Open main menu

Wikipedia β

The Latin American countries from which Latinos descend

Latino (/læˈtin/ or /ləˈtin/)[1] is a term often used in the United States to refer to people with cultural ties to Latin America and people of nationalities within the bounds of Latin America, in contrast to Hispanic which is a demonym that includes Spaniards and other speakers of the Spanish language.[2][3][4][5]

"Latino" as a category used in the United States may be understood as a shorthand for the Spanish word latinoamericano or the Portuguese phrase latino americano, thus excluding speakers of Spanish or Portuguese from Europe.[6][7] Both Hispanic and Latino are generally used to denote people living in the United States,[8][9] so much so that "Outside the United States, we don't speak of Latinos; we speak of Mexicans, Colombians, Peruvians, and so forth."[10][11] In Latin America, the term latino is not a common endonym and its usage in Spanish as a demonym is restricted to the Latin American-descended population of the United States.

The U.S. government's Office of Management and Budget has defined Hispanic or Latino people as being those who "trace their origin or descent to Mexico, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Cuba, Central, and South America (other than Guyana, French Guiana, and Suriname), and other Spanish cultures."[12] The United States Census uses the ethnonym Hispanic or Latino to refer to "a person of Dominican, Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin regardless of race."[13] The Census Bureau also explains that "[o]rigin can be viewed as the heritage, nationality group, lineage, or country of birth of the person or the person’s ancestors before their arrival in the United States. People who identify their origin as Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish may be of any race."[14] Hence the U.S. Census and the OMB are using the terms differently. The U.S. Census and the OMB use the terms in an interchangeable manner, where both terms are synonyms. According to a study by the Pew Research Center, the majority (51%) of Hispanic and Latino Americans prefer to identify with their families' country of origin, while only 24% prefer the term Hispanic or Latino.[15]

The AP Stylebook's recommended usage of Latino in Latin America includes not only persons of Spanish-speaking ancestry, but also more generally includes persons "from — or whose ancestors were from — . . . Latin America, including Brazilians." However, in the recent past, the term Latinos was also applied to people from the Caribbean region, including those from former Dutch and British colonies.

Contents

EtymologyEdit

In English, the terms latino and latina are shortened forms of American Spanish "latinoamericano" and "latinoamericana" which are New World expansions of the Old World terms "latino" and "latina" which are ultimately from the Latin terms latīnus and latīna meaning Latin. Latino has been used in the United States since at least 1946 and is the abbreviated form of the Spanish American word latinoamericano (Latin American).[16][17]

The etymology of Latin America dates to the 19th century. French intelectuctuals postulated that this region of the Americas was inhabited by people of a "Latin race", and that it could, therefore, ally itself with "Latin Europe". The term was adopted since France, a great power at that time, had political ambitions in the region and cultural connections were established.

In Spanish, the usage of latino is frequently not correlative to its primary usage in the United States. According to the Real Academia Española, the primary use of latino in Spanish is to refer to the people of the Lazio (Latium) region of Italy.[18] The fifth definition listed is for the grouping of Romance language-speaking people of Europe and the Americas.[18]

Use in the United StatesEdit

The term Latino was officially adopted in 1997 by the United States Government in the ethnonym Hispanic or Latino, which replaced the single term Hispanic: "Because regional usage of the terms differs – Hispanic is commonly used in the eastern portion of the United States, whereas Latino is commonly used in the western portion."[19]

U.S. official use of the term "Hispanic" has its origins in the 1970 census. The Census Bureau attempted to identify all Hispanics by use of the following criteria in sampled sets:[20]

  • Spanish speakers and persons belonging to a household where Spanish was spoken
  • Persons with Spanish heritage by birth location
  • Persons who self-identify with Latin America, excluding Brazil

Neither "Hispanic" nor "Latino" refers to a race, as a person of Latino/Hispanic ethnicity can be of any race.[21][22] Like non-Latinos, a Latino can be of any race or combination of races: White/Caucasian, Black/African American, Asian, Native American, Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander American, or two or more races. While Brazilian Americans are not included with Hispanics and Latinos in the government's census population reports, any Brazilian American can report as being Hispanic or Latino since Hispanic or Latino origin is, like race, a matter of self-identification.[21][23]

Other federal and local government agencies and non-profit organizations include Brazilians and Portuguese in their definition of Hispanic. The U.S. Department of Transportation defines Hispanic Americans as, "persons of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, Central or South American, or other Spanish or Portuguese culture or origin, regardless of race."[24] This definition has been adopted by the Small Business Administration as well as by many federal, state, and municipal agencies for the purposes of awarding government contracts to minority owned businesses. The Congressional Hispanic Caucus and the Congressional Hispanic Conference include representatives of Spanish and Portuguese descent. The Hispanic Society of America is dedicated to the study of the arts and cultures of Spain, Portugal, and Latin America. Each year since 1997 the International Latino Book Award is conferred to the best achievements in Spanish or Portuguese literature at BookExpo America, the largest publishing trade show in the United States. The Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities, which proclaims itself the champion of Hispanic success in higher education, has member institutions in the U.S., Puerto Rico, Latin America, Spain, and Portugal.

