Operation Inherent Resolve
Operation Inherent Resolve (OIR) is the U.S. military's operational name for the military intervention against the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIL, in the vernacular, Daesh), including both the campaign in Iraq and the campaign in Syria. Since 21 August 2016, the U.S. Army's XVIII Airborne Corps has been responsible for Combined Joint Task Force – Operation Inherent Resolve (CJTF—OIR). The campaign is primarily waged by American air forces in support of local allies, most prominently the Iraqi security forces and Syrian Democratic Forces. Combat ground troops, mostly special forces and artillery, have also been deployed, especially in Iraq. 75-80% of the airstrikes have been conducted by the military of the United States, with the other 20-25% by the United Kingdom, France, Turkey, Canada, the Netherlands, Denmark, Belgium, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Jordan.
|Operation Inherent Resolve|
|Part of the Military intervention against ISIL and Iraqi Civil War (2014–2017)|
U.S. military F/A-18F Super Hornets of VFA-22 take off from USS Carl Vinson to support U.S. efforts for Operation Inherent Resolve in October 2014.
|Commanders and leaders|
Mark Esper (Secretary of Defense, 2019 –present)|
James Mattis (Secretary of Defense, 2017 – 2018)
Ashton Carter (Secretary of Defense, 2015–2017)
Chuck Hagel (Secretary of Defense, 2014–2015)
General Kenneth F. McKenzie Jr. (CENTCOM Commander, 2019 – present)
General Joseph Votel (CENTCOM Commander, 2016 – 2019)
General Lloyd Austin (CENTCOM Commander, 2014–2016)
Lieutenant General Paul E. Funk II (Commanding General CJTF-OIR)
Major General Christopher Ghika
(Deputy Commander-Strategy and Support CJTF-OIR)
Major General Dirk D. Smith
(Deputy Commander-Operations and Intelligence CJTF-OIR)
Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi † (leader of ISIL)
Abu Khayr al-Masri † (al-Qaeda deputy leader)
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant:
|Casualties and losses|
Tens of thousands of civilians killed by ISIL (per Iraqi Body Count and SOHR)
From August to December 2016, the U.S. conducted another similar operation in Libya, code-named Operation Odyssey Lightning, during the battle to capture Sirte, which was the local capital of ISIL's Libyan branch. According to the Pentagon, by 23 March 2019, the day of ISIL's territorial defeat in Syria, CJTF-OIR and partner forces had liberated nearly 110,000 square kilometers (42,471 square miles) of land and 7.7 million people from ISIL, the vast majority of the self-proclaimed caliphate's territory and subjects. By October 2017, around the time of ISIL's territorial defeat in Iraq, CJTF-OIR claimed that around 80,000 ISIL militants had been killed in all actions excluding those targeted by Russian and Syrian strikes. At that time of that statement, the coalition had conducted 28,198 strikes, and by the end of August 2019 it had conducted 34,573 strikes. Tens of thousands more were killed by partner forces on the ground (the Syrian Democratic Forces alone claimed to have killed 25,336 ISIL fighters by the end of 2017).
Unlike their coalition partners, and unlike previous combat operations, no name was initially given to the conflict against ISIL by the U.S. government. The decision to keep the conflict nameless drew considerable media criticism.
The U.S. decided in October 2014 to name its military efforts against ISIL as "Operation Inherent Resolve"; the U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM) news release announcing the name noted that:
According to CENTCOM officials, the name INHERENT RESOLVE is intended to reflect the unwavering resolve and deep commitment of the U.S. and partner nations in the region and around the globe to eliminate the terrorist group ISIL and the threat they pose to Iraq, the region and the wider international community. It also symbolizes the willingness and dedication of coalition members to work closely with our friends in the region and apply all available dimensions of national power necessary—diplomatic, informational, military, economic—to degrade and ultimately destroy ISIL.
The Defense Department announced at the end of October 2014 that troops operating in support of Operation Inherent Resolve after 15 June were eligible for the Global War on Terrorism Expeditionary Medal. Service areas are: Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, and the United Arab Emirates, as well as troops supporting the operation in the Persian Gulf, the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea east of 25 degrees longitude. The medal is approved retroactively beginning 15 June, the Pentagon said.
By 4 December 2014, three U.S. service members had died from accidents or non-combat injuries.
On 22 October 2015, a U.S. Master Sergeant, Joshua Wheeler, was shot dead when he, with about 30 other U.S. special operations soldiers and a Peshmerga unit, conducted a prison break near Hawija, in which about 70 hostages were rescued, five ISIL members were captured and "a number" were killed or wounded. The Kurdistan Regional Government said after the raid that none of the 15 prisoners it was intended to rescue were found. Starting in May North American Rockwell OV-10 Broncos joined the project flying combat missions over Iraq and Syria, flying more than 120 combat sorties over 82 days. It is speculated they provided close air support for Special Forces missions. The experiment ended satisfactorily, but an Air Force spokesman stated it remains unlikely they will invest in reactivating the OV-10 on a regular basis because of the overhead cost of operating an additional aircraft type.
By 9 March 2016, nearly 11,000 airstrikes had been launched on ISIL (and occasionally Al-Nusra), killing over 27,000 fighters and striking over 22,000 targets, including 139 tanks, 371 Humvees, and 1,216 pieces of oil infrastructure. Approximately 80% of these airstrikes have been conducted by American forces, with the remaining 20% being launched by other members of the coalition, such as the United Kingdom and Australia. 7,268 strikes hit targets in Iraq, while 3,602 hit targets in Syria. On 12 June 2016, it was reported that 120 ISIL leaders, commanders, propagandists, recruiters and other high-value individuals were killed so far this year.
- Until March 2016, U.S. military members were ineligible for Campaign Medals and other service decorations due to the continuing ambiguous nature of the continuing U.S. involvement in Iraq. However, on 30 March 2016, U.S. Secretary of Defense Ash Carter announced the creation of a new medal, named "Inherent Resolve Campaign Medal".
On 3 June 2016, aircraft flying from the USS Harry S. Truman in the Mediterranean Sea began airstrikes on ISIL. On 16 June 2016, AV-8B II+ Harriers of the 13th MEU flying from the USS Boxer in the Persian Gulf also began airstrikes on ISIL, marking the first time the U.S. Navy used ship-based aircraft from both the Mediterranean and the Persian Gulf at the same time during Operation Inherent Resolve.
By 27 July 2016, U.S. and coalition partners had conducted more than 14,000 airstrikes in Iraq and Syria: Nearly 11,000 of those strikes were from U.S. aircraft and the majority of the strikes (more than 9,000) were in Iraq. Of the 26,374 targets hit, nearly 8,000 were against ISIL fighting positions, while approximately 6,500 hit buildings; ISIL staging areas and oil infrastructure were each hit around 1,600 times. On 15 December 2016, the U.K. Defense Secretary Michael Fallon said that "more than 25,000 Daesh fighters have now been killed," a number that was half of the United States' estimate. When asked about this discrepancy, the UK's Ministry of Defense said that it stood by his estimate.
Since the first U.S. airstrikes on ISIL targets in Iraq on 8 August 2014, over two years, the U.S. military has spent over $8.4 billion fighting ISIL.
According to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, Coalition airstrikes have killed 7,043 people across Syria, of which: 5,768 dead were ISIL fighters, 304 Al-Nusra Front militants and other rebels, 90 government soldiers and 881 civilians. The air strikes occurred in the period between 22 September 2014 and 23 January 2017.
In March 2017, various media outlets reported that conventional forces from the 11th MEU, as well as special operations forces in the form of the 75th Ranger Regiment deployed to Syria to support U.S.-backed forces in liberating Raqqa from ISIL occupation. The deployment marked an escalation in the U.S. intervention in Syria.
By February 28, the Coalition had conducted 3,271 sorties in 2017, 2,129 of which resulted in at least one weapon released. In total, the coalition released 7,040 weapons in Iraq and Syria in this same time period in an effort to destroy ISIL.
