Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi

Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi (Arabic: أبو بكر البغدادي, romanizedʾAbū Bakr al-Baḡdādī; born Ibrahim Awad Ibrahim Ali Muhammad al-Badri al-Samarrai (Arabic: إبراهيم عواد إبراهيم علي محمد البدري السامرائي, romanizedʾIbrāhīm ʿAwwād ʾIbrāhīm ʿAlī Muḥammad al-Badrī as-Sāmarrāʾī); 28 July 1971[2] – 27 October 2019), was an Iraqi militant and the first caliph[a] of the Islamic State from 2014 until his death in 2019.

Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi
أبو بكر البغدادي
Mugshot of Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, 2004.jpg
Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi in 2004
1st Caliph of the Islamic State
7 April 2013 – 27 October 2019
Preceded byHimself (as Emir of the Islamic State of Iraq)
Succeeded byAbu Ibrahim al-Hashimi al-Qurashi
2nd Emir of the Islamic State of Iraq
In office
18 April 2010 – 7 April 2013
Preceded byAbu Omar al-Baghdadi
Succeeded byHimself (as Caliph of the Islamic State)
Emir of the Jamaat Jaysh Ahl al-Sunnah wa-l-Jamaah[1]
In office
Preceded byPosition Established
Succeeded byPosition Dissolved
Personal details
Ibrahim Awad Ibrahim al-Badri al-Samarrai
إبراهيم عواد إبراهيم علي محمد البدري السامرائي

(1971-07-28)28 July 1971[2]
Samarra, Iraq[3][4]
Died27 October 2019(2019-10-27) (aged 48)
Barisha, Syria
Cause of deathSuicide bombing
ReligionSunni Islam[5][6]

Abdullah al-Nasir[11]

Abdul Sami [12]
Military career
Allegiance Jamaat Jaysh Ahl al-Sunnah wa-l-Jamaah
(2006–2013)  Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
(April 2013 – October 2019)
Years of service2003–2019
Battles/warsWar on Terror

Baghdadi was born in Samarra, Iraq, and obtained graduate degrees in Islamic theology in the late 1990s and 2000s. He joined early Salafi-jihadi groups in Iraq following the US invasion in March 2003 and was detained with Al Qaeda commanders at the American Camp Bucca in 2004.[16] He joined al-Qaeda in Iraq there and rose through the ranks until he was appointed emir—the highest leader—in 2010.[16] Al-Qaeda in Iraq reorganized and renamed itself into Islamic State of Iraq during this time. In June 2014, the group permanently broke with al-Qaeda, renamed itself the "Islamic State", and declared itself a caliphate.[17] Baghdadi was chosen caliph of ISIL by the Shura Council, who represented those members of the Islamic State qualified to elect a caliph.[18]

Baghdadi's claim to be "caliph" was almost universally rejected by the Muslim community. ISIL was designated as a terrorist organisation by the United Nations and almost all sovereign states, and Baghdadi was individually considered a terrorist by the United States[7] and many other countries. As leader of IS, Baghdadi led the Islamic State's wars against Iraq and Syria. Baghdadi directed the use of extremely controversial tactics, including the mass use of suicide bombings and the execution of prisoners of war. ISIL briefly captured substantial territory in Iraq and Syria, but lost all of that territory and almost all of its fighters during Baghdadi's tenure as caliph.

Baghdadi would become directly involved in ISIL's atrocities and human rights violations. These include the genocide of Yazidis in Iraq, extensive sexual slavery, organized rape, floggings, and systematic executions. He directed terrorist activities and massacres. He embraced brutality as part of the organization's propaganda efforts, producing videos displaying sexual slavery and executions via hacking, stoning, and burning.[19][20] Baghdadi himself was a serial rapist who kept several personal sex slaves.[21][22]

On 27 October 2019, Baghdadi killed himself and two children by detonating a suicide vest during the Barisha raid, conducted by the United States following approval from President Donald Trump, in Syria's northwestern Idlib Province.[23] After being offered Islamic funeral rites, his body was buried at sea.[24] ISIL confirmed his death and named Abu Ibrahim al-Hashimi al-Qurashi as his replacement.[25]


Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi is a pseudonym.[26] He had various names and epithets, including Abu Du'a[7] (أبو دعاء ʾabū duʿāʾ),[27] Al-Shabah (the phantom or ghost),[28] Amir al-Mu'minin, Caliph (sometimes followed by Abu Bakr, al-Baghdadi, or Ibrahim),[29] and Sheikh Baghdadi.[30] Other aliases used by al-Badri include Dr. Ibrahim Awad Ibrahim Ali al-Badri al-Samarrai.[31]

In 2014, the Telegraph reported that his birthname was Ibrahim Awad Ibrahim al-Badri.[32] In 2018, Reuters reported that his real name was Ibrahim al-Samarrai.[33]

The word duaa signifies supplications, invocations, or prayers.[34] In regions formerly under ISIL control, various non-Islamic honorifics that recognize his rank were used as a formal address recognizing him as a noble and a head of state that might precede or follow his name.[35]

The kunya[36] Abū, corresponds to the English father of.[37] Having at some time taken the name Abu Bakr, al-Baghdadi is thought to have adopted the name of the first caliph, Abu Bakr. During the times when Muhammad[38] might have suffered from illnesses, Abu Bakr was the replacement for leading prayer, according to the Sunni tradition[39] of Islam.[40]

His surname literally means "The one from Baghdad" and denotes that he was from Baghdad city or Baghdad governorate in Iraq.[41]


Early life

Al-Baghdadi is believed to have been born in Samarra, Iraq, on 28 July 1971[2][42][43] as the third of four sons in the family.[44] Al-Badri al-Samarrai was apparently born as a member of the tribal group known as Al-Bu Badri tribe. This tribe includes a number of sub-tribes, including the Radhawiyyah, Husseiniyyah, Adnaniyyah, and Quraysh.[28] Al-Baghdadi later claimed that he was descended from the Quraysh tribe and therefore from Muhammad, although there was no evidence to back up his claim.[44]

According to a short semi-authorized biography written by Abid Humam al-Athari, his grandfather, Haj Ibrahim Ali al-Badri, apparently lived until the age of 94 and witnessed the US occupation of Iraq.[44] His father, Sheikh Awwad, was active in the religious life of the community.[10] Awwad taught the teenaged Baghdadi and got his own start as a teacher, leading children in a neighbourhood chanting the Quran.[10] Both his father and grandfather were said to be farmers.[44] His mother, whose name is not known, was described as a religious loving person and was notable in the al-Badri tribe.[45] One of Baghdadi's uncles served in Saddam Hussein's security services, and one of his brothers became an officer in the Iraqi Army.[10] He has another brother, who probably died either during the Iran–Iraq War or the Gulf War while serving in the Iraqi military.[10][45] Baghdadi was described as extremely conservative and religious even in his youth.[16]


Official education records from Samarra High School revealed that al-Baghdadi had to retake his high school certificate in 1991 and scored 481 out of 600 possible points.[45] A few months later, he was deemed unfit for military service by the Iraqi military due to his nearsightedness.[45] His high-school grades were not good enough for him to study his preferred subject (law, educational science and languages) at the University of Baghdad.[45] Instead, it is believed that he attended the Islamic University of Baghdad, now known as Iraqi University, where he studied Islamic law and, later, the Quran.[46]

According to a biography that circulated on extremist Internet forums in July 2013, he obtained a BA, MA, and PhD in Islamic studies from the Islamic University of Baghdad.[42][47][48] Another report says that he earned a doctorate in education from the University of Baghdad.[49]

Will McCants says that he "successfully" defended his Ph.D. thesis in 2007, "despite the weight of his new responsibilities" as a militant, his work consisting in editing a medieval manuscript, Ruḥ al-murid fi sharḥ al-'iqd al-farid fi nuzum al-tajrid by Muhammad al-Samarqandi (who died in 1378 in Baghdad), an Arabic poem on the recitation of the Qur'an (or tajwid), for which he was awarded a grade of "very good".[50]


In an interview with The Daily Telegraph, contemporaries of al-Baghdadi describes him in his youth as being shy, unimpressive, a religious scholar, and a man who eschewed violence. For more than a decade, until 2004, he lived in a room attached to a small local mosque in Tobchi, a poor neighbourhood on the western fringes of Baghdad, inhabited by both Shia and Sunni Muslims.[32]

Ahmed al-Dabash, the leader of the Islamic Army of Iraq and a contemporary of al-Baghdadi who fought against the allied invasion in 2003, gave a description of al-Baghdadi that matched that of the Tobchi residents:

I was with Baghdadi at the Islamic University. We studied the same course, but he wasn't a friend. He was quiet and retiring. He spent time alone ... I used to know all the leaders (of the insurgency) personally. Zarqawi (the former leader of al-Qaeda) was closer than a brother to me ... But I didn't know Baghdadi. He was insignificant. He used to lead prayer in a mosque near my area. No one really noticed him.[32]

"They [the US and Iraqi Governments] know physically who this guy is, but his backstory is just myth", said Patrick Skinner of the Soufan Group, a security consulting firm. "He's managed this secret persona extremely well, and it's enhanced his group's prestige", said Patrick Johnston of the RAND Corporation, adding, "Young people are really attracted to that."[51] Being mostly unrecognized, even in his own organization, Baghdadi was known to be nicknamed at some time about 2015, as "the invisible sheikh".[8]

Islamic cleric

A mugshot photo of Baghdadi detained at Camp Bucca, Iraq, 2004

Some believe that al-Baghdadi became an Islamic revolutionary during the rule of Saddam Hussein, but other reports suggest he was radicalized by joining the Muslim Brotherhood as a youth,[52] followed by his later internment with Al Qaeda commanders at the US Camp Bucca.[53] He may have been a mosque cleric around the time of the US-led invasion in 2003.[53] During this period, he was highly influenced by the writings of the Egyptian Jihadist scholar Sayyid Qutb.[54]

After the US invasion of Iraq in 2003, al-Baghdadi helped found the militant group Jamaat Jaysh Ahl al-Sunnah wa-l-Jamaah (JJASJ), in which he served as head of this group.[48][55]

US internment

Mugshot of al-Baghdadi

Al-Baghdadi was arrested by US Forces-Iraq on 2 or 4 February 2004 near Fallujah while visiting the home of his old student friend, Nessayif Numan Nessayif, who was also on the American wanted list at the time[b][10] and studied together with al-Baghdadi at the Islamic University.[56] He was detained at the Abu Ghraib and Camp Bucca detention centers under his name Ibrahim Awad Ibrahim al-Badry[57] as a "civilian internee". His detainee card gives his profession as "administrative work (secretary)".[58] The US Department of Defense said al-Baghdadi was imprisoned at Compound 6, which was a medium security Sunni compound.[59] On 8 December 2004,[10] he was released as a prisoner deemed "low level"[57] after being recommended for release by the Combined Review and Release Board.[48][60][61][62]

A number of newspapers and news channels have instead stated that al-Baghdadi was interned from 2005 to 2009. These reports originate from an interview with the former commander of Camp Bucca, Colonel Kenneth King,[63] and are not substantiated by Department of Defense records.[64][65][66] Al-Baghdadi was imprisoned at Camp Bucca along with other future leaders of ISIL.[67]

As leader of the Islamic State of Iraq

Al-Baghdadi and his group Jamaat Jaysh Ahl al-Sunnah wa-l-Jamaah joined the Mujahideen Shura Council (MSC) in 2006, in which he served as a member of the MSC's sharia committee.[48] Following the renaming of the MSC as the Islamic State of Iraq (ISI) in 2006, al-Baghdadi became the general supervisor of the ISI's sharia committee and a member of the group's senior consultative council.[48][68]

Islamic State of Iraq (ISI), also known as al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI), was the Iraqi division of al-Qaeda. Al-Baghdadi was announced as leader of ISI on 16 May 2010, following the death of his predecessor Abu Omar al-Baghdadi.[69]

As leader of ISI, al-Baghdadi was responsible for masterminding large-scale operations such as the 28 August 2011 suicide bombing at the Umm al-Qura Mosque in Baghdad, which killed prominent Sunni lawmaker Khalid al-Fahdawi.[70] Between March and April 2011, ISI claimed 23 attacks south of Baghdad, all allegedly carried out under al-Baghdadi's command.[70]

From 2011, a reward of US$10 million was offered for Baghdadi by the U.S. State Department, increasing to $25 million in 2017,[71] for information or intelligence on his whereabouts to enable capture, dead or alive.[72][73]

Public service announcement for the bounty (reward) of al-Baghdadi (aka Abu Du'a) from Rewards for Justice Program

Following the death of the founder and head of al-Qaeda, Osama bin Laden, on 2 May 2011, in Abbottabad, Pakistan, al-Baghdadi released a statement praising bin Laden and threatening violent retaliation for his death.[70] On 5 May 2011, al-Baghdadi claimed responsibility for an attack in Hilla, 100 kilometres (62 mi) south of Baghdad, that killed 24 policemen and wounded 72 others.[70][74]

On 15 August 2011, a wave of ISI suicide attacks beginning in Mosul resulted in 70 deaths.[70] Shortly thereafter, in retaliation for bin Laden's death, ISI pledged on its website to carry out 100 attacks across Iraq featuring various methods of attack, including raids, suicide attacks, roadside bombs and small arms attacks in all cities and rural areas across the country.[70]

On 22 December 2011, a series of coordinated car bombings and IED (improvised explosive device) attacks struck over a dozen neighborhoods across Baghdad, killing at least 63 people and wounding 180. The assault came just days after the US completed its troop withdrawal from Iraq.[75] On 26 December, ISI released a statement on jihadist internet forums claiming credit for the operation, stating that the targets of the Baghdad attack were "accurately surveyed and explored" and that the "operations were distributed between targeting security headquarters, military patrols and gatherings of the filthy ones of the al-Dajjal Army (the 'Army of the Anti-Christ' in Arabic)", referring to the Mahdi Army of Muqtada al-Sadr.[75]

On 2 December 2012, Iraqi officials claimed that they had captured al-Baghdadi in Baghdad, following a two-month tracking operation. Officials claimed that they had also seized a list containing the names and locations of other al-Qaeda operatives.[76][77] However, this claim was rejected by ISI.[78] In an interview with Al Jazeera on 7 December 2012, Iraq's Acting Interior Minister said that the arrested man was not al-Baghdadi, but rather a sectional commander in charge of an area stretching from the northern outskirts of Baghdad to Taji.[79]

Leader of Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL)

Expansion into Syria and break with al-Qaeda

Al-Baghdadi remained leader of the ISI until its formal expansion into Syria in 2013 when, in a statement on 8 April 2013, he announced the formation of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) – alternatively translated from Arabic as the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS).[80]

When announcing the formation of ISIL, al-Baghdadi stated that the Syrian civil war jihadist faction, Jabhat al-Nusra – also known as al-Nusra Front – had been an extension of the ISI in Syria and was now to be merged with ISIL.[80][81] The leader of Jabhat al-Nusra, Abu Mohammad al-Julani, disputed this merging of the two groups and appealed to al-Qaeda emir Ayman al-Zawahiri, who issued a statement that ISIL should be abolished and that al-Baghdadi should confine his group's activities to Iraq.[82] Al-Baghdadi, however, dismissed al-Zawahiri's ruling and took control of a reported 80% of Jabhat al-Nusra's foreign fighters.[83] In January 2014, ISIL expelled Jabhat al-Nusra from the Syrian city of Raqqa, and in the same month clashes between the two in Syria's Deir ez-Zor Governorate killed hundreds of fighters and displaced tens of thousands of civilians.[84] In February 2014, al-Qaeda disavowed any relations with ISIL.[85]

According to several Western sources, al-Baghdadi and ISIL have received private financing from citizens in Saudi Arabia and Qatar and enlisted fighters through recruitment drives in Saudi Arabia in particular.[86][87][88][89]

Declaration of a caliphate

On 29 June 2014, ISIL announced the establishment of a worldwide caliphate. Al-Baghdadi was named its caliph, to be known as "Caliph Ibrahim", and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant was renamed the Islamic State (IS).[90][91]

The declaration of a caliphate was heavily criticized by Middle Eastern governments, other jihadist groups,[92] and Sunni Muslim theologians and historians. Qatar-based TV broadcaster and theologian Yusuf al-Qaradawi stated: "[The] declaration issued by the Islamic State is void under sharia and has dangerous consequences for the Sunnis in Iraq and for the revolt in Syria", adding that the title of caliph can "only be given by the entire Muslim nation", not by a single group.[93]

As a caliph, al-Baghdadi was required to hold to each dictate of the sunnah, whose precedence is set and recorded in the sahih hadiths. According to tradition, if a caliph fails to meet any of these obligations at any period, he is required by the law to abdicate his position and the community has to appoint a new caliph, theoretically selected from throughout the caliphdom as being the most religiously and spiritually pious individual among them.[94] Due to the widespread rejection of his caliphhood, al-Baghdadi's status as caliph has been compared to that of other caliphs whose caliphship has been questioned.[95]

In an audio-taped message, al-Baghdadi announced that ISIL would march on "Rome"generally interpreted to mean the Westin its quest to establish an Islamic State from the Middle East across Europe. He said that he would conquer both Rome and Spain in this endeavor[96][97] and urged Muslims across the world to immigrate to the new Islamic State.[96]

On 8 July 2014, ISIL launched its online magazine Dabiq. The title appeared to have been selected for its eschatological connections with the Islamic version of the end times, or malahim.[98]

According to a report in October 2014, after suffering serious injuries, al-Baghdadi fled ISIL's capital city Raqqa due to the intense bombing campaign launched by Coalition forces, and sought refuge in the Iraqi city of Mosul, the largest city under ISIL control at the time.[99]

ISIL's territory (gray) in Iraq and Syria in May 2015

On 5 November 2014, al-Baghdadi sent a message to al-Qaeda Emir Ayman al-Zawahiri requesting him to swear allegiance to him as caliph, in return for a position in the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. The source of this information was a senior Taliban intelligence officer. Al-Zawahiri did not reply, and instead reassured the Taliban of his loyalty to Mullah Omar.[100]

On 7 November 2014, there were unconfirmed reports of al-Baghdadi's death after an airstrike in Mosul,[101] while other reports said that he was only wounded.[102][103]

On 20 January 2015, the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights reported that al-Baghdadi had been wounded in an airstrike in Al-Qa'im, an Iraqi border town held by ISIL at that time, and as a result withdrew to Syria.[104]

On 8 February 2015, after Jordan had conducted 56 airstrikes which reportedly killed 7,000 ISIL militants from 5–7 February, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi was said to have fled from Raqqa to Mosul out of fear for his life.[105][106] However, after a Peshmerga source informed the US-led Coalition that al-Baghdadi was in Mosul, Coalition warplanes continuously bombed the locations where ISIL leaders were known to meet for 2 hours.[106]

Sex slavery

Baghdadi was a serial rapist,[21] having maintained "a number of personal sex slaves".[22]

On 14 August 2015, it was reported that he allegedly claimed, as his "wife", American hostage Kayla Mueller and raped her repeatedly.[107] Mueller was later alleged by an ISIL media account to have been killed in an airstrike by anti-ISIL forces in February 2015.[108] However, a former sex slave has claimed that Mueller was murdered by ISIL.[109]

Sectarianism and theocracy

Through his forename, al-Baghdadi was rumored to have been styling himself after the first caliph, Abu Bakr, who led the "Rightly Guided" or Rashidun. According to Sunni tradition, Abu Bakr replaced Muhammad as prayer leader when he was suffering from illnesses.[39] Another feature of the original Rashidun was what some historians dub as the first SunniShia discord during the Battle of Siffin. Some publishers have drawn a correlation between those ancient events and modern Salafizing and caliphizing[110] aims under al-Baghdadi's rule.[111][112]