Some authorities of American English maintain a distinction between the terms "Hispanic" and "Latino":

Though often used interchangeably in American English, Hispanic and Latino are not identical terms, and in certain contexts the choice between them can be significant. Hispanic, from the Latin word for "Spain," has the broader reference, potentially encompassing all Spanish-speaking peoples in both hemispheres and emphasizing the common denominator of language among communities that sometimes have little else in common. Latino—which in Spanish means "Latin" but which as an English word is probably a shortening of the Spanish word latinoamericano—refers more exclusively to persons or communities of Latin American origin. Of the two, only Hispanic can be used in referring to Spain and its history and culture; a native of Spain residing in the United States is a Hispanic, not a Latino, and one cannot substitute Latino in the phrase the Hispanic influence on native Mexican cultures without garbling the meaning. In practice, however, this distinction is of little significance when referring to residents of the United States, most of whom are of Latin American origin and can theoretically be called by either word.[25]

The AP Stylebook also distinguishes between the terms Hispanic and Latino. The Stylebook limits the term "Hispanic" to persons "from - or whose ancestors were from - a Spanish-speaking land or culture." It provides a more expansive definition, however, of the term "Latino." The Stylebook definition of Latino includes not only persons of Spanish-speaking ancestry, but also more generally includes persons "from -- or whose ancestors were from -- . . . Latin America." The Stylebook specifically lists "Brazilian" as an example of a group which can be considered Latino.

There were 28 categories tabulated in the 2000 United States Census: Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican Republic; Central American: Costa Rican, Guatemalan, Honduran, Nicaraguan, Panamanian, Salvadoran, Other Central American; South American: Argentinian, Bolivian, Chilean, Colombian, Ecuadorian, Paraguayan, Peruvian, Uruguayan, Venezuelan, Other South American; Other Hispanic or Latino: Spaniard, Spanish, Spanish American, All other Hispanic or Latino.[26]

Similar and related termsEdit

In English, "Latino" is used interchangeably with "Latin American".[27][28] As an English demonym "Latin" has other meanings:[29][30]

Attempts have been made to introduce gender neutral language into Spanish by changing the ending of Latino. Terms like Latinx, Latin@, and Latine are just a few examples of the various ways in which members of the Latino community have tried to be more inclusive of women and gender nonbinary individuals through language.

Latinx was first introduced in 2004 by members of the queer community online.[31]

CriticismEdit

The use of the term Latino, despite its increasing popularity, is still highly debated among those who are called by the name.[32][33] Since the adoption of the term by the U.S. Census Bureau[34] and its subsequent widespread use, there have been several controversies and disagreements, especially in the United States and, to a lesser extent, in Mexico and other Spanish-speaking countries. Since it is an arbitrary generic term, many Latin American scholars, journalists, and indigenous rights organisations have objected to the mass media use of the word "Latino", pointing out that such ethnonyms are optional and should be used only to describe people involved in the practices, ideologies, and identity politics of their supporters.[35][36][37][38] Journalist Rodolfo Acuña writes:

