhni (Liberian mongoose)

 Mungos 

Mungos gambianus (Gambian mongoose)

Mungos mungo (Banded mongoose)  

 Suricata 

Suricata suricatta (Meerkat)  

 Herpestinae 
 Bdeogale 

Bdeogale jacksoni (Jackson's mongoose)

Bdeogale nigripes (Black-footed mongoose)

Bdeogale crassicauda (Bushy-tailed mongoose)

 Rhynchogale 

Rhynchogale melleri (Meller's mongoose)  

 Paracynictis 

Paracynictis selousi (Selous's mongoose)

 Cynictis 

Cynictis penicillata (Yellow mongoose)

 Ichneumia 

Ichneumia albicauda (White-tailed mongoose)

"Herpestes" ichneumon (Egyptian mongoose)[16]

 Galerella 

Galerella sanguinea (Slender mongoose)

Galerella pulverulenta (Cape gray mongoose)

Galerella ochracea (Somalian slender mongoose)

Galerella flavescens (Angolan slender mongoose)

Galerella nigrata (Black mongoose)

 Atilax 

Atilax paludinosus (Marsh mongoose)

 Xenogale [16]

Xenogale naso (Long-nosed mongoose)

 Herpestes 

Herpestes lemanensis

Herpestes brachyurus (Short-tailed mongoose)

Herpestes semitorquatus (Collared mongoose)

Herpestes urva (Crab-eating mongoose)

Herpestes smithii (Ruddy mongoose)

Herpestes vitticollis (Stripe-necked mongoose)

Herpestes fuscus (Indian brown mongoose)

Herpestes edwardsi (Indian gray mongoose)

Herpestes javanicus (Small Asian mongoose)  

Behaviour and ecologyEdit

 
Indian gray mongoose, Herpestes edwardsii

Mongooses are largely terrestrial.[citation needed] The Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon) has been observed in pairs and groups of up to five individuals.[20]

DietEdit

Mongooses mostly feed on insects, crabs, earthworms, lizards, birds, and rodents. However, they also eat eggs and carrion.[21]

The Indian gray mongoose and others are well known for their ability to fight and kill venomous snakes, particularly cobras. They are adept at such tasks due to their agility, thick coats, and specialized acetylcholine receptors that render them resistant or immune to snake venom.[22] However, they typically avoid the cobra and have no particular affinity for consuming its meat.[23]

Some species can learn simple tricks. They can be semi-domesticated and are kept as pets to control vermin.[24] However, they can be more destructive than desired. When imported into the West Indies to kill rats, they destroyed most of the small, ground-based fauna. For this reason, it is illegal to import most species of mongooses into the United States,[25] Australia, and other countries. Mongooses were introduced to Hawaii in 1883 and have had a significant adverse effect on native species.[26][better source needed]

ReproductionEdit

 
Cynictis penicillata mating

The mongoose emits a high-pitched noise, commonly known as giggling, when it mates. Giggling is also heard during courtship.[27][better source needed] Communities of female banded mongooses (Mungos mungo) synchronize their whelping to the same day to deter infanticide by dominant females.[citation needed]

LifespanEdit

It is not yet known how long a mongoose lives in its natural habitat; however, it is known that the average lifespan in captivity is twenty years.[28]

GalleryEdit

For pictures of mongooses on Madagascar, see Galidiinae

Relationship with humansEdit

In ancient Mesopotamia, mongooses were sacred to the deity Ningilin, who was conflated with Ningirima, a deity of magic who was invoked for protection against serpents. According to a Babylonian popular saying, when a mouse fled from a mongoose into a serpent's hole, it announced, "I bring you greetings from the snake-charmer!" A creature resembling a mongoose also appears in Old Babylonian glyptic art, but its significance is not known.[29]

According to Greek historian Diodorus Siculus (1.35 & 1.87), Egyptians venerated native mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon) for their ability to handle venomous snakes and for their occasional diet of crocodile eggs.[citation needed] The Buddhist god of wealth Vaiśravaṇa, or Dzambala for Tibetans, is frequently depicted holding a mongoose that is spitting jewels from its mouth.[30] The Hindu god of wealth, Kubera (being the son of Vishrava ("Fame"), Kubera is also called Vaisravana), is often portrayed holding a mongoose in his left hand, hence the sight of a mongoose is considered lucky by some.[31]

All mongoose species, except for Suricata suricatta, are classed as a "prohibited new organism" under New Zealand's Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996, preventing them from being imported into the country.[32]

Mongooses are a common spectacle at roadside shows in Pakistan. Snake charmers keep mongooses for mock fights with snakes. This practice is looked at as unethical and cruel across the rest of the world.[citation needed]

On Okinawa (where mongooses were misguidedly brought in to control the local habu snake), mongoose fights with these highly venomous snakes (Ovophis okinavensis and Trimeresurus flavoviridis) in a closed perimeter were presented as spectator events at such parks as Okinawa World; however, due to pressure from animal rights activists, the spectacle is less common today.[33]

In popular cultureEdit

A well-known fictional mongoose is Rikki-Tikki-Tavi, who appears in a short story of the same title in The Jungle Book (1894) by Rudyard Kipling. In this tale set in India, the young mongoose saves his family from a krait and from Nag and Nagaina, two cobras. The story was later made into several films and a song by Donovan, among other references. A mongoose is also featured in Bram Stoker's novel The Lair of the White Worm. The main character, Adam Salton, purchases one to independently hunt snakes. Another mongoose features in the denouement of the Sherlock Holmes story "The Adventure of the Crooked Man", by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. The Indian Tamil devotional film Padai Veetu Amman shows Tamil actor Vinu Chakravarthy changing himself into a mongoose by using his evil tantric mantra, to fight with goddess Amman. However, the mongoose finally dies in the hands of the goddess.

The mongoose is a prohibited animal in the United States (although it is found in Hawaii in the wild as an introduced species). However, the 1962 case of "Mr. Magoo" became an exception in the continental U.S. Magoo was a mongoose brought to the Minnesota port of Duluth by a merchant seaman and faced being euthanized due to the U.S. prohibition. A public campaign to save him resulted in the intervention of Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall, who exempted Magoo from the regulations. Magoo lived out his days on display as the most popular attraction of the Duluth Zoo, dying of old age in 1968.[34]