Due to the relatively stationary nature of ISIL control, the elevation of religious clergy who engage in theocratization,[113] and the group's scripture-themed legal system, some analysts declared al-Baghdadi a theocrat and ISIL a theocracy.[114] Other indications of the decline of secularism were the destruction of secular institutions and its replacement with strict sharia law, and the gradual caliphization and Sunnification of regions under the group's control.[115] In July 2015, al-Baghdadi was described by a reporter as exhibiting a kinder and gentler side after he banned videos showing slaughter and execution.[116]


First recorded public appearance of 4 July 2014

A video, made during the first Friday prayer service of Ramadan, shows al-Baghdadi speaking on a pulpit in the Arabic language to a congregation at the Great Mosque of al-Nuri in Mosul, northern Iraq. In the video, al-Baghdadi declares himself caliph of the Islamic State and calls on Muslims worldwide to support him.[117] A representative of the Iraqi government denied that the video was of al-Baghdadi, calling it a "farce."[93] However, both the BBC and the Associated Press quoted unnamed Iraqi officials as saying that the man in the video was believed to be al-Baghdadi.[118][119][120]

13 November 2014

ISIL released an audio-taped message, claiming it to be in the voice of al-Baghdadi. In the 17-minute recording, released via social media, al-Baghdadi says that ISIL fighters would never cease fighting "even if only one soldier remains." Al-Baghdadi urges supporters of the Islamic State to "erupt volcanoes of jihad" across the world. He calls for attacks to be mounted in Saudi Arabia, describing Saudi leaders as "the head of the snake", and also says that the US-led military campaign in Syria and Iraq was failing. He declares that ISIL would keep marching forward and would "break the borders" of Jordan and Lebanon as well as "free Palestine".[121]

14 May 2015

ISIL released an audio message which it claimed was from al-Baghdadi. In the recording, al-Baghdadi urges Muslims to immigrate to the Islamic State and join the fight in Iraq and Syria. He also condemns the Saudi involvement in Yemen, and claims that the conflict will lead to the end of the Saudi royal family's rule. He further claims that Islam was never a religion of peace but instead is "the religion of fighting".[122]

26 December 2015

An audio message that was approximately 23 minutes long was released. Al-Baghdadi warns Western nations to not interfere further in their matters and threatens the future establishment of ISIL in Israel. He also celebrates the defeat of "crusaders" and "Jews" in Iraq and Afghanistan.[123]

2 November 2016

An audio message was released. In it, al-Baghdadi discusses the need for ISIL to defend their forces within Mosul and encourages ISIL forces to persecute Shia Muslims and the Alawites. He also states plans to begin fighting in Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and further away, and argues in favour of using martyrdom in Libya to spread support.[124][125]

28 September 2017

A 46-minute audio recording was released through the ISIL-owned media organization Al Furqan in which al-Baghdadi accuses the United States of wilting in the face of Russia and lacking "the will to fight".[126][127] Al-Baghdadi refers to recent events including North Korean threats against Japan and the United States and the recapture of Mosul by US backed Iraqi forces over two months earlier, likely to dispel rumours of his death.[128]

Throughout, al-Baghdadi calls for further attacks in the West and, more specifically, for attacks on Western media, saying: "Oh soldiers of Islam in every location, increase blow after blow, and make the media centers of the infidels, from where they wage their intellectual wars, among the targets."[128]

23 August 2018

An audio message is released, almost a year after his previous communication. Al-Baghdadi calls on his followers to "persevere" despite heavy losses in Iraq and Syria and calls for more attacks around the world. He also comments on recent events, suggesting that the audio message was recorded recently. Many experts believed that it was him as the voice resembled that heard in his other audio messages.[129]

29 April 2019

On 29 April 2019, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi was shown in an 18-minute long video released by an Islamic State media group, his first public appearance in almost five years. In the video, al-Baghdadi is shown with an assault rifle mentioning recent events such as the loss of the last ISIL territory in Baghuz Fawqani, the Sri Lanka Easter bombings and the overthrow of Sudanese and Algerian presidents Omar al-Bashir and Abdelaziz Bouteflika, suggesting that the video was filmed around a week before being released.[130][131]

16 September 2019

On 16 September 2019 al-Baghdadi released an audio message calling for his followers to free detained ISIS members and their families held in camps in Iraq and Syria.[132] It was recorded and distributed by Al Furqan Establishment for Media Production.[133]

Listed as a global terrorist

Abu Bakr Al-Baghdadi was designated by the United States Department of State as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist.[7] The US Department of State's Rewards for Justice Program identified Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi as a senior leader of the terrorist organization Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), and as having been "responsible for the deaths of thousands of civilians in the Middle East, including the brutal murder of numerous civilian hostages from Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States."[7] Authorities within the United States had also accused al-Baghdadi of kidnapping, enslaving, and repeatedly raping an American, Kayla Mueller, who ISIL later alleged was killed in a Jordanian airstrike but is believed to have been executed by ISIL.[108]

Suspected location

Al-Baghdadi was the top target in the war against ISIL. US Intelligence believed that he was based in Raqqa and that he kept a low profile, hiding among the civilian population. Until summer 2017, ISIL was believed to be headquartered in a series of buildings in Raqqa, but the proximity of civilians made targeting the headquarters off-limits under US rules of engagement.[134] Photos of a possible public appearance in a Fallujah mosque surfaced in February 2016.[135]

Haider al-Abadi was reported (Ensor, 7 February 2017) to have stated he knew of the location of al-Baghdadi. Colonel John Dorrian, of the Combined Joint Task Force, stated he was aware of al-Baghdadi having chosen to sleep in a suicide vest, in the event he should find himself facing capture.[136]

In 2018, Iraqi intelligence officials and a number of experts believed that al-Baghdadi was hiding in ISIL's then-de facto capital of Hajin, in ISIL's Middle Euphrates Valley Pocket in Syria. Even though no direct evidence has yet been found that al-Baghdadi himself was present in the city, experts noted that the remaining ISIL leadership was concentrated in Hajin, and that ISIL was persistently launching a strenuous defense.[137] Hajin was captured by the Syrian Democratic Forces on 14 December 2018, but al-Baghdadi's whereabouts were still unknown.[138]

On 1 February 2019, the chief of the Intelligence Office of Iraq's Interior Ministry, Abu Ali Al-Basri, stated that al-Baghdadi never stayed in one place at a time as he continued to sneak back-and-forth across the Iraq-Syria border. "We have information that he moved from Syria and entered Iraq through Anbar and then Salaheddine", Al-Basri said.[139] Additionally, Fadhel Abu Rageef, a Baghdad-based political and security analyst, told Fox News that Baghdadi maneuvered without convoys or any attention-drawing security figures, and was instead only flanked by a couple of trusted loyalists – and neither he nor his associates had mobile phones or detectable devices. "We think Baghdadi is in the Syrian desert at large, wearing modern clothes, no mobiles, a simple car, and just a driver. Anyone around him is dressed in modern clothes", Rageef said.[140]

According to an Associated Press interview with a Yazidi slave of his, Baghdadi had tried to escape to Idlib in late 2017 along with a wife and his security guards, but returned midway due to fear of an attempt on his life. According to her, he later first stayed at Hajin for a week, before travelling to Dashisha where she stayed for four months at the home of his father-in-law Abu Abdullah al-Zubaie. She stated that he would only move around at night and in disguise, along with five of his guards, stating she last met him in the spring of 2018 before a new master took her away.[141]

Baghdadi's brother-in-law Mohamad Ali Sajit, during an interview with Al Arabiya, described Baghdadi during the last months of his life as having been "a nervous wreck" who would often suspect ISIL governors of betrayal. Sajit stated that he met Baghdadi for the first time in Hajin in late 2017, and that the final time was in the desert located along the Iraq-Syria border. According to Sajit, Baghdadi only traveled with five to seven confidantes, which included Abul-Hasan al-Muhajir, his security head Abu Sabah, al-Zubaie who was killed in March 2019, and Tayseer alias Abu al-Hakim, ISIL's former wali of Iraq. Sajit further stated that while in hiding, Baghdadi always kept a suicide vest with him, ordered others to do the same, sometimes disguised himself as a shepherd, and that only his confidante al-Muhajir used a mobile phone. Sajit also related how on one occasion Baghdadi had to be hidden in a pit to save him from a possible raid along the Iraq-Syrian border, that Baghdadi's diabetes had worsened in the end due to his constantly trying to evade capture, and that he didn't fast during Ramadan, nor let his associates do so.[141]

Early reports of death, bodily harm, and arrest

According to media reports, al-Baghdadi was wounded on 18 March 2015 during a coalition airstrike on the al-Baaj District, in the Nineveh Governorate, near the Syrian border. His wounds were apparently so serious that the top ISIL leaders had a meeting to discuss who would replace him if he died. According to reports, by 22 April al-Baghdadi had not yet recovered enough from his injuries to resume daily control of ISIL.[142] The US Department of Defense said that al-Baghdadi had not been the target of the airstrikes, and "we have no reason to believe it was Baghdadi."[143] On 22 April 2015, Iraqi government sources reported that Abu Ala al-Afri, the self-proclaimed caliph's deputy and a former Iraqi physics teacher, had been installed as the stand-in leader while Baghdadi recuperated from his injuries.[144]

  • April 2015: The Guardian reported that al-Baghdadi was recovering from the severe injuries which he had received during the airstrike on 18 March 2015, in a part of Mosul. It was also reported that a spinal injury which had left him paralyzed meant that he might never be able to fully resume direct command of ISIL.[145] By 13 May, ISIL fighters had warned they would retaliate for al-Baghdadi's injury, which the Iraqi Defense Ministry believed would be carried out through attacks in Europe.[citation needed]
  • 20 July 2015: The New York Times wrote that rumors that al-Baghdadi had been killed or injured earlier in the year had been "dispelled".[146]
  • 11 October 2015: the Iraqi air force claimed to have bombed al-Baghdadi's convoy in the western Anbar province close to the Syrian border while he was heading to Al-Karābilah to attend an ISIL meeting, the location of which was also said to be bombed. His fate was not immediately confirmed.[147] There was some subsequent speculation that he may not have been present in the convoy at all.[148]
  • 9 June 2016: Iraqi State TV claimed that al-Baghdadi had been wounded in a US airstrike in Northern Iraq. Coalition spokesmen said they could not confirm the reports.[149]
  • 14 June 2016: several Middle Eastern media outlets claimed that al-Baghdadi had been killed in a US airstrike in Raqqa on 12 June. Coalition spokesmen said they could not confirm the reports.[150][151] The Independent however, later stated that these reports of Baghdadi's death were based on a digitally altered image claiming to be a media statement from ISIL.[152]
  • 3 October 2016: Various media outlets claimed that al-Baghdadi and 3 senior ISIL leaders were poisoned by an assassin but still alive.[153]
  • 18 April 2017: some media reported that al-Baghdadi was arrested in Syria. Citing the European Department for Security and Information (DESI), several media outlets reported that al-Baghdadi was apprehended by Syrian and Russian joint forces.[154][155][156] However, the Russian Foreign Ministry told Rudaw they did not have knowledge of the news and were not aware of his arrest.[157]
  • 11 June 2017: Syrian state TV claimed al-Baghdadi had been killed in the artillery strike that was backed by the US.[158]
  • 16 June 2017: Russian media reported that al-Baghdadi might have been killed in a Russian air strike near Raqqa, Syria, on 28 May[159][160] along with 30 mid-level ISIL leaders and 300 other fighters. The Russian claims to have killed 330 ISIL fighters including Baghdadi did not match reports from Raqqa Is Being Slaughtered Silently and Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR), which found 17 or 18 civilian deaths and possibly 10 ISIL fighter deaths from an airstrike against buses south of Raqqa on 28 May.[161] The United States cast doubt on the claim, noting a lack of independent evidence.[162][163]
  • 23 June 2017: Russian politician Viktor Ozerov stated that al-Baghdadi's death was almost "100% certain".[164] Iran later claimed to confirm Russia's claim that Al-Baghdadi was killed in an airstrike.[165]
  • 29 June 2017: The Islamic Republic News Agency (IRNA), the Iranian government's official media, published an article quoting a representative for Iranian leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei to the Quds Force, stating that al-Baghdadi was "definitely dead". IRNA removed this quotation in an updated version of this article.[166]
  • 11 July 2017: Iraqi news agency Al Sumaria stated on its website that ISIL had circulated a brief statement in Tal Afar that Baghdadi was dead.[167] The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights claimed it had "confirmed information" of his death.[168] The US Department of Defense stated it was trying to confirm the new reports of his death.[169] The Kurdish counter-terrorism official Lahur Talabany told Reuters he was "99 percent" sure Baghdadi was alive and hiding in Raqqa.[170] The search was reported to still be ongoing by The Guardian in January 2018.[171]
  • 28 July 2017: Drone expert and former intelligence soldier Brett Velicovich, described multiple covert missions[172] in which his special operations team led the hunt for al-Baghdadi immediately after they killed his predecessor, Abu Omar al-Baghdadi in April 2011. One of those missions described an opportunity to capture al-Baghdadi when he was discovered via drone meeting ISIL associates in downtown Baghdad⁠—⁠a mission that was ultimately delayed due to State Department rules of engagement at the time.[173][174] Velicovich was further questioned by Fox News about the reports of al-Baghdadi's death after a Russian government claim of having killed him in Syria, during which Velicovich stated that he did not believe the claims and if he was dead the US Government would have announced it.[175]
  • 23 August 2018: Al-Furqan, an ISIL media outlet, released an audio statement "Glad Tidings to the Steadfast" on the Muslim holiday of Eid al-Adha (Feast of Sacrifice). The statement was made by Baghdadi, ending the speculation about his purported death.[176]
  • 29 April 2019: A video emerged of Baghdadi on ISIS's media network Al Furqan praising the perpetrators of the 2019 Sri Lanka Easter bombings.[177]


President Trump announces the raid to the press in the White House Diplomatic Reception Room on 27 October 2019

On 27 October 2019, US Joint Special Operations Command's (JSOC) 1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-Delta (SFOD-D) (commonly known as Delta Force), along with soldiers from the 75th Ranger Regiment and 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (Airborne) conducted a raid through air space controlled by Russia and Turkey into the rebel-held Idlib province of Syria on the border with Turkey to capture al-Baghdadi.[178][179][180] US President Donald Trump and his officials stated that while being hunted by American military canines and after being cornered in a tunnel, al-Baghdadi died by self-detonating a suicide vest, killing three young children, reportedly his own, as well.[181][182] The commander of US Central Command, Gen. Frank McKenzie, later revised the number of children killed to two.[183] The blast also injured 2 Delta operators and 1 military working dog (Conan) but sustained no life-threatening injuries.[184][185] The raid was launched based on a CIA Special Activities Division's intelligence effort that located the leader of ISIS.[186][23] This operation was conducted during the withdrawal of US forces from northeast Syria.[187][188]

President Trump announced on 27 October 2019 that American forces used helicopters, jets and drones through airspace controlled by Russia and Turkey.[189] He said that "Russia treated us great ... Iraq was excellent. We really had great cooperation" and Turkey had been informed of the operation prior to its commencement.[182] He also thanked Russia, Turkey, Syria, Iraq, and the Syrian Kurdish forces for their support.[182] According to multiple sources, the video footage presented to President Trump in the situation room did not contain audio.[190][191]

The Turkish Defence Ministry confirmed on 27 October that Turkish and US military authorities exchanged and coordinated information ahead of an attack in Syria's Idlib.[192][193] Fahrettin Altun, a senior aide to Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan, also stated, among other things, that "Turkey was proud to help the United States, our NATO ally, bring a notorious terrorist to justice" and that Turkey "will continue to work closely with the United States and others to combat terrorism in all its forms and manifestations."[194] Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov declined to say if the United States had told Russia about the raid in advance but said that its result if confirmed, represented a serious contribution by the United States to combat terrorism.[195] Russia previously said they may have killed him in an airstrike on 4 apartment buildings in Raqqa city on 28 May 2017 but were at that time still seeking confirmation.[196][197] DNA profiling was done immediately, confirming his identity.[182]

Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Mark A. Milley, said during a Pentagon briefing that "the disposal of his [al-Baghdadi's] remains has been done and is complete and was handled appropriately", initially adding that Washington had no plans to release images of his death, but later revealed footage of the raid during a briefing on 30 October.[198][199] Baghdadi was buried at sea and afforded Islamic rites, according to three anonymous U.S. officials[200][201][202][203] and General Frank McKenzie.[204]

ISIL's propaganda arm confirmed his death via Telegram on 31 October and announced Abu Ibrahim al-Hashimi al-Qurashi as the new leader of the group.[25][205]


In September 2019, a statement attributed to ISIL's propaganda arm, the Amaq news agency, claimed that Abdullah Qardash was named as al-Baghdadi's successor.[206][207] Analysts dismissed this statement as a fabrication, and relatives were reported as saying that Qardash died in 2017.[208] Rita Katz, a terrorism analyst and the co-founder of SITE Intelligence, noted that the alleged statement used a different font when compared to other statements and it was never distributed on Amaq or ISIL channels.[209] Two other individuals, the Saudi Abu Saleh al-Juzrawi and the Tunisian Abu Othman al-Tunsi, were also named as possible candidates to succeed al-Baghdadi,[208][210] who were close to Baghdadi and are believed to have been present in his last video appearance.[211]

On 29 October 2019, Trump stated on social media that al-Baghdadi's "number one replacement" had been killed by American forces, adding: "Most likely would have taken the top spot - Now he is also Dead!"[212] While Trump did not specify a name, a U.S. official later confirmed that Trump was referring to ISIL spokesman and senior leader Abul-Hasan al-Muhajir,[213] who was killed in a U.S. airstrike in Syria two days earlier.[214] On 31 October, an IS outlet on Telegram named Abu Ibrahim al-Hashimi al-Qurashi as Baghdadi's successor.[215]

Personal life


Asma Fawzi Mohammed al-Dulaimi and Israa Rajab Mahal Al-Qaisi

Reuters, quoting tribal sources in Iraq, reported Baghdadi had three wives, two Iraqis and one Syrian.[216] The Iraqi Interior Ministry said that al-Baghdadi had two wives, Asma Fawzi Mohammed al-Dulaimi (sometimes referred to as "Al-Qubaysi" or "al-Kubaysi"[217]) and Israa Rajab Mahal Al-Qaisi.[218] However, in 2016 Fox News reported, based on local media, that Saja al-Dulaimi was al-Baghdadi's most powerful wife.[219]

On 27 October 2019, when it was said al-Baghdadi died, it was reported that two of Baghdadi's wives were also killed, wearing suicide vests that had not detonated.[220][221] This was confirmed by United States Secretary of State Mike Pompeo.[222]

In November 2019, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan announced that they had captured Asma. A Turkish official stated that she had already been captured on 2 June 2018 in the province of Hatay, along with 10 others.[223]

Diane Kruger

In April 2015, multiple media reports emerged claiming that Baghdadi had married a German teenager on 31 March 2015.[224] On 28 February 2016, Iraqi media reported that she had left ISIL and had fled Iraq along with two other women. She was identified as Diane Kruger.[225] According to reports in the Iraqi media, she had married him during October 2015, somewhere within Nineveh Governorate.[226]

Sujidah al-Dulaimi

According to several sources, Sujidah (sometimes referred to as "Saja"[227]) al-Dulaimi was the wife of al-Baghdadi.[228] It was reported the couple had allegedly met and fallen in love online.[228] Sujidah al-Dulaimi was arrested in Syria in late 2013 or early 2014, and was released from a Syrian jail in March 2014 as part of a prisoner swap involving 150 women, in exchange for 13 nuns taken captive by al-Qaeda-linked militants. Also released in March were her two sons and her younger brother.[229] The Iraqi Interior Ministry has said, "There is no wife named Saja al-Dulaimi."[219]

Al-Dulaimi's family allegedly all adhere to ISIL's ideology. Her father, Ibrahim Dulaimi, an ISIL emir in Syria, was reportedly killed in September 2013 during an operation against the Syrian Army in Deir Attiyeh. Her sister, Duaa, was allegedly behind a suicide attack that targeted a Kurdish gathering in Erbil.[230] The Iraq Interior Ministry has said that her brother is facing execution in Iraq for a series of bombings in southern Iraq.[227][231] The Iraq government, however, said that al-Dulaimi is the daughter of an active member of al-Qaeda's affiliate in Syria, al-Nusra Front.[232]

In late November 2014, al-Dulaimi was arrested and held for questioning by Lebanese authorities, along with two sons and a young daughter. They were traveling on false documents.[216] The children were held in a care center while al-Dulaimi was interrogated.[232]

The capture was a joint intelligence operation by Lebanon, Syria, and Iraq, with the US assisting the last. Al-Dulaimi's potential intelligence value is unknown. An unnamed intelligence source told The New York Times that during the Iraq war, when the Americans captured a wife of Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, the leader of al-Qaeda in Iraq, "We got little out of her, and when we sent her back, Zarqawi killed her."[227] As of December 2014, al-Baghdadi's family members were seen by the Lebanese authorities as potential bargaining chips in prisoner exchanges.[233]

In the clearest explanation yet of al-Dulaimi's connection to al-Baghdadi, Lebanese Interior Minister Nohad Machnouk told Lebanon's MTV channel that "Dulaimi is not Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi's wife currently. She has been married three times: first to a man from the former Iraqi regime, with whom she had two sons."[232] Other sources identify her first husband as Fallah Ismail Jassem, a member of the Rashideen Army, who was killed in a battle with the Iraqi Army in 2010.[229][234][235] Machnouk continued, "Six years ago she married Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi for three months, and she had a daughter with him. Now, she is married to a Palestinian and she is pregnant with his child." The Minister added, "We conducted DNA tests on her and the daughter, which showed she was the mother of the girl, and that the girl is [Baghdadi's] daughter, based on DNA from Baghdadi from Iraq."[232][236]

Al-Monitor reported a Lebanese security source as saying that al-Dulaimi had been under scrutiny since early 2014. He said that Jabhat al-Nusra "had insisted back in March on including her in the swap that ended the kidnapping of the Maaloula nuns. The negotiators said on their behalf that she was very important, and they were ready to cancel the whole deal for her sake." He added, "It was later revealed by Abu Malik al-Talli, one of al-Nusra's leaders, that she was Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi's wife."[237]

On 9 December 2014, al-Dulaimi and her current Palestinian husband, Kamal Khalaf, were formally arrested after the Lebanese Military Court issued warrants and filed charges for belonging to a terrorist group, holding contacts with terrorist organizations, and planning to carry out terrorist acts.[238] In December 2015, the Lebanese government exchanged al-Dulaimi and her daughter for Lebanese soldiers being held by al-Qaeda affiliate al-Nusra Front in a prisoner swap deal.[239] Her brother is reported to be a Nusra member according to a Lebanese security source.[240]

Dulaimi in an interview conducted by Expressen in 2016, described al-Baghdadi as a family man, but said he rarely talked with her. She stated that she had a co-wife while they were married. Dulaimi claimed that she ran away after becoming pregnant because she was not happy with him, stating the last time they talked was in 2009 and the two had divorced.[240] She now resides in Lebanon.[241]


On 4 November 2019, Turkey announced that they captured al-Baghdadi's older sister, Rasmiya Awad, near the town of Azaz.[242] Her identity however, has not been verified as of yet.[243][244]

Baghdadi's brother Jumah (also referred to as "Jomaa"[245]) acted as a courier for him according to anonymous Iraqi intelligence agents in an interview with The National, delivering messages to and fro between ISIL militants in Turkey and his brother. A Western intelligence agent stated that they hadn't apprehended him yet deliberately, so he could lead them to Baghdadi.[246] According to Iraqi officials in interview with The Guardian, the wives of Jumah and another brother Ahmad have been smuggled out to Turkey through Idlib province.[247]

According to an investigation by news outlet Al-Monitor based on an interview with Abu Ahmad, who claimed to have known al-Baghdadi since the 1990s, al-Baghdadi's brothers are named Shamsi, Jumah, and Ahmad.[245] Jumah is reported to be the closest to him and is also said to have been his bodyguard. Shamsi and al-Baghdadi were reported to have a dispute over Baghdadi's decision to join the insurgency in Iraq.[45] The former is reported to be under the custody of Iraqi authorities and suffering from severe health issues.[245] Personal information on Ahmad is scarce other than his money problems.[45]


According to a reporter for The Guardian, al-Baghdadi married in Iraq around the year 2000 after finishing his doctorate. The son of this marriage was 11 years old in 2014.[32]

A girl named Hagar born in 2008, who was detained in Lebanon in 2014 with her mother Saja al-Dulaimi, is allegedly al-Baghdadi's daughter.[227][232][248]

Al-Baghdadi's son Hudhayfah al-Badri was killed in action in 2018 during the Syrian civil war while taking part in an Inghimasi-style attack on the Syrian Army and Russian forces in Homs Governorate.[249]

During the Barisha raid, three of Baghdadi's children died with him in a dead-end tunnel after he detonated his vest, according to President Donald Trump.[250] General Frank McKenzie however later said only two children had died.[251]

Extended family

Duaa Amid Ibrahim:

After Saja al-Dulaimi's arrest in 2014, a connection was made to her sister, Duaa Amid Ibrahim (aged 24 in 2016), who was arrested with a suicide vest entering Erbil in about 2011.[252] Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi's sister-in-law remains in a Kurdish jail.[219]

Abu Ahmed al-Samarrai:

The Head of the Khalidiya Council in Al Anbar Governorate reported in February 2016: "Today, Iraqi Air Force conducted an airstrike on the so-called ISIL sharia court in Albu Bali area in Khalidiya Island east of Ramadi. The strike resulted in the death of Abu Ahmed al-Samarrai, the nephew of the ISIL leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, along with eight of his companions, as well as Adel al-Bilawi, the Military Commander of Albu Bali area."[253]

Muhammad Ali Sajit or Muhammad Ali Sajid al-Zobaie:

Reported as brother-in-law of Baghdadi, being the husband of a daughter of Baghdadi's father-in-law Abu Abdullah al-Zubaie. He claims to have acted as a courier for the ISIL leader, delivering messages to the group's commanders in Iraq. Caught in June 2019 by Iraqi forces.[141][254]

See also


  1. ^ The Islamic State describes itself as a caliphate and its leader as a caliph, but this is not accepted by the vast majority of Muslims, and is disputed by multiple Muslim scholars and authors.[13][14][15]
  2. ^ Al-Baghdadi was wanted for acts of terrorism. Abu Du'a is a Specially Designated Global Terrorist under U.S. Executive Order 13224. He is also listed at the United Nations Security Council 1267/1989 al-Qaida Sanctions Committee.


  1. ^ "'Stations' of Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi's Life: Translation and Analysis".
  2. ^ a b c Warrick, Joby (27 October 2019). "Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, extremist leader of Islamic State, dies at 48". The Washington Post. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  3. ^ "Security Council Al-Qaida Sanctions Committee adds Ibrahim Awwad Ibrahim Ali al-Badri al-Samarrai to its Sanctions List" (Press release). United Nations Security Council, SC/10405. 5 October 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2014.
  4. ^ "Wanted: Information that brings to justice… Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi" (Press release). Rewards for Justice Program. 5 October 2011. Archived from the original on 29 March 2019. Retrieved 2 November 2019.
  5. ^ "Profile: Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi". BBC. 15 May 2015. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
  6. ^ "The many names of Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi". Al Monitor. 23 March 2015. Archived from the original on 28 April 2015. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
  7. ^ a b c d e Rewards for JusticeInformation that brings to justice... Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi Up to $25 Million Reward Archived 24 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ a b Crompton, Paul (30 June 2014). "The rise of the new 'caliph,' ISIS chief Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi". Al Arabiya News. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
  9. ^ "Baghdadi 'The Ghost': world jihad's low-profile boss". Yahoo! News. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g "The Believer". The Brookings Essay. 1 September 2015.
  11. ^ This was name of Ibrahim al-Badri when he was emir of Jamaat Jaysh Ahlus-Sunnah as you can see in their official statements https://www.aymennjawad.org/2019/11/stations-of-abu-bakr-al-baghdadi-life-translation
  12. ^ Al-Baghdadi use this name in some of his internal correspondence according to docs leaked by dissendents within IS. https://tamtam.chat/EX_ISIS1/AYR8d1zdEPc
  13. ^ Yusuf al-Qaradawi stated: "[The] declaration issued by the Islamic State is void under sharia and has dangerous consequences for the Sunnis in Iraq and for the revolt in Syria", adding that the title of caliph can "only be given by the entire Muslim nation", not by a single group./>Strange, Hannah (5 July 2014). "Islamic State leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi addresses Muslims in Mosul". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
  14. ^ Bunzel, Cole. "Caliph Incognito: The Ridicule of Abu Ibrahim al-Hashimi". www.jihadica.com. Archived from the original on 2 January 2020. Retrieved 2 January 2020.
  15. ^ Hamid, Shadi (1 November 2016). "What a caliphate really is—and how the Islamic State is not one". Brookings. Archived from the original on 1 April 2020. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  16. ^ a b c Kamolnick, Paul (February 2017). The Al-Qaeda Organization and the Islamic State Organization: History, Doctrine, Modus Operandi, and U.S. Policy to Degrade and Defeat Terrorism Conducted in the Name of Sunni Islam. Strategic Studies Institute and U.S. Army War College Press.
  17. ^ Hamming, Tore (2017). "The Al Qaeda–Islamic State Rivalry: Competition Yes, but No Competitive Escalation". Terrorism and Political Violence. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Taylor & Francis. 32: 20–37. doi:10.1080/09546553.2017.1342634. S2CID 148963694.
  18. ^ The ahl al-hall wal-aqd are qualified individuals empowered to either elect or remove from position a caliph on behalf of an Islamic community – Definition of "ahl al-hall wal-aqd" Oxford Islamic Studies Online. Accessed 15 May 2017.
  19. ^ "Who was Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi?". BBC. 27 October 2019. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  20. ^ Callimachi, Rukmini; Hassan, Falih (27 October 2019). "Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, ISIS Leader Known for His Brutality, Is Dead at 48". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  21. ^ a b Gardner, Frank (29 October 2019). "Baghdadi death: What now for IS?". BBC News. Retrieved 4 November 2019. The fact that Baghdadi was a serial rapist, forcing himself on, among others, the captured American aid worker Kayla Mueller, and presiding over the mass enslavement of Yazidi women and underage girls, does not seem to have troubled his followers at all.
  22. ^ a b Warrick, Joby (27 October 2019). "Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, extremist leader of Islamic State, dies at 48". The Washington Post. Retrieved 28 October 2019. Later, former hostages would reveal that Mr. Baghdadi also kept a number of personal sex slaves during his years as the Islamic State's leader
  23. ^ a b "Statement from the President on the Death of Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi". whitehouse.gov (Press release). 27 October 2019 – via National Archives.
  24. ^ Gonzales, Richard (30 October 2019). "Head Of U.S. Central Command Says ISIS Leader Baghdadi Buried At Sea". NPR. Retrieved 31 October 2019.
  25. ^ a b "Islamic State group names its new leader as Abu Ibrahim al-Hashemi". BBC. 31 October 2019. Retrieved 31 October 2019.
  26. ^ Calabresi, Massimo (2015). "Person of The Year: The Short List: Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi". Time. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
  27. ^ Anjarini, Suhaib (2 July 2014). "Al-Baghdadi following in bin Laden's footsteps". Al Akhbar. Archived from the original on 28 July 2014. Retrieved 20 July 2014.
  28. ^ a b Atwan, Abdel Bari (10 October 2015). "A Portrait of Caliph Ibrahim". The Cairo Review of Global Affairs. London, England: Bloomsbury Publishing (Fall 2015). Retrieved 3 February 2017.
  29. ^ Rubin, Alissa J. (5 July 2014). "Militant Leader in Rare Appearance in Iraq". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 July 2014.
  30. ^ Atwan, Abdel Bari (2015). Islamic State: The Digital Caliphate. Univ of California Press. ISBN 9780520289284.
  31. ^ "Profile: Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi". BBC News. 15 May 2015. Retrieved 2 May 2017.
  32. ^ a b c d Sherlock, Ruth (11 November 2014). "How a talented footballer became world's most wanted man, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 27 December 2014.
  33. ^ Chmaytelli, Maher (10 May 2018). "Exclusive – Iraq used Baghdadi aide's phone to capture Islamic State commanders". Reuters. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  34. ^ Definition New Muslim essentials Accessed 3 May 2017
  35. ^ McCants, William (2015). "2". The Believer: How an Introvert with a Passion for Religion and Soccer Became Leader of the Islamic State.
  36. ^ Goitein, S.D. (1967) – A Mediterranean Society: The Jewish Communities of the Arab World as Portrayed in the Documents of the Cairo Geniza, Volume 1 page 357. University of California Press ISBN 0520221583 Retrieved 17 February 2017
  37. ^ Ward, K (2008) – Islam: Religious Life and Politics in Indonesia page 221, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies ISBN 9812308512 Retrieved 17 February 2017
  38. ^ biography/Muhammad Britannica Retrieved 1 February 2017
  39. ^ a b The Middle East and South Asia 2014. Malcolm Russell (2014) p. 163
  40. ^ Philippine News for the Filipino Global Community – encyclopedia Retrieved 1 February 2017
  41. ^ Gelvin, James (2015). The Arab Uprisings: What Everyone Needs to Know. p. 138.
  42. ^ a b Chulov, Martin (6 July 2014). "Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi emerges from shadows to rally Islamist followers". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 July 2014. This article reported the university at which he studied as being in Adhamiya, the location of the Islamic University, but apparently misnamed it the University of Islamic Sciences.
  43. ^ "Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi". Counter Extremism Project.
  44. ^ a b c d Hosken 2015, p. 122.
  45. ^ a b c d e f g Hosken 2015, p. 123.
  46. ^ Hosken 2015, pp. 123–124.
  47. ^ "A biography of Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi". Insite Blog on Terrorism & Extremism. SITE Intelligence Group. 12 August 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014. He is a graduate of the Islamic University in Baghdad, where he finished his academic studies (BA, MA and PhD)
  48. ^ a b c d e "Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi: Islamic State's driving force". BBC News. 31 July 2014. Retrieved 1 August 2014.
  49. ^ Beaumont, Peter (12 June 2014). "Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi: The Isis chief with the ambition to overtake al-Qaida". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  50. ^ William McCants, The ISIS Apocalypse: The History, Strategy, and Doomsday Vision of the Islamic State, St. Martin's Publishing Group, 2015, p. 76
  51. ^ "The Secret Life of ISIS Leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi". NBC News. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  52. ^ "Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi Is Dead. Here's What to Know About the Deceased Islamic State Leader". Time. 27 October 2019.
  53. ^ a b "Profile: Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi". BBC News. 5 July 2014. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  54. ^ Kazemzadeh, Masoud (2020). "5:The sources of the Middle East's crises and American grand strategy". Iran's Foreign Policy: Elite Factionalism, Ideology, the Nuclear Weapons Program, and the United States. 52 Vanderbilt Avenue, New York, NY 10017: Routledge. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-367-49545-9.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location (link)
  55. ^ "'Stations' of Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi's Life: Translation and Analysis".
  56. ^ Hosken 2015, p. 127.
  57. ^ a b "U.S. Actions in Iraq Fueled Rise of a Rebel". The New York Times. 10 August 2014. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  58. ^ Hosken 2015, pp. 127–128.
  59. ^ Hosken 2015, p. 128.
  60. ^ Joshua Eaton (25 August 2016). "US military now says ISIS leader was held in notorious Abu Ghraib prison". The Intercept. Retrieved 25 August 2016.
  61. ^ "Baghdadi Detainee File". Scribd. 2 February 2004. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
  62. ^ Greenberg, Jon (19 June 2014). "Fox's Pirro: Obama set ISIS leader free in 2010". globalfacts.in. Archived from the original on 22 April 2016.
  63. ^ Daly, Michael (14 June 2014). "ISIS Leader: 'See You in New York'". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
  64. ^ McCoy, Terrence (11 June 2014). "How ISIS leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi became the world's most powerful jihadist leader". The Washington Post. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  65. ^ Freeman, Colin (11 June 2014). "Iraq crisis: the jihadist behind the takeover of Mosul – and how America let him go". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  66. ^ Greenberg, Jon. "Actor James Woods: Obama ordered the release of Islamic State leader". Pundit Fact. Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
  67. ^ McCoy, Terrence (4 November 2014). "How the Islamic State evolved in an American prison". The Washington Post. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
  68. ^ Beaumont, Peter (1 August 2014). "Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi: The ISIS chief with the ambition to overtake al-Qaida". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
  69. ^ Shadid, Anthony (16 May 2010). "Iraqi Insurgent Group Names New Leaders". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 June 2014.
  70. ^ a b c d e f "Terrorist Designation of Ibrahim Awwad Ibrahim Ali al-Badri" (Press release). United States Department of State. 4 October 2011. Retrieved 8 October 2011.
  71. ^ "Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi: IS leader 'dead after US raid' in Syria". BBC. 27 October 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  72. ^ "Who was ISIL's self-proclaimed leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi?". Al-Jazeera. 27 October 2019. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  73. ^ Ensor, Josie (27 October 2019). "Isil leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi 'died like a dog and coward' in US special forces raid, says Donald Trump". The Daily Telegraph. London, England. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  74. ^ "Abu Du'a". Counterterrorism 2014 Calendar. The National Counterterrorism Center. Archived from the original on 12 April 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
  75. ^ a b Roggio, Bill (27 December 2011). "Al Qaida in Iraq claims Baghdad suicide attack, bombings". The Long War Journal. Public Multimedia Incorporated (PMI). Retrieved 29 December 2011.[dead link] (webcitation)
  76. ^ "Iraq's 'al-Qaida chief' arrested". Al Jazeera. 2 December 2012. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
  77. ^ Tawfeeq, Mohammed (3 December 2012). "High-ranking al Qaida in Iraq figure arrested, officials say". CNN. Retrieved 20 July 2014.[dead link]
  78. ^ Roggio, Bill (7 December 2012). "Islamic State of Iraq denies its emir captured". The Long War Journal. Public Multimedia Incorporated (PMI). Retrieved 7 December 2012.
  79. ^ Arraf, Jane (7 December 2012). "Detained man is not al-Qaida in Iraq leader". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 20 July 2014.
  80. ^ a b "ISI Confirms That Jabhat Al-Nusra Is Its Extension in Syria, Declares 'Islamic State of Iraq And Al-Sham' As New Name of Merged Group". MEMRI. 8 April 2013. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
  81. ^ "Category Archives: Islamic State of Iraq and al-Shām". Jihadology. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
  82. ^ Mroue, Bassem (11 June 2013). "Syria And Iraq Al Qaeda Merger Annulment Announced By Ayman Al Zawahri". The Huffington Post. Archived from the original on 11 June 2013. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  83. ^ Abdul-Ahad, Ghaith (10 July 2013). "Syria's al-Nusra Front – ruthless, organised and taking control". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
  84. ^ Holmes, Oliver (12 May 2014). "This disowned Al Qaeda branch is killing more Al Qaeda fighters in Syria than anyone else". Thomson Reuters GlobalPost. Archived from the original on 13 May 2014. Retrieved 13 June 2014.
  85. ^ Sly, Liz (3 February 2014). "Al-Qaeda disavows any ties with radical Islamist ISIS group in Syria, Iraq". The Washington Post. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
  86. ^ Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi (22 August 2013). "Bay'ah to Baghdadi: Foreign Support for Sheikh Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi and the Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham". Middle East Forum. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
  87. ^ Hauslohner, Abigail (13 June 2014). "Jihadist Expansion in Iraq puts Persian Gulf states in a tight spot". The Washington Post. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
  88. ^ Keating, Joshua (16 June 2014). "Why the Iraq Mess Is So Awkward for Saudi Arabia". Slate. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
  89. ^ "ISIL targets Saudi Arabia in recruitment drive". The National. 16 June 2014. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
  90. ^ "ISIS Spokesman Declares Caliphate, Rebrands Group as "Islamic State"". SITE Institute. 29 June 2014. Retrieved 29 June 2014.
  91. ^ Withnall, Adam (30 June 2014). "Iraq crisis: Isis changes name and declares its territories a new Islamic state with 'restoration of caliphate' in Middle East". The Independent. Archived from the original on 30 June 2014. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
  92. ^ "'They're delusional': Rivals ridicule ISIS declaration of Islamic state". CBS News. 30 June 2014. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
  93. ^ a b Strange, Hannah (5 July 2014). "Islamic State leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi addresses Muslims in Mosul". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
  94. ^ Şeyhun, Ahmet (2014). Islamist Thinkers in the Late Ottoman Empire and Early Turkish Republic. Leiden: Brill. p. 141. ISBN 978-90-04-28090-8.
  95. ^ Lombardi, M.; Ragab, E.; Chin, V., eds. (2014). Countering Radicalisation and Violent Extremism Among Youth to Prevent Terrorism. Amsterdam: IOS Press. ISBN 978-1-61499-469-5.[page needed]
  96. ^ a b Elgot, Jessica (2 July 2014). "ISIS Head Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi Warns 'We Will Conquer Rome'". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
  97. ^ "Dabiq: The Strategic Messaging of the Islamic State" (PDF). Institute for the Study of War. 15 August 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 August 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
  98. ^ "The Islamic State Releases Dabiq Magazine" (PDF). MSA Worldview. 8 July 2014. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
  99. ^ "'Injured' ISIS Leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi Flees Syria to Escape From US Airstrikes". International Business Times. 1 October 2014. Retrieved 19 October 2014.
  100. ^ Yousafzai, Sami; Seibert, Sam (5 November 2014). "ISIS vs. the Taliban: The Battle for Hearts and Minds". Vocativ. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
  101. ^ "Two IS leaders killed in airstrikes". Sky News. 5 July 2014. Retrieved 8 November 2014.
  102. ^ "ISIS leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi wounded in U.S. airstrike, Iraq officials say". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 9 November 2014. Retrieved 9 November 2014.
  103. ^ Abdelhak Mamoun. "Video of ISIS leader Baghdadi injured in Mosul aired by Balad TV". Iraqnews.com.
  104. ^ Master. "Iraq: ISIS leader Baghdadi injured, stays in Syria". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. Archived from the original on 15 February 2015. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  105. ^ "ISIS leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi scared for life". NewsComAu. Archived from the original on 22 April 2015.
  106. ^ a b Heavy Bombardment of Mosul Related to Baghdadi's Presence in the City
  107. ^ James Gordon Meek (14 August 2015). "ISIS Leader Abu Bakr Al-Baghdadi Sexually Abused American Hostage Kayla Mueller, Officials Say". Washington, D.C.: ABC News. Retrieved 14 August 2015. The information about al-Baghdadi's extraordinary direct role in the captivity and physical abuse of Kayla Mueller was drawn from, among many sources, the U.S. debriefings of at least two Yazidi teenage girls, ages 16 and 18, held as sex slaves in the Sayyaf compound as well as from the interrogation of Abu Sayyaf's wife Umm Sayyaf, who was captured in the U.S. raid, the officials told ABC News.
  108. ^ a b ABC News: "Islamic State Leader Raped American Hostage, US Finds" By Ken Dilanian 14 August 2015
  109. ^ "Kayla Mueller murdered by ISIS, says Yazidi former sex slave". BBC News.
  110. ^ James L. Gelvin, The Arab Uprisings: What Everyone Needs to Know, 2015, p. 138.
  111. ^ Jay Sekulow, Rise of ISIS: A Threat We Can't Ignore, 2014, p. 38
  112. ^ Larbi Sadiki, Routledge Handbook of the Arab Spring, 2014, p. 153.
  113. ^ Buck, Christopher. God & Apple Pie: Religious Myths and Visions of America. p. 244.
  114. ^ Michael Weiss, Hassan Hassan, ISIS: Inside the Army of Terror, 2015[page needed]
  115. ^ Atwan, Abdel (2015). Islamic State: The Digital Caliphate.
  116. ^ "A kinder and gentler ISIS? Baghdadi reportedly bans gruesome beheading scenes". The Jerusalem Post.
  117. ^ "ISIS leader calls for global Muslim obedience". Middle East Star. 5 July 2014. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 7 July 2014.
  118. ^ Ely Brown (3 November 2016). "What to Know About ISIS Leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi". Abc news. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
  119. ^ "Isis video 'shows al-Baghdadi alive' after death rumours". BBC News. 5 July 2014. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
  120. ^ Lucas, Ryan; Hadid, Diaa (5 July 2014). "Video purportedly shows extremist leader in Iraq". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 10 July 2014. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
  121. ^ "Islamic State: 'Baghdadi message' issued by jihadists". BBC News. 13 November 2014. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
  122. ^ "IS releases 'al-Baghdadi message'". BBC News. 14 May 2015. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
  123. ^ Howell, Kellan – "ISIS leader threatens West, Israel in first statement in seven months". The Washington Times. 26 December 2015. Retrieved 6 February 2017.
  124. ^ Ananya Roy – "Isis chief Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi still alive but isolated, Pentagon says". International Business Times. 31 December 2016. Retrieved 3 February 2017.
  125. ^ Graeme Wood – The 'Caliph' Speaks: As ISIS faces defeat in Mosul, its leader breaks a long silence to urge a fight to the death The Atlantic Retrieved 3 February 2017
  126. ^ "ISIL posts 'Baghdadi audio' issuing 'resistance' call". Al Jazeera. 28 September 2017.
  127. ^ Chulov, Martin (28 September 2017). "Isis releases new recording of leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi". The Guardian.
  128. ^ a b Awadalla, Nadine; Knecht, Eric (28 September 2017). "Islamic State's Baghdadi, in undated audio, urges militants to keep fighting". Reuters.
  129. ^ "IS 'releases new audio' of leader Baghdadi". BBC News. 23 August 2018. Retrieved 20 October 2018.
  130. ^ Hubbard, Ben (29 April 2019). "ISIS Releases Video Said to Be of Leader". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
  131. ^ "IS leader in first video for five years". 30 April 2019. Retrieved 1 May 2019.
  132. ^ Harley, Nicky (16 September 2019). "ISIS leader Abu Bakr Al Baghdadi releases audio message". Thenational.ae. Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  133. ^ Jocelyn, Thomas (17 September 2019). "Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi praises the Islamic State's global operations". Long War Journal. Public Multimedia Inc. Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  134. ^ Barbara Starr (26 June 2015). "U.S. theory: ISIS's al-Baghdadi hiding among civilians". CNN.
  135. ^ Adam Withnall (11 February 2016). "Isis leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi 'photographed in second public appearance' at Fallujah mosque". The Independent. Archived from the original on 12 February 2016.
  136. ^ Josie Ensor (7 February 2017) – 'We know where ISIS leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi is hiding' says Iraqi PM Telegraph Retrieved 15 February 2017
  137. ^ Francesco Bussoletti (29 June 2018). "Syria, the Isis pockets of resistance at Deir Ezzor are reduced to two". Difesa & Sicurezza. Retrieved 6 July 2018.
  138. ^ "Hajin, one of the last towns held by IS militants falls in Syria". Deutsche Welle. 14 December 2018. Retrieved 15 December 2018.
  139. ^ "Baghdadi running for his life between Syria and Iraq: intel chief". 1 February 2019.
  140. ^ "Where is Baghdadi? Inside the hunt for the elusive ISIS leader, the world's most wanted man". Fox News. 1 February 2019.
  141. ^ a b c El Deeb, Sarah (5 November 2019). "In last days, al-Baghdadi sought safety in shrinking domain". Associated Press. Retrieved 5 November 2019.