When and why the Latino identity came about is a more involved story. Essentially, politicians, the media, and marketers find it convenient to deal with the different U.S. Spanish-speaking people under one umbrella. However, many people with Spanish surnames contest the term Latino. They claim it is misleading because no Latino or Hispanic nationality exists since no Latino state exists, so generalizing the term Latino slights the various national identities included under the umbrella.[39]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Latino. (2012). Dictionary.com. Retrieved September 7, 2012, from link.
  2. ^ "Latino: People with roots in the Spanish speaking Americas. This term is sometimes used as a replacement for Hispanic.
  3. ^ http://americanhistory.si.edu/collections/object-groups/mexican-america?ogmt_page=mexican-america-glossary (Defining "Hispanic" as meaning those with Spanish-speaking roots in the Americas and "Latino" as meaning those with both Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking roots in Latin America.)
  4. ^ Anderson, Kevin (2008-10-18). "US elections 2008 (News),New Mexico (News),US politics". The Guardian. London. 
  5. ^ "Herald Style Guide". Retrieved 6 April 2012. 
  6. ^ "Hispanic". answers.com. Retrieved 2012-12-09. 
  7. ^ "Latino". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 2012-12-09. 
  8. ^ "The concept of "Latino" is an American concept" (ms powerpoint). Retrieved 2012-12-09. 
  9. ^ Thomas, Jeffrey (December 8, 2006). "New Survey Paints Vivid Portrait of U.S. Latinos". USINFO. Retrieved 2012-12-09. Being Latino is an American identity 
  10. ^ Suarez-Orozco, Marcelo; Páez, Mariela, eds. (2008). Latinos: Remaking America. University of California Press. p. 4. ISBN 0-520-25827-4. The very term Latino has meaning only in reference to the U.S. experience. Outside the United States, we don't speak of Latinos; we speak of Mexicans, Cubans, Puerto Ricans, and so forth. Latinos are made in the USA. 
  11. ^ Grande, Michael (May 7, 2005). "Latino & Hispanic? It's Time to Rethink these Terms!". globalpolitician.com. Retrieved 2012-12-09. 
  12. ^ Office of Management and Budget. "Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity. Federal Register Notice October 30, 1997". Retrieved 2008-01-11. 
  13. ^ http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-04.pdf
  14. ^ https://www.census.gov/population/hispanic/
  15. ^ Taylor, Paul; Lopez, Mark Hugo; Martínez, Jessica; Velasco, Gabriel (4 April 2012). "When Labels Don’t Fit: Hispanics and Their Views of Identity". Pew Research Center's Hispanic Trends Project. 
  16. ^ "Define Latino at Dictionary.com". 
  17. ^ "Latino - Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary". 
  18. ^ a b "Latino". Real Academia Española. Retrieved 14 June 2017. 
  19. ^ Office of Management and Budget. "Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity. Federal Register Notice October 30, 1997". Retrieved 2008-01-11. Terminology for Hispanics.--OMB does not accept the recommendation to retain the single term "Hispanic." Instead, OMB has decided that the term should be "Hispanic or Latino." Because regional usage of the terms differs – Hispanic is commonly used in the eastern portion of the United States, whereas Latino is commonly used in the western portion – this change may contribute to improved response rates.  (Boldface in the original.)
  20. ^ Gibson, Campbell; Jung, Kay (September 2002). "Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States". Working Paper Series No. 56. Retrieved 2006-12-07. 
  21. ^ a b United States Census Bureau (March 2001). "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-12-30. Retrieved 2007-07-15. 
  22. ^ U.S. Census Bureau. "U.S. Census Bureau Guidance on the Presentation and Comparison of Race and Hispanic Origin Data". Retrieved 2007-03-18. Race and Hispanic origin are two separate concepts in the federal statistical system. People who are Hispanic may be of any race. People in each race group may be either Hispanic or Not Hispanic. Each person has two attributes, their race (or races) and whether or not they are Hispanic. 
  23. ^ "B03001. Hispanic or Latino Origin by Spedific Origin". 2006 American Community Survey. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-20. 
  24. ^ U.S. Department of Transportation, "Disadvantaged Business Enterprise Program Administration Reference Manual For Division Office Civil Rights Personnel"
  25. ^ "American Heritage Dictionary". Retrieved 2012-04-06. 
  26. ^ "American FactFinder Help; Spanish/Hispanic/Latino". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2009-03-02. 
  27. ^ Douglas Harper. "Online Etymology Dictionary". Retrieved 1 April 2017. 
  28. ^ Oboler, Suzanne. Ethnic Labels, Latino Lives: Identity and the Politics of (Re) Presentation. 
  29. ^ "Latin – Definitions from Dictionary.com". Retrieved 2008-01-28. 
  30. ^ "Latin – Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary; Latin[2,noun]". Retrieved 2008-01-28. 
  31. ^ OED Online. ""X, n."". Retrieved April 19, 2017. 
  32. ^ The Term 'Latino' Describes No One
  33. ^ Latino or Hispanic Panic: Which Term Should We Use?
  34. ^ Fisher, Celia B. and Lerner, Richard M. Encyclopedia of Applied Developmental Science SAGE, 2004, ISBN 0-7619-2820-0 Page 634
  35. ^ Latino & Hispanic? It’s Time to Rethink these Terms!
  36. ^ The New York Times – Latino? Hispanic? Quechua? No, American Take Your Pick
  37. ^ Los Angeles Times – Look beyond the 'Latino' label
  38. ^ Hispanic magazine, December 2000
  39. ^ Acuña, Rodolfo, U.S. Latino issues, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2003 ISBN 0-313-32211-2

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit