Julián Castro (/ˌhliˈɑːn/ HOO-lee-AHN,[1] Spanish: [xuˈljan]; born September 16, 1974) is an American lawyer and politician from San Antonio. A member of the Democratic Party, he was the youngest member of President Obama's cabinet, serving as the 16th United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development from 2014 to 2017. Castro served as the mayor of his native San Antonio, Texas from 2009 until he joined Barack Obama's cabinet in 2014.

Julián Castro
16th United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development
In office
July 28, 2014 – January 20, 2017
PresidentBarack Obama
DeputyNani A. Coloretti
Preceded byShaun Donovan
Succeeded byBen Carson
181st Mayor of San Antonio
In office
June 1, 2009 – July 22, 2014
Preceded byPhil Hardberger
Succeeded byIvy Taylor
Member of the San Antonio City Council
from the 7th district
In office
July 1, 2001 – July 1, 2005
Preceded byEd Garza
Succeeded byElena Guajardo
Personal details
Born (1974-09-16) September 16, 1974 (age 49)
San Antonio, Texas, U.S.
Political partyDemocratic
Erica Lira
(m. 2007)
RelativesJoaquin Castro (twin brother)
EducationStanford University (BA)
Harvard University (JD)

Castro was mentioned as a possible running mate for Hillary Clinton during the 2016 presidential campaign.[2][3] He is the twin brother of Congressman Joaquin Castro. On January 12, 2019, Castro launched his campaign for the Democratic nomination for President of the United States in 2020 in San Antonio.[4] He dropped out of the presidential race on January 2, 2020,[5][6] endorsing the candidacy of Elizabeth Warren soon after.[7]

Early life and family edit

Castro[8] was born in San Antonio, Texas, the son of Maria "Rosie" Castro and Jessie Guzman.[9] He is the identical twin brother of current United States Representative Joaquin Castro;[8] Julián was born a minute before Joaquin; they were born at 2:40 and 2:41 am, respectively.[10]

Castro is of Mexican descent. His mother is a Chicana political activist who helped establish the Chicano political party La Raza Unida,[11] and who ran for the San Antonio City Council in 1971.[8] Castro once stated, "My mother is probably the biggest reason that my brother and I are in public service. Growing up, she would take us to a lot of rallies and organizational meetings and other things that are very boring for an 8-, 9-, 10-year-old".[12] His father, Jessie Guzman, is a retired mathematics teacher and political activist. Never married, Rosie and Jessie separated when Castro and his brother were eight years old.[11] Castro's Texan roots trace back to 1920, when his grandmother Victoria Castro joined extended family members there as a six-year-old orphan from northern Mexico.[8]

Education edit

Castro attended Thomas Jefferson High School in San Antonio, where he played football, basketball and tennis; he also collected trading cards.[which?][13] He skipped his sophomore year[14] and graduated in 1992,[15] ranking ninth in his class.[11] He had received an offer to play tennis at Trinity University, an NCAA Division III school in his hometown, but chose to attend Stanford University,[16] along with his twin brother Joaquin.

Castro graduated from Stanford in 1996 with a bachelor's degree in political science and communications. He said he began thinking about entering politics while at Stanford,[11] where he and his brother launched their first campaigns and won student senate seats, tying for the highest number of votes.[8] Castro has credited affirmative action for his admission into Stanford, telling The New York Times, "Joaquin and I got into Stanford because of affirmative action. I scored 1210 on my SATs, which was lower than the median matriculating student. But I did fine in college and in law school. So did Joaquin. I’m a strong supporter of affirmative action because I’ve seen it work in my own life".[17] Between his sophomore and junior years, Castro worked as an intern at the White House during the presidency of Bill Clinton.[18]

Castro entered Harvard Law School in 1997 and graduated with a Juris Doctor in 2000.[19][20] His brother graduated from both schools with him.[11] After law school, the two brothers worked for the law firm Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld before starting their own firm in 2005.[21]

In 2018, Castro was named as the Dean's Distinguished Fellow and Fellow of the Dávila Chair in International Trade Policy at the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs.[22]

San Antonio city council edit

Julian Castro and his twin brother, Representative Joaquin Castro, at the LBJ Presidential Library.
Castro meets with U.S. Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid on July 7, 2014

In 2001, Castro was elected to the San Antonio City Council, winning 61 percent of the vote against five challengers. At age 26 he was the youngest city councilman in San Antonio history, surpassing Henry Cisneros, who won his council seat in 1975 at age 27. Castro represented District 7, a precinct on the city's west side with 115,000 residents. The population was 70 percent Hispanic and included a large number of senior citizens.[23] As a councilman from 2001 to 2005, he opposed a PGA-approved golf course and large-scale real estate development on the city's outer rim.[24]

Mayor of San Antonio edit

Castro ran for mayor of San Antonio in 2005 and was widely viewed as the front runner in a field that also included retired judge Phil Hardberger and conservative city councilman Carroll Schubert. He was defeated by approximately 4000 votes when Hardberger received 51.5% of the votes in the runoff.[25][26] Following his election defeat, Castro established his own law practice.[18]

Castro ran for mayor of San Antonio again in 2009. Castro hired Christian Archer, who had run Hardberger's campaign in 2005, to run his own 2009 campaign.[18] Castro won the election on May 9, 2009, with 56.23% of the vote, his closest opponent being Trish DeBerry-Mejia.[27] He became the fifth Latino mayor in the history of San Antonio. He was the youngest mayor of a top-50 American city.[28] Castro easily won re-election in 2011 and 2013, receiving 82.9% of the vote in 2011[29] and 67% of the vote in 2013.[30]

In 2010, Castro created SA2020, a community-wide visioning effort. It generated a list of goals created by the people of San Antonio based on their collective vision for San Antonio in the year 2020. SA2020 then became a nonprofit organization tasked with turning that vision into a reality.[31] Castro also established Cafe College in 2010, offering college guidance to San Antonio-area students. In 2012 he led a voter referendum to expand pre-kindergarten education.[28] Castro persuaded two of the most prominent businessmen in San Antonio, Charles Butt and Joe Robles, to lead an effort to pass a $30 million sales tax to fund the pre-kindergarten education program.[18]

In March 2010, Castro was named to the World Economic Forum's list of Young Global Leaders. Later that year, Time magazine placed him on its "40 under 40" list of rising stars in American politics.[32]

Castro gained national attention in 2012 when he was the first Hispanic to deliver the keynote address at a Democratic National Convention in Charlotte, North Carolina.[33][34] Following the 2012 elections, Castro declined the position of United States Secretary of Transportation, partly with an eye on running for governor of Texas after 2017.[18] However, in 2014, Castro accepted President Barack Obama's offer of the position of United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development.[18] Castro resigned as mayor effective July 22, 2014, so that he could take up his duties in Washington. The San Antonio City Council elected councilmember Ivy Taylor to replace him.[35]

Secretary of Housing and Urban Development edit

On May 22, 2014, the White House announced Castro as the nominee to be the next secretary of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) by President Barack Obama. He was confirmed by the Senate on July 9, 2014, by a vote of 71-26 and replaced Shaun Donovan, who was nominated to be the Director of the Office of Management and Budget.[36][citation needed] He took office on July 28, 2014.[37] Following the announcement, Castro was discussed as a potential nominee for vice president for the Democratic Party in the 2016 presidential election.[38][39]

British Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs William Hague meeting Castro in London in 2012

On July 28, 2014, his first day in office, Castro was honored at a reception called "Celebrating Latino Cabinet Members" hosted by the Congressional Hispanic Caucus Institute.[40]

Upon exiting office in 2017, Castro's final memo outlined various accomplishments of the department under his leadership.[41] These areas included HUD's work to stabilize the housing market, rebuild communities struck by natural disasters through a $1 billion National Disaster Resilience Competition, expansion of lead safety protections in federally assisted housing, and the Affirmatively Furthering Fair Housing rule to "finally fulfill the full obligation of the Fair Housing Act.[42]

2016 presidential election edit

On October 15, 2015, Castro endorsed Hillary Clinton for president. When Clinton was asked if Castro could be her pick for vice president, she said, "I am going to look really hard at him for anything because that's how good he is."[43] Discussion of Castro as a candidate to run on the Democratic ticket with Hillary Clinton increased markedly in January 2016, as the Iowa and New Hampshire primaries approached.[44][45] In late January, Castro began to campaign for Clinton in Iowa, a move interpreted as a test of his appeal to the electorate.[46] In July 2016, the U.S. Office of Special Counsel issued a finding that Castro had violated the Hatch Act by commenting on the 2016 campaign while giving an interview in an official capacity; Castro admitted the error and ordered his team to improve training on the Hatch Act.[47]

Memoir edit

In October 2018, Castro published his memoir, An Unlikely Journey: Waking Up from My American Dream through Little, Brown and Company.[48]

2020 presidential campaign edit

Julian Castro
Campaign2020 United States presidential election (Democratic primaries)
CandidateJulián Castro
16th United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development (2014–2017)
Mayor of San Antonio, Texas (2009–2014)
AffiliationDemocratic Party
AnnouncedJanuary 12, 2019
SuspendedJanuary 2, 2020
HeadquartersSan Antonio, Texas
Key peopleRep. Joaquin Castro (campaign chairman)[49]
Maya Rupert (campaign manager)[49]
Derek Eadon (deputy campaign manager)[49]
Jennifer Fiore (communications advisor)[49]
Scott Atlas (finance chairman)[49]
ReceiptsUS$10,264,312.76[50] (12/31/2019)
SloganOne Nation. One Destiny.[51]

In 2018, Castro visited the first in the nation New Hampshire primary state, and delivered the commencement address at New England College in Henniker, New Hampshire, on May 12, 2018. Castro stated that he would make his decision on whether to run in 2020 after the November 2018 mid-term elections.[52] On December 12, 2018, Castro announced the formation of an exploratory committee.[53][54] The next day, during an episode of The Late Show with Stephen Colbert, Julián's brother Joaquin (during a joint appearance by both brothers) stated that he confidently believed that Julián will be running for president.[55]

Castro speaking to the California Democratic Party State Convention in June 2019.

Castro formally announced his candidacy for the 2020 presidential election on January 12, 2019, at a rally in San Antonio, TX.[56] His brother, Congressman Joaquín Castro, and their mother introduced him at the rally.[57] Castro would have been the first Democratic presidential nominee since 1924 to not have first served as vice president, governor or senator, and the first Hispanic or Latino nominee for president.[58][59][60] He was the first Texan in the 2020 race and would have been the third-youngest president if elected. In his announcement, Castro emphasized Medicare-For-All, universal pre-K, and a pathway to citizenship for undocumented immigrants as part of comprehensive immigration reform.[61] In 2019, he purchased a Fox News ad in order to speak directly to Donald Trump about the El Paso shooting.[62] Despite referring to his healthcare plan as Medicare for All, his position was actually a public option rather than the single-payer plan proposed by Bernie Sanders and Pramila Jayapal.[63]

Castro's performance in the second night of the first debate was praised, with many pundits considering him to have been the "breakout star" of the night, and to have been one of the "winners" of the debate.[64][65][66][67]

During the third Democratic Presidential Debate, Castro was accused of ageism after he attacked Joe Biden in a heated exchange over health care plans with Castro taunting Biden saying "Are you forgetting what you just said two minutes ago", repeating it multiple times. Castro was rebuked for his remarks by various members of the candidates on stage including, Andrew Yang, Amy Klobuchar, and Pete Buttigieg.[68][69] Castro was widely criticized for what was seen as a "low blow", and with many accusing Castro of "bullying", and engaging in "ageism".[70][71][72] Journalist Gayle King saw the interaction as a "personal attack".[73] On The Late Show with Stephen Colbert, Stephen Colbert described the interaction as both "mean and inaccurate",[74] since Castro was factually incorrect in his attack against Biden according to Politifact.[75]

Many remarked that the exchange was the beginning of the end of Castro's presidential campaign.[76] Castro has defended his attack against Biden saying he "wouldn't do it differently" and insisted he wasn't making fun of Biden."[77]

Castro suspended his presidential campaign on January 2, 2020.[78] "¡Ganaremos un día!" he said in Spanish, which translates to "One day we'll win!"[79]

On January 6, 2020, Castro endorsed Elizabeth Warren.[7]

Post-presidential campaign edit

Castro campaigns alongside Elizabeth Warren for her presidential campaign in Marshalltown, Iowa on January 2, 2020

On January 6, 2020, Castro endorsed Senator Elizabeth Warren for president.[80] The next day, he gave a speech formally supporting Warren during her campaign rally in Brooklyn, New York.[81] Castro was a "partner" in Warren's presidential campaign[82] but she failed to win Texas.[83] Castro's political future is unknown. On June 2, 2020, he endorsed presumptive Democratic nominee Joe Biden.[84]

In September 2020, Castro partnered with Lemonada Media to launch "Our America with Julián Castro",[85] a weekly podcast discussing America’s past and possibilities.[86]

In October 2020, Castro joined the board of directors of the Center for American Progress, a center-left think tank founded by John Podesta.[87]

On July 12, 2021, Castro joined NBC News and MSNBC as a political commentator.[88]

Political positions edit

Economy edit

Castro "believes in balanced budgets".[89] He also supports increasing the federal minimum wage to $15 an hour.[90]

Trade edit

Castro is a supporter of national and international trade regulation. He has been a strong supporter of the North American Free Trade Agreement while serving as mayor of San Antonio, but has also said that the agreement should be renegotiated to "strengthen worker and environmental protections".[91][89]

Education edit

Castro supports universal pre-kindergarten, and managed to institute a pre-kindergarten program for 4-year-olds, funded by higher local taxes, while serving as mayor of San Antonio.[91][92] He also supports making the first two years of higher education tuition-free.[93][94]

Healthcare edit

Castro has called for universal health care and indicated he would consider funding such a program by raising taxes on corporations and the wealthy.[91] He has supported the Affordable Care Act.[95][94][96] His campaign's healthcare plan calls for a public option.[97]

Environment edit

Castro supports the Paris climate accord, and has criticized President Trump's withdrawal from the agreement. While in office, Castro worked with companies to promote their transition to renewable energy.[91] He has voiced support for a Green New Deal.[98]

In the past, Castro has advocated for an "energy policy that includes fossil fuels"[89] while also "pointing out the benefits of fossil fuel jobs".[95]

Foreign policy edit

Syria edit

Castro has endorsed a gradual withdrawal of U.S. troops from Syria while also criticizing Trump's approach to the issue.[91]

China edit

Castro voiced support for Hong Kong protesters. He wrote that "The United States must lead with our values and speak out for pro-democracy protestors in Hong Kong, and not allow American citizens to be bullied by an authoritarian government."[99]

Campaign finance edit

Castro has stated that he is "not going to take any PAC money" as a presidential candidate, and has encouraged others to do the same. He had however formed a PAC (Opportunity First) in 2017 which mostly covered his running expenses while also donating to several dozen "young, progressive" Democratic politicians.[100]

Social issues and civil rights edit

Abortion edit

Castro is pro-choice, and has "vigorously" opposed state laws limiting abortion access after the 20th week of pregnancy and other restrictions.[91]

LGBTQ rights edit

Castro has been an advocate for LGBTQ rights and, as mayor, opposed the law in Texas (later overturned by the U.S. Supreme Court) that denied legal recognition to same-sex marriages.[101] He is also a member of Washington D.C. based think tank the Inter-American Dialogue.[102] Castro was the first San Antonio mayor to serve as the grand marshal of the city's Pride Parade in 2009 and in 2011 led a push to offer domestic partner benefits in the city. In 2012, he joined mayors across the country in signing the "Mayors for the Freedom to Marry" petition for same-sex marriage equality.[103][91]

Castro said in a tweet that transgender people should be allowed to serve in the armed forces.[91]

In his remarks during the first round of 2019 Democratic Presidential debates, Castro pledged to make abortions available to trans men, mistakenly referring to them as trans women. He later rectified himself to include all trans and non-binary people after having been corrected on Twitter.[104]

In an interview with Mara Keisling of TransEquality, Julian Castro decried the treatment of trans people as second-class citizens.[105][106]

Gun rights edit

Castro supports tighter gun control and has supported the reinstatement of the assault weapons ban, limiting access to high-capacity magazines, and closing the gun show loophole.[91]

Affirmative action edit

Castro has backed affirmative action.[95]

Immigration edit

Castro supports a path to citizenship for most undocumented residents of the US, has opposed President Trump's "border wall" plan, and has said that the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement agency needs to be "reconstituted" and that illegal immigration should be treated as a civil offense instead of a criminal one.[107][108] Additionally, he asserted in the first Democratic primary candidate debates on June 26, 2019[109] that he would repeal Section 1325[110][91] of Title 8 of the U.S. criminal code, which would decriminalize illegal entry into the U.S., rendering unlawful entry a civil offense instead of a criminal one.

Electoral history edit

Personal life edit

In 2007, Castro married Erica Lira, an elementary school teacher. They have a daughter in 2009 and a son in December 2014.[11][111] He is Catholic.[112] He is not a native Spanish speaker, but he began learning the language in 2010 while serving as mayor of San Antonio. He also studied Latin and Japanese in school.[103][113]