In 1970, the American rock band Elephant's Memory had a minor hit single with the song "Mongoose". The song tells the story of a mongoose that kills a cobra to avenge the death of a little girl's father.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 562–571. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  2. ^ Vaughan, Terry A.; James M. Ryan; Nicholas J. Czaplewski (2010). Mammalogy. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 300. ISBN 0-7637-6299-7
  3. ^ "mongoose, n.". OED Online. January 2018. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 14 February 2018.
  4. ^ Forsyth, M. (2012). The Etymologicon: A Circular Stroll Through the Hidden Connections of the English Language. Penguin Books. ISBN 9781101611760.
  5. ^ "Dictionary.com: mongoose". Retrieved 2008-08-22.
  6. ^ Lydekker, R. (1894). "XIII. The Mungooses. Genus Herpestes". A hand-book to the Carnivora. Part 1: Cats, civets, and mungooses. London: Edward Lloyd Limited. pp. 244−269.
  7. ^ Macdonald, D., ed. (2009). The Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 660. ISBN 978-0-19-956799-7.
  8. ^ Barchan, D.; Kachalsky, S., Neumann, D., Vogel, Z., Ovadia, M., Kochva, E. and Fuchs, S. (1992). "How the mongoose can fight the snake: the binding site of the mongoose acetylcholine receptor" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 89 (16): 7717–7721.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  9. ^ Drabeck, D. H.; Dean, A. M.; Jansa, S. A. (2015). "Why the honey badger don't care: Convergent evolution of venom-targeted nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in mammals that survive venomous snake bites". Toxicon. 99: 68–72. doi:10.1016/j.toxicon.2015.03.007. PMID 25796346.
  10. ^ Bonaparte, C. L. (1845). "Fam. VII. Viverridae". Catalogo Methodico dei Mammiferi Europei. Milan, Italy: L. di Giacomo Pirola. p. 8.
  11. ^ Gray, J.E. (1865). "A revision of the genera and species of viverrine animals (Viverridae) founded on the collection in the British Museum". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London: 502–579.
  12. ^ Pocock, R. I. (1919). "The classification of mongooses (Mungotidae)". The Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 9 (3): 515–524.
  13. ^ Yoder, A. D.; Burns, M. M.; Zehr, S.; Delefosse, T.; Veron, G.; Goodman, S. M.; Flynn, J. J. (2003). "Single origin of Malagasy carnivora from an African ancestor". Nature. 421 (6924): 434–437. doi:10.1038/nature01303. PMID 12610623.
  14. ^ Flynn, J. J.; Finarelli, J.; Zehr, S.; Hsu, J.; Nedbal, M. (2005). "Molecular phylogeny of the Carnivora (Mammalia): Assessing the Impact of Increased sampling on resolving enigmatic relationships". Systematic Biology. 54 (2): 317–337. doi:10.1080/10635150590923326. PMID 16012099.
  15. ^ Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M., eds. (2005). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  16. ^ a b c d e Patou, M.; Mclenachan, P.A.; Morley, C.G.; Couloux, A.; Jennings, A.P.; Veron, G. (2009). "Molecular phylogeny of the Herpestidae (Mammalia, Carnivora) with a special emphasis on the Asian Herpestes". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 53 (1): 69–80. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2009.05.038. PMID 19520178.
  17. ^ Bishop, W. W.; Clark, J. D. (1965). Background to Evolution in Africa. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  18. ^ Veron, G.; Colyn, M.; Dunham, A.E.; Taylor, P.; Gaubert, P. (2004). "Molecular systematics and origin of sociality in mongooses (Herpestidae, Carnivora)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 30 (3): 582–598. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00229-X. PMID 15012940.
  19. ^ Barycka, Ewa (2005). "Evolution and systematics of the feliform Carnivora". Mammalian Biology. 72 (5): 257–282. doi:10.1016/j.mambio.2006.10.011.
  20. ^ Palomares, F.; Delibes, M. (1993). "Social organization in the Egyptian mongoose: group size, spatial behaviour and inter-individual contacts in adults". Animal Behaviour. 45 (5): 917–925. doi:10.1006/anbe.1993.1111.
  21. ^ Cronk, N. E.; Pillay, N. (2018). "Food choice and feeding on carrion in two African mongoose species in an urban environment". Acta Ethologica. 21: 127–136. doi:10.1007/s10211-018-0291-x.
  22. ^ Barchan, D.; Kachalsky, S.; Neumann, D.; Vogel, Z.; Ovadia, M.; Kochva, E.; Fuchs, S. (1992). "How the Mongoose Defeats the Snake". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 89 (16): 7717–7721. doi:10.1073/pnas.89.16.7717. PMC 49782. Retrieved 2010-10-25.
  23. ^ Mondadori, A., ed. (1988). Great Book of the Animal Kingdom. New York: Arch Cape Press. p. 301.
  24. ^ Sherman, D. M. (2007). Tending Animals in the Global Village: A Guide to International Veterinary Medicine. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9780470292105.
  25. ^ "Animals whose importation is banned under the Lacey Act". Archived from the original on 2006-06-25. Retrieved 2006-04-12. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  26. ^ "Star Bulletin: Traps set to catch mongoose on Kauai". Retrieved 2006-04-12.
  27. ^ Poushali Ganguly. "Mongoose Facts". Buzzle.
  28. ^ "Mongoose – Herpestidae". National Geographic. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  29. ^ Black, J.; Green, A. (1992). Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia: An Illustrated Dictionary. The British Museum Press. p. 132. ISBN 0-7141-1705-6.
  30. ^ "Symbolism of Mongoose in Art". indology list indology.info.
  31. ^ "Kuber Golden Temple". kubergoldentemple.org.
  32. ^ "Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 2003 - Schedule 2 Prohibited new organisms". New Zealand Government. Retrieved 26 January 2012.
  33. ^ Charles, Bill. "Okinawa World Presents Midsummer Thrills." Japan Update. 24 August 2012. http://www.japanupdate.com/archive/index.php?id=12558.
  34. ^ Krueger, A. 2010. Remembering Duluth's famous mongoose, Mr. Magoo at the Duluth News Tribune (via archive.org); retrieved July 27, 2014.

Further readingEdit

  • Rasa, Anne (1986). Mongoose Watch: A Family Observed. Garden City, NY: Anchor Press/Doubleday & Co. ISBN 9780385231756. OCLC 12664019.
  • Hinton, H. E. & Dunn, A. M. S. (1967). Mongooses: Their Natural History and Behaviour. Berkeley: University of California Press. OCLC 1975837.

External linksEdit