As of August 9, 2017, coalition aircraft flew a total of 167,912 sorties, and conducted 13,331 strikes in Iraq and 11,235 strikes in Syria, for a total of 24,566 strikes.
In February 2018, the 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 101st Airborne Division was awarded a campaign streamer following its deployment to Iraq. In May 2016, the brigade deployed to advise and assist, train and equip Iraqi security forces to fight the Islamic State of Iraq. The 2nd Brigade also conducted precision surface-to-surface fires and supported a multitude of intelligence and logistical operations for coalition and Iraqi forces. They also provided base security throughout more than 12 areas of operations. The Brigade also aided in the clearance of ISIL from Fallujah, the near elimination of suicide attacks in Baghdad, and the introduction of improved tactics that liberated more than 100 towns and villages. The 2nd Brigade, 101st Airborne Division also played a significant role in the liberation of Mosul.
From August 8, 2014 to August 29, 2019, coalition aircraft conducted a total of 34,573 strikes. On 27 October 2019, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi was killed during the Barisha raid in Idlib Governorate.
U.S. and coalition forces are training Iraqi forces at four sites: in al-Asad in Anbar province, Erbil in the north, and Taji and Besmayah in the Baghdad area.
- 1st Infantry Division
- 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 82nd Airborne Division (January – September 2015).
- 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division
- 1st Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division (September 2015 – June 2016).
- 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) (June 2016 – January 2017).
- 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 82nd Airborne Division (January 2017 – October 2017)
- 2nd Battalion, 82nd Field Artillery Regiment (January 2017 - October 2017)
During the operation in Syria, there were several bases mostly in the north:
- Al-Hasakah Governorate
- Aleppo Governorate
- Deir ez-Zor Governorate
- Homs Governorate
- Raqqa Governorate
However, following the 2019 Turkish offensive into north-eastern Syria, most U.S. soldiers withdrew from Syria to western Iraq in October 2019, while even bombing their own Lafarge basement near Harab Isk.
Meanwhile, the New York Times reported that the Pentagon was planning to "leave 150 Special Operations forces at a base called al-Tanf". In addition, 200 U.S. soldiers would remain in eastern Syria near the oil fields, to prevent the Islamic State, Syrian government and Russian forces from advancing in the region. However, at least 900 U.S. Troops are expected to stay in Syria, in Al-Hasakah and Deir ez-Zor Governorates.
According to Airwars, 1,472 civilians had been killed by the U.S. air campaign in Iraq and Syria in March 2017 alone. On March 17, a U.S.-led coalition airstrike in Mosul killed more than 200 civilians.
Data compiled by Airwars shows that 229 strikes in Iraq and 878 strikes in Syria were carried out by Coalition forces in June 2017, killing an alleged total of 1,483 people. The reporting of 875 of those total alleged deaths is contested.
In July 2017, an alleged 1,342 people were killed in Iraq and Syria by Coalition airstrikes. Of the allegations 812 are contested, and two are disproved.
- Combined Joint Task Force – Operation Inherent Resolve, commander headquarters of ongoing operations
- German intervention against ISIL, also named Operation Counter Daesh, related German operations
- Opération Chammal, name for similar French operations
- Operation Impact, name for similar Canadian operations
- Operation Martyr Yalçın, name for similar Turkish operation against ISIL
- Operation Okra, name for similar Australian operations
- Operation Shader, name for similar British operations
- Operation Tidal Wave II, name of a suboperation against ISIL oil infrastructure
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- "Hundreds of U.S. Troops Leaving, and Also Arriving in, Syria". The New York Times. 30 October 2019.
- "U.S. Special Ops Soldier Talks To Reporter In Syrian Oil Fields As Mission Remains In Flux". The Drive. 4 November 2019.
- "US-led coalition killed more Syrian civilians than Isis or Russia in March, figures show". The Independent. 28 March 2017.
- "US admits it conducted Mosul air strike 'at location' where '200' civilians died". The Independent. 26 March 2017.
- "Data". Airwars. 6 August 2017.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Operation Inherent Resolve.|
- Operation Inherent Resolve – Official Website
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