References edit

  1. ^ Forsyth, Jim (July 31, 2012). "Democratic orator Castro symbolizes Hispanic rise". Reuters. Retrieved September 4, 2012.
  2. ^ Lambrecht, Bill (January 29, 2016). "V.P. talk grows as Castro campaigns for Clinton". San Antonio Express-News. Retrieved January 1, 2018.
  3. ^ Poppe, Ryan (June 17, 2016). "HUD Secretary Julián Castro No Longer Being Vetted for VP". TPR. Retrieved June 18, 2016.
  4. ^ "Julián Castro announces he is running for president in 2020". CBS News. Retrieved January 12, 2019.
  5. ^ Medina, Jennifer; Stevens, Matt (January 2, 2020). "Julián Castro Ends Presidential Campaign". The New York Times. Retrieved January 2, 2020.
  6. ^ Julian Castro drops out of 2020 presidential race By Paul Steinhauser, Fox News, Jan 2, 2019
  7. ^ a b Diaz, Daniella; Lee, Lee (January 6, 2020). "Julián Castro endorses Elizabeth Warren for president". CNN. Retrieved January 6, 2020.
  8. ^ a b c d e MacLaggan, Corrie (September 3, 2012). "For San Antonio mayor, reflections of American Dream in convention speech". Reuters. Retrieved September 3, 2012.
  9. ^ "Interview with Julian Castro". University of Texas San Antonio. November 9, 2005. Retrieved August 31, 2012.
  10. ^ "Interview and quiz with Julian Castro". NPR. July 16, 2016.
  11. ^ a b c d e f Jefferson, Greg (March 22, 2009). "What makes Castro run? It depends who is asked". San Antonio Express-News. Archived from the original on March 24, 2009. Retrieved August 17, 2009.
  12. ^ Fernandez, Manny (September 3, 2012). "A Spotlight with Precedent Beckons a Mayor From Texas". The New York Times. Retrieved September 4, 2012.
  13. ^ Baugh, Josh; Gary Martin (August 26, 2012). "Democrats view Castro as rising star". San Antonio Express-News. Retrieved September 3, 2012.
  14. ^ Lee, Oliver (August 1, 2012). "7 Things to Know About San Antonio Mayor Julian Castro". TakePart. Archived from the original on May 16, 2013. Retrieved September 3, 2012.
  15. ^ Duel, Chris (September 1, 2012). "VIDEO & PHOTOS: Julián & Joaquín Castro's Sendoff to Democratic National Convention". San Antonio Express-News. Archived from the original on September 9, 2012. Retrieved September 3, 2012.
  16. ^ Garrett, Robert T. (September 3, 2012). "Texan Julián Castro brings life of contrasts to Democratic convention speech". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved September 4, 2012.
  17. ^ Chafets, Zev (May 9, 2010). "The Post-Hispanic Hispanic Politician". The New York Times Magazine. Archived from the original on May 11, 2010. Retrieved August 31, 2012.
  18. ^ a b c d e f Kroll, Andy (January 23, 2015). "The Power of Two: Inside the Rise of the Castro Brothers". The Atlantic. Retrieved March 31, 2016.
  19. ^ Welch, Ben (2002). "Their Politics Is Local". Harvard Law Bulletin. Retrieved September 4, 2012.
  20. ^ "Speaker Biographies". Harvard Law School. August 27, 2012. Retrieved September 4, 2012.
  21. ^ "TRIBPEDIA: Julián Castro". The Texas Tribune. Retrieved August 29, 2013.
  22. ^ "Castro, Julián | LBJ School of Public Affairs | The University of Texas at Austin". lbj.utexas.edu. Archived from the original on May 18, 2018. Retrieved December 26, 2018.
  23. ^ Milanese, Marisa (2001). "Man on a Fast Track". Stanford Magazine. Retrieved September 4, 2012.
  24. ^ Russell, Jan Jarboe (May 1, 2010). "Alamo Heights". Texas Monthly. Retrieved September 4, 2012.
  25. ^ "New mayor sets high goals for San Antonio". Houston Chronicle. June 9, 2005. Retrieved September 5, 2012.
  26. ^ Welch, William M. (June 16, 2005). "San Antonio vote about issues". USA Today.
  27. ^ Bexar County, Texas Primary Runoff Election May 27, 2014 Statistics Archived May 10, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, www.bexar.org
  28. ^ a b "Mayor Julian Castro". Office of the Mayor. City of San Antonio. Retrieved April 23, 2014.
  29. ^ Bexar County, Texas Joint General & Special May 14, 2011 Archived March 5, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, www.bexar.org
  30. ^ Baker, Brian (May 21, 2013). "Mayor of the Month for November 2012: Julian Castro Mayor of San Antonio, USA". CityMayors.com. Retrieved May 23, 2014.
  31. ^ "What is SA2020?". sa2020.org. Retrieved April 29, 2014.
  32. ^ "Secretary Julián Castro". whitehouse.gov. November 6, 2013. Retrieved December 26, 2018.
  33. ^ Henderson, Nia-Malika (July 31, 2012). "Julian Castro, Latino mayor of San Antonio, to keynote DNC convention". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 1, 2012.
  34. ^ Tau, Byron (July 31, 2012). "Julian Castro to deliver DNC keynote". Politico. Retrieved August 1, 2012.
  35. ^ Mendoza, Mariza. "Council members say goodbye to Julian Castro". ABC KSAT 12. Archived from the original on August 12, 2014. Retrieved July 23, 2014.
  36. ^ Superville, Darlene; Lederman, Josh (May 23, 2014). "White House: Obama to Add Julian Castro to Cabinet". ABC News. Associated Press. Archived from the original on May 24, 2014.
  37. ^ Gillman, Todd J. (July 25, 2014). "Julián Castro to take office Monday as Housing secretary". Dallas News. Archived from the original on May 29, 2016. Retrieved July 28, 2014.
  38. ^ Cosman, Ben (May 23, 2014). "Obama Nominates Julián Castro for Cabinet Position, Fueling VP Speculation". The Wire. Archived from the original on January 14, 2016. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
  39. ^ Fuller, Jaime (May 23, 2014). "The 10 things you need to know about Julian Castro". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
  40. ^ O'Keefe, Ed. "Newly sworn-in HUD Secretary Castro gets his first D.C. party". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
  41. ^ "HUD Secretary Castro's exit memo to the American people - "Housing as a Platform for Opportunity."". Navigate. January 5, 2017. Archived from the original on July 24, 2019. Retrieved December 26, 2018.
  42. ^ "Housing as a Platform for Opportunity: A Memo to the American People" (PDF). www.hud.gov. Retrieved December 26, 2018.
  43. ^ "Clinton to 'Look Hard' at HUD Secretary Julian Castro as Possible VP Pick". Newsweek. October 15, 2015. Retrieved October 16, 2015.
  44. ^ Dovere, Edward-Isaac (January 22, 2016). "Ready for Julián?". Politico. Retrieved January 25, 2016.
  45. ^ "U.S. Hispanic Chamber of Commerce endorses Julian Castro for vice president". Fox News Latino. January 24, 2016. Retrieved January 25, 2016.
  46. ^ Linthicum, Kate (January 25, 2016). "Julian Castro, campaigning for Hillary Clinton, embarks on a vice presidential test run in Iowa". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 25, 2016.
  47. ^ Lovegrove, Jamie (July 19, 2016). "Julián Castro broke rules on campaigning as a federal official, counsel finds". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved July 27, 2016.
  48. ^ Julian Castro (2018). An Unlikely Journey. Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 9780316252164.
  49. ^ a b c d e @PatrickSvitek (January 12, 2019). ".@JulianCastro campaign leadership:
    - Campaign chairman: @JoaquinCastrotx
    - Campaign manager: @MayaRupert
    - Deputy campaign manager: @Derek_Eadon
    - Senior adviser for comms and digital: @Jennifer_Fiore
    - Finance chairman: Scott Atlas"
    (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  50. ^ "Form 3P for Julian for the Future". docquery.fec.gov.
  51. ^ O'Keefe, Ed; Rosenkrantz, Holly; Segers, Grace (January 12, 2019). "Julián Castro announces he is running for president in 2020". CBS News. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
  52. ^ "With Clinton out of the picture, stampede of 2020 Dems hits New Hampshire". Fox News. May 7, 2018.
  53. ^ Kapur, Sahil (December 12, 2018). "Democrat Julián Castro Takes Step Toward 2020 Presidential Run". Bloomberg News. Retrieved December 12, 2018.
  54. ^ Tribune, The Texas; Svitek, Patrick (December 12, 2018). "Julián Castro forms presidential exploratory committee, sets Jan. 12 announcement". The Texas Tribune. Retrieved January 6, 2019.
  55. ^ Choi, Matthew (December 12, 2018). "Julián Castro exploring 2020 presidential bid". POLITICO.
  56. ^ O'Keefe, Ed; Rosenkrantz, Holly; Segers, Grace (January 12, 2019). "Julián Castro announces he is running for president in 2020". CBS News. Retrieved January 12, 2019.
  57. ^ "Watch Live: Julián Castro to make 2020 presidential campaign announcement", NBC News, January 12, 2019, archived from the original on December 21, 2021, retrieved January 12, 2019
  58. ^ Scher, Bill (January 13, 2019). "Welcome to 2020, Julián Castro! Here's How To Win by Losing". POLITICO Magazine. Retrieved January 13, 2019.
  59. ^ Astor, Maggie (January 12, 2019). "Julián Castro, Former Housing Secretary, Announces 2020 Presidential Run". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 13, 2019.
  60. ^ Scher, Bill (January 13, 2019). "Welcome to 2020, Julián Castro! Here's How To Win by Losing". Politico. Retrieved January 13, 2019.
  61. ^ "Castro's 2020 policy agenda: Universal pre-K, 'comprehensive' immigration reform, Medicare-for-all". The Washington Post. 2019.
  62. ^ "Julián Castro bought a "Fox & Friends" ad to speak directly to Trump about the El Paso shooting". Axios. August 13, 2019. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  63. ^ "Where 2020 Democrats stand on Medicare-for-all and other health-care issues". Washington Post.
  64. ^ "'Warren's to lose': who won the first Democratic debate? | Panelists". the Guardian. June 27, 2019. Retrieved September 11, 2021.
  65. ^ Astor, Maggie (June 27, 2019). "Who Won the First Debate? Experts on the Left and Right Weigh In". The New York Times. Retrieved September 11, 2021.
  66. ^ Cillizza, Analysis by Chris (June 27, 2019). "Winners and losers from the 1st 2020 Democratic debate | CNN Politics". CNN. Retrieved September 11, 2021.
  67. ^ Lambrecht, Bill (June 27, 2019). "Dubbed a 'breakout star' of first presidential debate, Julián Castro gains momentum". Beaumont Enterprise. Retrieved September 11, 2021.
  68. ^ "Amy Klobuchar Blasts Julián Castro For Sounding Like A Donald Trump Tweet In Debate". Huffington Post. September 13, 2019. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
  69. ^ "ABC News Democratic Debate - WATCH THE FULL DEBATE (2019)". YouTube. Retrieved September 1, 2020.[dead YouTube link]
  70. ^ "Anti-ageism activists bristle at Julián Castro's question to Joe Biden: 'Are you forgetting what you said 2 minutes ago?'". The Boston Globe. Retrieved September 1, 2020.[permanent dead link]
  71. ^ "Former Obama adviser slams Julián Castro for 'ageist' comment". The Washington Examiner. September 13, 2019. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
  72. ^ "MSNBC's Joe Scarborough bashes Julián Castro for 'cheap shot' at Biden's memory". The Week. September 13, 2019. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
  73. ^ "Why Julian Castro may have made a mistake in targeting Joe Biden". YouTube. Archived from the original on December 21, 2021. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
  74. ^ "Jake Tapper Weighs In On Julián Castro's Attack On Joe Biden". YouTube. Archived from the original on December 21, 2021. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
  75. ^ "Julian Castro's attack on Joe Biden for forgetting his health care plan falls flat". PolitiFact. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
  76. ^ "'Put a fork in it, the campaign is over': The View slams Julián Castro's 'ageism'". The Washington Examiner. September 13, 2019. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
  77. ^ "'I wouldn't do it differently': Castro defends his Biden attack". Politico. September 13, 2019. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
  78. ^ "Julian Castro drops out of 2020 Democratic primary race". CNBC. January 2, 2020. Retrieved January 2, 2020.
  79. ^ Benning, Tom; Gillman, Todd J.; Brumfield, Loyd (January 2, 2020). "Texan Julián Castro withdraws from Democratic presidential race". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved January 2, 2020.
  80. ^ Daniella Diaz; MJ Lee (January 6, 2020). "Julián Castro endorses Elizabeth Warren for president". CNN. Retrieved January 9, 2020.
  81. ^ Castro, Julián (January 8, 2020). "Why I am endorsing Elizabeth Warren". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved January 9, 2020.
  82. ^ Fanning, Rhonda (February 28, 2020). "Elizabeth Warren Calls Julián Castro A 'Partner' In Her Campaign". www.kut.org.
  83. ^ Dearman, Eleanor. "With Elizabeth Warren out, will Julián Castro endorse another presidential candidate?". El Paso Times.
  84. ^ Svitek, Patrick (June 2, 2020). "Julián Castro makes his support for Joe Biden official". The Texas Tribune. Retrieved February 20, 2021.
  85. ^ "Our America with Julián Castro on Apple Podcasts". Apple Podcasts. Retrieved October 5, 2020.
  86. ^ Conant, Ericka (September 10, 2020). "Julián Castro takes a look at the true potential of the U.S. in new podcast, 'Our America'". AL DÍA News. Retrieved October 5, 2020.
  87. ^ "RELEASE: Sec. Julián Castro and Andrew Hauptman Join the CAP Board of Directors". Center for American Progress. October 22, 2020. Retrieved October 29, 2020.
  88. ^ Johnson, Ted (July 12, 2021). "Julian Castro Joins NBC News And MSNBC As Political Analyst". Deadline. Retrieved September 11, 2021.
  89. ^ a b c Chafets, Zev (May 6, 2010). "The Post-Hispanic Hispanic Politician". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
  90. ^ "We The People: Julian Castro advocates raising minimum wage to $15 an hour". NBC News. April 1, 2019. Retrieved April 11, 2019.
  91. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "What does Julián Castro believe? Where the candidate stands on 8 issues". PBS NewsHour. January 12, 2019. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
  92. ^ Trickey, Erick (August 17, 2017). "How Julián Castro Bet on 4-Year-Olds to Transform San Antonio". Politico. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
  93. ^ Gamboa, Suzanne (March 1, 2019). "Can Julián Castro make education his issue in the crowded 2020 presidential field?". NBC News. Retrieved April 11, 2019.
  94. ^ a b Desjardins, Lisa (January 12, 2019). "What does Julián Castro believe? Where the candidate stands on 8 issues". PBS. Retrieved April 11, 2019.
  95. ^ a b c Prokop, Andrew (May 23, 2014). "Everything you need to know about Julián Castro". Vox. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
  96. ^ Birnbaum, Emily (January 8, 2019). "Julian Castro: 'We should do Medicare for all in this country'". The Hill. Retrieved April 11, 2019.
  97. ^ Rod, Marc (July 18, 2019). "These 2020 Democrats want 'Medicare for All' – but without ditching private insurance". CNBC.
  98. ^ Castro, Julián (January 12, 2019). ""We're gonna say no to subsidizing big oil and say yes to passing a Green New Deal." #Julian2020". @JulianCastro. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
  99. ^ "The raging controversy over the NBA, China, and the Hong Kong protests, explained". Vox. October 7, 2019.
  100. ^ Dave Levinthal, Center for Public Integrity (January 12, 2019). "Here are 9 things to know about 2020 presidential candidate Julián Castro". The Texas Tribune. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
  101. ^ Forsyth, Jim. "EXCLUSIVE: Mayor Castro Says Texas Should Legalize Gay Marriage NOW". WOAI. Retrieved June 27, 2013.
  102. ^ "Inter-American Dialogue | Experts". www.thedialogue.org. Archived from the original on February 2, 2020. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
  103. ^ a b "15 things to know about Julián Castro: Texan, twin and potential 2020 presidential candidate". Dallas News. June 29, 2016. Retrieved December 26, 2018.
  104. ^ "Julian Castro". Twitter. Retrieved June 28, 2019.
  105. ^ "Transform the White House: Sec. Julián Castro - YouTube". www.youtube.com. Archived from the original on December 21, 2021.
  106. ^ Browning, Bil (September 4, 2019). "Presidential candidate Julian Castro talks trans issues". LGBTQ Nation.
  107. ^ Santos, Patty (April 10, 2019). "Presidential hopeful Julian Castro lays out immigration plan at SA rally". KSAT-TV. Retrieved April 11, 2019.
  108. ^ Chappell, Carmin (February 6, 2019). "Democrat Julian Castro wants to take on Trump over immigration. Here's where he stands on key issues". CNBC. Retrieved April 11, 2019.
  109. ^ Livingston, Abby. "Julián Castro spars with Beto O'Rourke on immigration: "If you did your homework on this issue, you would know"". texastribune.org. The Texas Tribune. Retrieved June 26, 2019.
  110. ^ "1911. 8 U.S.C. 1325". U.S. Department of Justice. February 19, 2015. Retrieved June 26, 2019.
  111. ^ "It's a Boy! HUD Secr. Julian Castro, Wife, Welcome Second Child". NBC News. December 29, 2014. Retrieved June 27, 2019.
  112. ^ Desjardins, Lisa (January 12, 2019). "What does Julián Castro believe? Where the candidate stands on 8 issues". PBS Newshour. Retrieved June 27, 2019.
  113. ^ Fernández, Francisco. "Julián Castro, first Hispanic President?". Observatory of the Spanish Language and Hispanic Cultures in the United States. Archived from the original on July 28, 2019. Retrieved March 9, 2019.

External links edit

Political offices
Preceded by Mayor of San Antonio
Succeeded by
Preceded by United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development
Succeeded by
Party political offices
Preceded by Keynote Speaker of the Democratic National Convention
Succeeded by
U.S. order of precedence (ceremonial)
Preceded byas Former US Cabinet Member Order of precedence of the United States
as Former US Cabinet Member
Succeeded byas Former US Cabinet Member