Open main menu

Operation Inherent Resolve (OIR) is the U.S. military's operational name for the military intervention against the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIL, in the vernacular, Daesh),[94] including both the campaign in Iraq and the campaign in Syria. Since 21 August 2016, the U.S. Army's XVIII Airborne Corps has been responsible for Combined Joint Task Force – Operation Inherent Resolve (CJTF—OIR). The campaign is primarily waged by American air forces in support of local allies, most prominently the Iraqi Security Forces and Syrian Democratic Forces. Combat ground troops, mostly special forces and artillery, have also been deployed, especially in Iraq. 75-80% of the airstrikes have been conducted by the military of the United States, with the other 20-25% by the United Kingdom, France, Turkey, Canada, the Netherlands, Denmark, Belgium, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Jordan.[95]

Operation Inherent Resolve
Part of the Military intervention against ISIL, the Iraqi Civil War (2014–2017), Global War on Terrorism and the Syrian Civil War
Hires 141019-N-HD510-062a.jpg
U.S. military F/A-18F Super Hornets of VFA-22 take off from USS Carl Vinson to support U.S. efforts for Operation Inherent Resolve in October 2014.
Date15 June 2014 – present
(5 years, 2 months and 6 days)
  • Iraq: 15 June 2014 – present
    (5 years, 2 months and 6 days)
  • Syria: 22 September 2014 – present
    (4 years, 10 months, 4 weeks and 2 days)


  • Territorial defeat of ISIL in Iraq on 9 December 2017
  • Complete military defeat of ISIL in Syria on 23 March 2019
  • 110,000 square kilometers containing 7.7 million people captured from the Islamic State by U.S.-allied ground forces

 United States

 Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant[1][2][3]


Turkistan Islamic Party[8]

Ahrar ash-Sham
Commanders and leaders
Donald Trump (President, 2017–present)
Barack Obama (President, 2014–2017)
James Mattis (Secretary of Defense, 2017 – 2018)
Ashton Carter (Secretary of Defense, 2015–2017)
Chuck Hagel (Secretary of Defense, 2014–2015)
General Joseph Votel (CENTCOM Commander, 2016 – present)
General Lloyd Austin (CENTCOM Commander, 2014–2016)
Lieutenant General Paul E. Funk II (Commanding General CJTF-OIR)
Major General Christopher Ghika
(Deputy Commander-Strategy and Support CJTF-OIR)
Major General Dirk D. Smith
(Deputy Commander-Operations and Intelligence CJTF-OIR)

Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi (leader of ISIL)
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant Abu Alaa Afri 
(Deputy Leader of ISIL)[10]
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant Abu Mohammad al-Adnani  (Spokesperson)
Abu Ayman al-Iraqi  (Head of Military Shura)[11]
Abu Muslim al-Turkmani  (Deputy Leader, Iraq)[12]
Abu Ali al-Anbari  (Deputy Leader, Syria)
Abu Omar al-Shishani  (Field commander in Syria)[13][14]

Abu Khayr al-Masri  (al-Qaeda deputy leader)[15]
Units involved

Elements of:

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant Military of ISIL


Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant:


Ahrar ash-Sham:

Casualties and losses

United States United States:

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant:

  • 80,000+ killed by American and allied airstrikes[79]
  • 32,000+ targets destroyed or damaged (as of 30 September 2016)[80]
    • 164 tanks
    • 388 HMMWVs
    • 2,638 pieces of oil infrastructure
    • 1,000+ fuel tanker trucks[81]
    • 2,000+ pick-up trucks, VBIEDs, and other vehicles

(per coalition)


Ahrar ash-Sham:

Tens of thousands of civilians killed by ISIL (per Iraqi Body Count and SOHR)[86][87][88]
Between 6,321 and 9,712 civilians killed by Coalition airstrikes in Syria and Iraq (per Airwars)[89]
1,302 civilians killed by Coalition Operations (per Combined Joint Task Force - Operation Inherent)

Over 970,000 civilians in Iraq and Syria displaced, or fled to Turkey and other countries[90][91][92][93]

From August 2016 to December 2016, the U.S. conducted another similar operation in Libya, code-named Operation Odyssey Lightning, during the battle to capture Sirte, which was the local capital of ISIL's Libyan branch.[96][97] According to the Pentagon, by 23 March 2019, the day of ISIL's territorial collapse in Syria, CJTF-OIR and partner forces had liberated nearly 110,000 square kilometers (42,471 square miles) of land and 7.7 million people from the Islamic State, the vast majority of the self-proclaimed caliphate's territory and subjects.[98] By late 2017, around the time of ISIL's territorial defeat in Iraq, CJTF-OIR claimed that 80,000 ISIL fighters had been killed in their airstrikes[99] (which totaled 35,000 strikes by the end of March 2019),[100] with tens of thousands more killed by partner forces on the ground (the Syrian Democratic Forces alone claimed to have killed 25,336 ISIL fighters by the end of 2017).[101]




Unlike their coalition partners, and unlike previous combat operations, no name was initially given to the conflict against ISIL by the U.S. government.[102] The decision to keep the conflict nameless drew considerable media criticism.[103][104][105][106][107]

The U.S. decided in October 2014 to name its military efforts against ISIL as "Operation Inherent Resolve"; the U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM) news release announcing the name noted that:

According to CENTCOM officials, the name INHERENT RESOLVE is intended to reflect the unwavering resolve and deep commitment of the U.S. and partner nations in the region and around the globe to eliminate the terrorist group ISIL and the threat they pose to Iraq, the region and the wider international community. It also symbolizes the willingness and dedication of coalition members to work closely with our friends in the region and apply all available dimensions of national power necessary—diplomatic, informational, military, economic—to degrade and ultimately destroy ISIL.[108]

The Defense Department announced at the end of October 2014 that troops operating in support of Operation Inherent Resolve after 15 June were eligible for the Global War on Terrorism Expeditionary Medal. Service areas are: Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, and the United Arab Emirates, as well as troops supporting the operation in the Persian Gulf, the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea east of 25 degrees longitude. The medal is approved retroactively beginning 15 June, the Pentagon said.[109]

By 4 December 2014, three U.S. service members had died from accidents or non-combat injuries.[110]


On 22 October 2015, a U.S. Master Sergeant, Joshua Wheeler, was shot dead when he, with about 30 other U.S. special operations soldiers and a Peshmerga unit, conducted a prison break near Hawija, in which about 70 hostages were rescued, five ISIL members were captured and "a number" were killed or wounded.[111] The Kurdistan Regional Government said after the raid that none of the 15 prisoners it was intended to rescue were found.[112][113] Starting in May North American Rockwell OV-10 Broncos joined the project flying combat missions over Iraq and Syria, flying more than 120 combat sorties over 82 days. It is speculated they provided close air support for Special Forces missions. The experiment ended satisfactorily, but an Air Force spokesman stated it remains unlikely they will invest in reactivating the OV-10 on a regular basis because of the overhead cost of operating an additional aircraft type.[114][115]


By 9 March 2016, nearly 11,000 airstrikes had been launched on ISIL (and occasionally Al-Nusra), killing over 27,000 fighters[116] and striking over 22,000 targets, including 139 tanks, 371 Humvees, and 1,216 pieces of oil infrastructure. Approximately 80% of these airstrikes have been conducted by American forces, with the remaining 20% being launched by other members of the coalition, such as the United Kingdom and Australia. 7,268 strikes hit targets in Iraq, while 3,602 hit targets in Syria.[80] On 12 June 2016, it was reported that 120 Islamic State leaders, commanders, propagandists, recruiters and other high-value individuals were killed so far this year.[117]

  • Until March 2016, U.S. military members were ineligible for Campaign Medals and other service decorations due to the continuing ambiguous nature of the continuing U.S. involvement in Iraq.[118] However, on 30 March 2016, U.S. Secretary of Defense Ash Carter announced the creation of a new medal, named "Inherent Resolve Campaign Medal".[119]

On 3 June 2016, aircraft flying from the USS Harry S. Truman in the Mediterranean Sea began airstrikes on ISIL.[120] On 16 June 2016, AV-8B II+ Harriers of the 13th MEU flying from the USS Boxer in the Persian Gulf also began airstrikes on ISIL, marking the first time the U.S. Navy used ship-based aircraft from both the Mediterranean and the Persian Gulf at the same time during Operation Inherent Resolve.[121]

By 27 July 2016, U.S. and coalition partners had conducted more than 14,000 airstrikes in Iraq and Syria: Nearly 11,000 of those strikes were from U.S. aircraft and the majority of the strikes (more than 9,000) were in Iraq. Of the 26,374 targets hit, nearly 8,000 were against ISIL fighting positions, while approximately 6,500 hit buildings; ISIL staging areas and oil infrastructure were each hit around 1,600 times.[122] On 15 December 2016, the U.K. Defense Secretary Michael Fallon said that "more than 25,000 Daesh fighters have now been killed," a number that was half of the United States' estimate.[123] When asked about this discrepancy, the UK's Ministry of Defense said that it stood by his estimate.[123]

Since the first U.S. airstrikes on ISIL targets in Iraq on 8 August 2014, over two years, the U.S. military has spent over $8.4 billion fighting ISIL.[124]

BBC News reported in 2017 that according to the American think tank Council on Foreign Relations, in 2016 alone, the U.S. dropped 12,192 bombs in Syria and 12,095 in Iraq.[125]


According to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, Coalition airstrikes have killed 7,043 people across Syria, of which: 5,768 dead were ISIL fighters, 304 Al-Nusra Front militants and other rebels, 90 government soldiers and 881 civilians. The air strikes occurred in the period between 22 September 2014 and 23 January 2017.[126]

In March 2017, various media outlets reported that conventional forces from the 11th MEU, as well as special operations forces in the form of the 75th Ranger Regiment[127] deployed to Syria to support U.S.-backed forces in liberating Raqqa from ISIL occupation. The deployment marked an escalation in the U.S. intervention in Syria.[128]

As of Feb. 28, 2017, the Coalition has conducted 3,271 sorties in 2017, 2,129 of which have resulted in at least one weapon released. In total, the coalition released 7,040 weapons in Iraq and Syria in this same time period in an effort to destroy ISIL.[129]

As of August 9, 2017, coalition aircraft flew a total of 167,912 sorties, and conducted 13,331 strikes in Iraq and 11,235 strikes in Syria, for a total of 24,566 strikes.[130]


In February 2018, the 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 101st Airborne Division was awarded a campaign streamer following its deployment to Iraq. In May 2016, the brigade deployed to advise and assist, train and equip Iraqi security forces to fight the Islamic State of Iraq.[131] The 2nd Brigade also conducted precision surface-to-surface fires and supported a multitude of intelligence and logistical operations for coalition and Iraqi forces.[131] They also provided base security throughout more than 12 areas of operations.[131] The Brigade also aided in the clearance of ISIL from Fallujah, the near elimination of suicide attacks in Baghdad, and the introduction of improved tactics that liberated more than 100 towns and villages.[131] The 2nd Brigade, 101st Airborne Division also played a significant role in the liberation of Mosul.[131]


From August 8, 2014 to January 31, 2019, coalition aircraft conducted a total of 33,921 strikes.[132]



According to Airwars, 1,472 civilians had been killed by the U.S. air campaign in Iraq and Syria in March 2017 alone.[138] On March 17, a U.S.-led coalition airstrike in Mosul killed more than 200 civilians.[139]

Data compiled by Airwars shows that 229 strikes in Iraq and 878 strikes in Syria were carried out by Coalition forces in June 2017, killing an alleged total of 1,483 people. The reporting of 875 of those total alleged deaths is contested.

In July 2017, an alleged 1,342 people were killed in Iraq and Syria by Coalition airstrikes. Of the allegations 812 are contested, and two are disproved.[140]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "Islamic State, rival Al Nusra Front each strengthen grip on Syria". Los Angeles Times. 28 November 2014. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
  2. ^ Master. "Negotiations failed between the IS, Jabhat al-Nusra and Islamic battalions". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. Archived from the original on 17 November 2014.
  3. ^ "War of Words Between al Qaeda and ISIS Continues With Scholar's Smackdown". NBC News. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
  4. ^ "IŞİD ve El Nusra'nın birleştiği iddia edildi". Star Gazete (in Turkish).
  5. ^ "An internal struggle: Al Qaeda's Syrian affiliate is grappling with its identity". Brookings Institution. 31 May 2015. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
  6. ^ a b Charkatli, Izat (23 February 2017). "Over 2,000 radical rebels defect to ISIS following intra-rebel deal".
  7. ^ "Search for the dead begins in Idlib after Islamic State-linked brigade leaves for Raqqa".
  8. ^ Caleb Weiss (14 February 2017). "Uighur jihadist fought in Afghanistan, killed in Syria". Long War Journal. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
  9. ^ Nick Paton Walsh; Laura Smith-Spark (6 November 2014). "Report: Airstrikes target new Islamist group in Syria". CNN. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
  10. ^ "Report: A former physics teacher is now leading ISIS". Business Insider. 23 April 2015. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
  11. ^ Hubbard, Ben; Schmitt, Eric (27 August 2014). "Military Skill and Terrorist Technique Fuel Success of ISIS". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  12. ^ Matt Bradley; Ghassan Adnan; Felicia Schwartz (10 November 2014). "Coalition Airstrikes Targeted Islamic State Leaders Near Mosul". The Wall Street Journal.
  13. ^ "Kadyrov Claims Red-Bearded Chechen Militant al-Shishani Dead". ElBalad. 14 November 2014. Archived from the original on 28 January 2015.
  14. ^ "Kadyrov Says Islamic State's Leader From Georgia Killed". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 14 November 2014.
  15. ^ Antonopoulos, Paul (26 February 2017). "BREAKING: Al-Qaeda's deputy leader killed in Idlib drone strike".
  16. ^ a b c d Sgt. Deja Borden (15 April 2015). "Build Partner Capacity strengthens bonds, armies" (PDF) (Press release). Combined Joint Task Force, Operation Inherent Resolve. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 April 2015.
  17. ^ "ISIS Fires Mortars Near Marines Deployed to Train Iraq".
  18. ^ "U.S. Department of Defense, Photo Essay". United States Department of Defense. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
  19. ^ "PATFORSWA: Guardians of the Arabian Gulf". United States Coast Guard. Retrieved 21 March 2018. PATFORSWA also supported Operation Enduring Freedom and in 2015 transitioned to supporting Operation Inherent Resolve
  20. ^ a b Michelle Tan (30 December 2014). "2-star on Iraq: 'Still a big fight going on here'". Army Times. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
  21. ^ Crowley, Michael (18 August 2014). "Obama la Mission Creep in Iraq". Time.
  22. ^ Welch, William M (3 September 2014). "US sending 350 more troops to Iraq". USA Today.
  23. ^ "Obama doubling US troop levels in Iraq". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 28 December 2014.
  24. ^ "Islamic State: Coalition 'pledges more troops' for Iraq". BBC News. 8 December 2014.
  25. ^ "1,000 soldiers from the 82nd Airborne headed to Iraq". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
  26. ^ Barnes, Julian E. (1 October 2014). "2,300 U.S. Marines deploy new quick-reaction force in Kuwait". The Wall Street Journal.
  27. ^ Lamothe, Dan (19 July 2014). "US companies pulling contractors from Iraqi bases as security crumbles". The Washington Post. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
  28. ^ Nissenbaum, Dion (3 February 2014). "Role of US Contractors Grows as Iraq Fights Insurgents". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
  29. ^ "USS Carl Vinson Takes Over Airstrike Campaign From USS George H. W. Bush (Video)". KPBS. Archived from the original on 4 November 2014. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
  30. ^ "See U.S. warships head for ISIS fight". CNN. 13 April 2015. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
  31. ^ "USS Carl Vinson begins return to San Diego". San Diego: CBS 8. 13 April 2015. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
  32. ^ US airstrikes in Syria, ABC News
  33. ^ Hennigan, W. J.; Cloud, David S. (25 September 2014). "At War – Again". Florida Courier. Archived from the original on 20 October 2014. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
  34. ^ Foster, Peter (23 September 2014). "US military launches air strikes against Isil in Syria". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
  35. ^ "The A-10 Thunderbolt, Saved By Congress, Joins Airstrikes Against ISIS in Syria". International Business Times. 23 September 2014. Retrieved 11 October 2014.
  36. ^ "Raptors, bombers & drones: How US-led ISIS strikes caused carnage in Syria". RT. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
  37. ^ Capaccio, Tony (10 October 2014). "Pentagon Says Islamic State Fight Costs $7.6 Million/Day". Retrieved 13 October 2014.
  38. ^ "Kobani: US drops weapons to Kurds in Syria". The Guardian. Associated Press. 20 October 2014. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
  39. ^ a b "How US is Pinpointing ISIS Targets in Air War". NDTV. Agence France-Presse. 12 October 2014. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
  40. ^ Baldor, Lolita (6 October 2014). "Pentagon: Up to $1.1B cost for Iraq, Syria". Marine Corps Times. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 7 October 2014. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
  41. ^ Majumdar, Dave (25 September 2014). "Exclusive Pictures of Stealth Jet Raid on Syria". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
  42. ^ Rush, James (6 October 2014). "Isis air strikes: US brings in Apache helicopters as British jets target militants in Iraq". The Independent. London. Retrieved 8 October 2014.
  43. ^ Trevithick, Joseph (18 November 2014). "U.S. Commandos Are Flying Around Iraq". Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  44. ^ Sanchez, Raf (8 September 2014). "Predator drones being flown over Isil's Syrian 'capital'". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 11 October 2014.
  45. ^ "Reaper drones pinpoint Jihadi John: Terrorist has been tracked by British forces but security chiefs fear 'kill or capture' mission would end in failure". Daily Mail. London. 4 October 2014. Retrieved 11 October 2014.
  46. ^ Gordon, Greg (29 September 2014). "Once targeted, Global Hawk drone now hidden weapon in U.S. airstrikes". Archived from the original on 28 January 2015. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
  47. ^ Barbara Starr, U.S. officials say 6,000 ISIS fighters killed in battles, CNN (22 January 2015).
  48. ^ CIA says IS numbers underestimated, Al Jazeera (12 September 2014).
  49. ^ "ISIS militants have army of 200,000, claims senior Kurdish leader". Archived from the original on 20 November 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  50. ^ "Islamic State 'training pilots to fly fighter jets'". BBC News. 17 October 2014. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
  51. ^ "ISIS Syria News: Iraqi Pilots 'Training Isis Fighters' to Fly Captured Planes". International Business Times. 17 October 2014. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
  52. ^ "U.S.-led forces drop nearly 5,000 bombs on ISIS". Al Arabiya. 8 January 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  53. ^ "Fears of massacre as Isis tanks lead assault on Kurdish bastion". The Times. 4 October 2014.
  54. ^ "Now ISIS has drones?". CNN. 24 August 2014.
  55. ^ "Footage From an ISIS Drone". – Video. 30 August 2014.
  56. ^ Taylor, Adam (27 October 2014). "In bizarre new video, Islamic State hostage gives tour of Kobane". The Washington Post blogs.
  57. ^ "ISIS: We Nabbed an Iranian Drone". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
  58. ^ Tomson, Chris (21 May 2017). "Islamist rebel group joins Al-Qaeda franchise in Syria". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
  59. ^ Al-awsat, Asharq (30 January 2017). "Syria: Surfacing of 'Hai'at Tahrir al-Sham' Threatens Truce - ASHARQ AL-AWSAT English". Archived from the original on 15 February 2017. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
  60. ^ "Gen. Dempsey Claims Airstrikes in Syria that Targeted Khorasan Group Disrupted Plots Against US". KNEB Radio. Archived from the original on 9 October 2014.
  61. ^ "Is Syria's Idlib being groomed as Islamist killing ground?".
  62. ^ "Syrian opposition merger in Jan 2017". archicivilians. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  63. ^
  64. ^ "Pentagon Identifies First KIA in Fight against Islamic State".
  65. ^ "Marine Killed in Iraq in ISIS Rocket Attack, Others Wounded: Pentagon". 19 March 2016. Retrieved 4 May 2016.
  66. ^ "Navy SEAL Charles Keating IV killed in Iraq after ISIS breaks through Peshmerga lines". CNN
  67. ^ "First US Service Member Killed In Mosul Offensive".
  68. ^
  69. ^ "Islamic State Kassig murder: Western jihadists probed". BBC News. 17 November 2014. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
  70. ^ "Islamic State Allies In Egypt Say They Killed American Oil Worker William Henderson". The Huffington Post. 1 December 2014. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
  71. ^ "BBC News – Libya hotel attack: Five foreigners among nine killed". BBC News. 28 January 2015.
  72. ^ "Kayla Mueller, American ISIL hostage, is dead,", Al Jazeera America, 10 February 2015
  73. ^ Lamothe, Dan (1 December 2014), "Air Force F-16 pilot killed in crash in Middle East", The Washington Post
  74. ^ "Isil using anti aircraft batteries captured in Iraq", The World Tribune, 12 September 2014, archived from the original on 1 September 2015
  75. ^ One US service member killed in aircraft crash in Iraq
  76. ^ CENTCOM: No survivors after US helicopter crash in western Iraq
  77. ^ Karouny, Mariam (17 March 2015). "U.S. loses drone over Syria, which claims to have brought it down". Reuters. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
  78. ^ Roba Alhenawi (17 March 2015). "Syria says it shot down U.S. drone". CNN. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
  79. ^ "Once promised paradise, ISIS fighters end up in mass graves". The Straits Times. 15 October 2017. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  80. ^ a b "Airstrikes in Iraq and Syria". US Department of Defense. 30 September 2016. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
  81. ^ Reuters, Brett Wolf, "RPT-INSIGHT-In taking economic war to Islamic State, U.S. developing new tools", 24 November 2015.
  82. ^ a b "About 3 thousand citizens were killed by the International Coalition warplanes in Syria within about 10700 persons who were killed during 38 months of their military operations in Syria". SOHR. 23 November 2017. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  83. ^ "U.S. Airstrike Kills More Than 100 al-Qaida Fighters in Syria". US Department of Defense. 20 January 2017.
  84. ^ "US-led air strikes hit al-Qaeda affiliate in Syria". Reuters. 6 November 2014. Retrieved 9 November 2014.
  85. ^ "Pentagon: 11 al Qaeda terrorists killed in airstrikes near Idlib, Syria - FDD's Long War Journal".
  86. ^ Hopkins, Steve (14 October 2014). "Full horror of the Yazidis who didn't escape Mount Sinjar: UN confirms 5,000 men were executed and 7,000 women are now kept as sex slaves". Daily Mail. London.
  87. ^ "IS executes 61 people during the ninth month of declaration its alleged "Caliphate"". SOHR. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
  88. ^ "Clashes around Aleppo city and more losses in al-Hasakah". SOHR. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
  89. ^ "civilians casualty claims". Airwars. Retrieved 31 July 2016.
  90. ^ "Iraq crisis: Islamists force 500,000 to flee Mosul". BBC News. 11 June 2014. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
  91. ^ "10,000 Yazidis rescued through safe corridor, as ISIL 'fire on aid helicopters'". Hurriyet Daily News. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
  92. ^ "Most US Airstrikes in Syria Target a City That's Not a "Strategic Objective"". Mother Jones. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
  93. ^ At least 20,000 civilians displaced during the Al-Hasakah offensive (February–March 2015); 5,000+ in the Khabur Valley region,[1] and 15,000+ in the Tell Hamis region [2]
  94. ^ Pentagon Briefing On Operation Inherent Resolve against Daesh, minute 1:20 / 32:56
  95. ^ Special Reports: Operation Inherent Resolve. U.S. Department of Defense. Archived from March 28, 2017. Accessed July 2, 2019 via the Wayback Machine.
  96. ^ "Libya effort named 'Operation Odyssey Lightning'".
  97. ^ "US resumes strikes against Islamic State in Libya". FDD's LONG WAR JOURNAL. 30 September 2017. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
  98. ^ "CJTFOIR Strike Releases March 26 2019" (PDF). CJTF-OIR. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  99. ^ "Once promised paradise, ISIS fighters end up in mass graves". The Straits Times. 15 October 2017. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  100. ^ Martinez, Luis (25 April 2019). "Coalition strikes killed 1,600 civilians in Raqqa says new report". abcnews. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  101. ^ See Syrian Kurdish-Islamist conflict for complete references.
  102. ^ "US Operation Against ISIL in Iraq Remains Nameless". 18 August 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
  103. ^ "The War on ISIS Has 'No Name". Business Insider. 3 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
  104. ^ "The Military Can't Come Up with a Name For Its War Against ISIS. We're Here To Help". The Huffington Post. 3 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
  105. ^ "What's in a Name: Obama's Anonymous War Against ISIS". U.S. News & World Report. 29 September 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
  106. ^ "U.S. Needs a Name for the Operation Against ISIS". New York. 3 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
  107. ^ "The War With No Name". The American Prospect. 1 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
  108. ^ "Iraq and Syria Operations Against ISIL Designated as Operation Inherent Resolve". U.S. Central Command. 15 October 2014. Retrieved 15 October 2014.
  109. ^ Carroll, Chris. "Global War on Terrorism Expeditionary Medal authorized for Operation Inherent Resolve". Retrieved 22 November 2014.
  110. ^ "Air Force pilot killed in Middle East crash identified". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
  111. ^ Gal Perl Finkel, Back to the ground?, Israel Hayom, 8 November 2015.
  112. ^ "U.S. soldier killed in Iraq hostage rescue operation". CBS News. Retrieved 23 October 2015.
  113. ^ "U.S. Identifies American Killed in Iraq Raid as Master Sgt. Joshua Wheeler". The Wall Street Journal. 23 October 2015. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
  114. ^
  115. ^
  116. ^ Starr, Barbara. "Estimate: More than 26,000 ISIS fighters killed by Coalition". CNN. 17 February 2016.
  117. ^ "U.S. Military Says it has Killed more than 120 Islamic State Leaders". 12 June 2016.
  118. ^ "Troops not eligible for campaign medal in fight against ISIS". The Hill. 1 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
  119. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 13 April 2016. Retrieved 30 March 2016.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  120. ^ "USS Harry Truman launches airstrikes against ISIS from Mediterranean Sea". Fox News. 4 June 2016.
  121. ^ "Harriers from USS Boxer begin airstrikes against Islamic State". Stars and Stripes. 17 June 2016.
  122. ^ "Two Years of U.S.-led Airstrikes on ISIS in Syria and Iraq in Numbers". ABC News. 8 August 2016.
  123. ^ a b Ryan Browne (16 December 2016). "UK puts number of ISIS fighters killed at half US figure". CNN.
  124. ^ "Nearly 45,000 ISIS-linked fighters killed in past 2 years, US military official says". Fox News. 10 August 2016.
  125. ^ "How many bombs has Britain dropped in 2017?". BBC. 15 April 2017.
  126. ^ "28 months of bombing by the international coalition kills more than 6900 persons in Syria, including 820 Syrian civilians". SOHR. 23 January 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2017.
  127. ^ Gal Perl Finkel, Win the close fight, The Jerusalem Post, March 21, 2017.
  128. ^ "US Marines join local forces fighting in Raqqa". CNN. 8 March 2017.
  129. ^ AFCENT/PA (28 February 2017). "Combined Forces Air Component Commander 2012–2017 Airpower Statistics – Feb 28" (PDF).
  130. ^ "Special Report: Operation Inherent Resolve". U.S. Department of Defense. Retrieved 3 November 2017.
  131. ^ a b c d e February 23, 2018 (23 February 2018). "101st Airborne Division's Strike Brigade receives Operation Inherent Resolve streamer following Iraq deployment - Clarksville, TN Online". Retrieved 16 September 2018.
  132. ^ "Combined Joint Task Force - Operation Inherent Resolve Monthly Civilian Casualty Report". Operation Inherent Resolve. 28 February 2019. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  133. ^ a b "Warrior Brigade assumes mission in Iraq". U.S. Central Command – DoD. Archived from the original on 30 September 2015. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
  134. ^ "Department of the Army announces 101st Airborne Division deployment". U.S. Army. Retrieved 11 October 2016.
  135. ^ "US Soldiers build elite Iraqi force with ranger training". U.S. Army. Retrieved 11 October 2016.
  136. ^ "ISIS Fires Mortars Near Marines Deployed to Train Iraq Forces". Retrieved 29 May 2015.
  137. ^ Hope Hodge Seck (6 March 2015). "IS militants pushed out of village near Marine base". Marine Corps Times. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
  138. ^ "US-led coalition killed more Syrian civilians than Isis or Russia in March, figures show". The Independent. 28 March 2017.
  139. ^ "US admits it conducted Mosul air strike 'at location' where '200' civilians died". The Independent. 26 March 2017.
  140. ^ "Data". Airwars. 6 August 2017.

External linksEdit