  142. ^ "Islamic State chief Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi seriously injured after US-led air strike in Iran". Firstpost.
  143. ^ "Conflicting reports on IS head Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi's fate". BBC News. 21 April 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
  144. ^ Jack Moore (22 April 2015). "ISIS Replace Injured Leader Baghdadi With Former Physics Teacher". Newsweek. Retrieved 22 April 2015.
  145. ^ Martin Chulov (21 April 2015). "ISIS leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi wounded in air-strike". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 June 2016.
  146. ^ "ISIS Leader Is Delegating His Powers in Case He Is Killed". The New York Times. 20 July 2015. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
  147. ^ "ISIS figures killed in airstrike; Baghdadi not believed among them". The Daily Star. Lebanon.
  148. ^ "ISIS leader Baghdadi probably not in struck convoy". The Daily Star Newspaper. Lebanon.
  149. ^ "U.S, Iraqi officials can't confirm report Islamic State leader wounded". Reuters. 10 June 2016.
  150. ^ "U.S. can't confirm reports Islamic State leader killed". USA Today. 14 June 2016.
  151. ^ "Islamic State leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi 'killed in Syria air strike'". The Australian. 14 June 2016.
  152. ^ "Isis: Fake propaganda statement prompts false reports of leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi's 'death in US air strikes'". The Independent. 14 June 2016. Archived from the original on 15 June 2016.
  153. ^ "Report: Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi and three other IS commanders poisoned by assassin". News.com. 3 October 2016.
  154. ^ "ISIS leader Baghdadi arrested in Syria – DESI – Iraq News – Local News – Baghdadpost". www.thebaghdadpost.com. 18 April 2017. Archived from the original on 21 December 2019. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  155. ^ "(Italiano) Esclusiva (DESI): "il Califfo dell'ISIS "Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi" arrestato dai Russi in Siria"". 18 April 2017. Retrieved 18 June 2017.
  156. ^ Gupta, Manas Sen (18 April 2017). "A European Security Agency Claims Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi May Have Been Arrested By Russians". Archived from the original on 23 June 2017. Retrieved 18 June 2017.
  157. ^ "Russia denies knowledge of arrest of ISIS leader Baghdadi".
  158. ^ "Syrian media claim ISIS leader killed in artillery strike". 11 June 2017. Retrieved 18 June 2017.
  159. ^ "Russia Says It May Have Killed IS Leader Al-Baghdadi In Air Strike". Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty. 16 June 2017. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  160. ^ Isachenkov, Vladimir (16 June 2017). "Russia claims it has killed IS leader al-Baghdadi". ABC News. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  161. ^ "Russia claims to have killed ISIS leader". CBC.
  162. ^ "White casts doubt on Russia's claim it killed ISIS leader". Politico. 16 June 2017. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  163. ^ Ensor, Josie (16 June 2017). "Russia 'may have killed ISIS leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi' in airstrike near Raqqa". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
  164. ^ "Baghdadi death near 100 percent certain: Interfax quotes Russian senator". Reuters. 23 June 2017.
  165. ^ "Iran Confirms Death of ISIS Leader al-Baghdadi". Iran Front Page. 29 June 2017.
  166. ^ Hafezi, Parisa (29 June 2017). "Khamenei's representative says Islamic state's Baghdadi 'definitely dead': IRNA". Reuters. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
  167. ^ "IS confirms death of top leader al-Baghdadi". Xinhua News Agency. Archived from the original on 22 July 2017.
  168. ^ "Abu Bakr Al-Baghdadi: Isis leader killed, says Syrian Observatory for Human Rights". The Independent. Archived from the original on 11 July 2017.
  169. ^ "ISIS leader al-Baghdadi reported dead, though Pentagon can't confirm". Fox News.
  170. ^ "Exclusive: Islamic State leader Baghdadi almost certainly alive – Kurdish security official". Reuters. 17 July 2017. Retrieved 17 July 2017.
  171. ^ Chulov, Martin (15 January 2018). "'We will get him': the long hunt for Isis leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
  172. ^ "Drone soldier missed killing notorious ISIS chief by mere minutes". New York Post. 29 June 2017. Retrieved 1 September 2018.
  173. ^ "Author describes how US missed chance to get ISIS leader Baghdadi". Fox News. 28 June 2017. Retrieved 1 September 2018.
  174. ^ ""Drone Warrior" Brett Velicovich on the "incredible responsibility" of hunting terrorists". Retrieved 1 September 2018.
  175. ^ "US soldier reportedly tried to help ISIS get consumer drone". Fox News. 11 July 2017. Retrieved 1 September 2018.
  176. ^ Rabil, Robert G. (1 September 2018). "ISIS Isn't Dead Yet". The National Interest. Retrieved 20 October 2018.
  177. ^ Burgess, Sanya (30 April 2019). "Abu Bakr al Baghdadi: Video emerges of 'Islamic State leader alive'". Sky News. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
  178. ^ "Al-Baghdadi Killed in Idlib, a Hotbed of Terror Groups, Foreign Fighters". VOA News. 27 October 2019.
  179. ^ "House Dems angered that Trump told Russia, Turkey of al-Baghdadi raid, but not Pelosi". Fox News. 27 October 2019.
  180. ^ Schmitt, Eric; Cooper, Helene; Barnes, Julian E. (27 October 2019). "Trump's Syria Troop Withdrawal Complicated Plans for al-Baghdadi Raid". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 22 November 2022.
  181. ^ "IS leader killed by US forces in Syria, Trump says". BBC News. 27 October 2019.
  182. ^ a b c d Perraudin, Frances (27 October 2019). "Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi killed in US raid, Trump confirms". The Guardian.
  183. ^ "Pentagon releases first images from raid that killed ISIS leader". CNN News. 30 October 2019.
  184. ^ Luis Martinez (4 February 2020). "U.S. Special operations forces raid a compound that resulted in the death of Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi". abcnews.go.com. Retrieved 6 July 2021.
  185. ^ James Laporta (10 October 2019). "Classified Name Revealed of Special Ops Hero Dog Wounded in Syria Raid that Killed ISIS Leader Baghdadi". newsweek.com. Retrieved 6 July 2021.
  186. ^ Jackson, David; Subramanian, Courtney; Collins, Michael (27 October 2019). "President Trump says ISIS leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi is dead after U.S.-led raid in Syria". USA Today. Mclean, Virginia: Gannett Company.
  187. ^ Minick, Benjamin (27 October 2019). "Isis Leader Al Baghdadi Dead After US Special Forces Raid Hideout In Syria: Sources". International Business Times. New York City: IBT Media.
  188. ^ "Trump says Islamic State leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi blew himself up as U.S. troops closed in". The Washington Post. 27 October 2019.
  189. ^ "Trump confirms ISIS leader Baghdadi is dead after US raid in Syria — 'He died like a coward'". CNBC. 27 October 2019.
  190. ^ Safi, Michael (28 October 2019). Doubts over Donald Trump's dramatic account of Baghdadi raid. The Guardian. Retrieved: 31 October 2019.
  191. ^ Boot, Max (28 October 2019). Baghdadi's death could have been Trump's finest hour. He messed it up anyway. The Washington Post. Retrieved: 31 October 2019.
  192. ^ "Turkish-U.S. military forces exchanged information ahead of U.S. operation in Syria". reuters.com. 27 October 2019. Archived from the original on 27 October 2019.
  193. ^ "Prior to the US Operation in Idlib Province of Syria last night, information exchange and coordination between the military authorities of both countries took place". 27 October 2019 – via Official Twitter Account of the Republic of Turkey Ministry of National Defence.
  194. ^ "Factbox: World reacts to announcement of Islamic State leader Baghdadi's death". www.reuters.com. 27 October 2019.
  195. ^ "Trump says U.S. may release parts of Baghdadi raid video". Reuters. Reuters. 28 October 2019.
  196. ^ Withnall, Adam (16 June 2017). "Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi dead: Russia says it may have killed Isis leader in Raqqa air strike". Independent News. Independent News. Archived from the original on 19 June 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  197. ^ "Russia Killed ISIS Leader Baghdadi? Kremlin Says It Still Isn't Sure". Newsweek. 17 July 2017. Retrieved 28 October 2019.
  198. ^ "See stunning first images from al-Baghdadi raid" – via edition.cnn.com.
  199. ^ "Pentagon reveals video of al Baghdadi Raid". MSNBC.com.
  200. ^ "Baghdadi's body disposed of at sea by US military: Pentagon source". Gulf News.
  201. ^ "Baghdadi given burial at sea, afforded religious rites: U.S. officials". Reuters. 28 October 2019.
  202. ^ "Al-Baghdadi given burial at sea, afforded religious rites". The Jerusalem Post.
  203. ^ "US says it took two prisoners during al-Baghdadi raid". Al Jazeera.
  204. ^ Gonzales, Richard (30 October 2019). "Head Of U.S. Central Command Says ISIS Leader Baghdadi Buried At Sea". NPR. Retrieved 30 October 2019.
  205. ^ "Islamic State confirms Baghdadi is dead, appoints successor". Reuters. 31 October 2019. Retrieved 31 October 2019.
  206. ^ "Al-Baghdadi nominates Iraqi Abdullah Qardash as his successor to lead Daesh". The Middle East Monitor. 9 August 2019. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
  207. ^ Siegel, Jordan (22 August 2019). "Ailing Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi puts 'Professor' Abdullah Qardash in charge of Isis". The Times. Times Newspapers Limited. ISSN 0140-0460. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  208. ^ a b "With Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi gone, what next for ISIL?". Al Jazeera English. 29 October 2019. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
  209. ^ Katz, Rita (17 September 2019). "2)Notice key differences between the fake 'Amaq templates (2), and the real template (1) below - letters in the fakes are thinner, the font on the date is different, and most importantly, these messages were never seen on official 'Amaq or ISIS channels.pic.twitter.com/Nt5nOhpf9l".
  210. ^ AFP (28 October 2019). "With Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi gone, who is heir to the 'caliph'?". The Economic Times. Archived from the original on 13 November 2019. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
  211. ^ Sly, Liz (27 October 2019). "Baghdadi's death a turning point for Islamic State". The Washington Post. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
  212. ^ "Trump says al-Baghdadi's 'number one replacement' is dead". Al Jazeera. Al Jazeera Media Network. 29 October 2019. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
  213. ^ "Trump says likely Baghdadi successor killed by U.S. troops". Reuters. 29 October 2019. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
  214. ^ "ISIS spokesman Al-Muhajir killed in U.S. airstrike in Syria". BNO News. 27 October 2019. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  215. ^ "Islamic State names its new leader". BBC. 31 October 2019. Retrieved 31 October 2019.
  216. ^ a b Bassam, Laila; Westall, Sylvia (2 December 2014). "Lebanon detains wife of Islamic State leader". Reuters. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
  217. ^ "ISIS Leader Is My Ex-Husband, Woman Says, but Doubts Remain". The New York Times. 1 April 2019.
  218. ^ "The ISIS Leader's Wife May Not Have Been Arrested After All". Time. 4 December 2014. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
  219. ^ a b c McKay, Hollie (7 February 2016). "Exclusive photo shows ISIS leader's sister-in-law held in Kurdish prison". Fox News. New York City: News Corp.
  220. ^ Ensor, Josie (27 October 2019). "Isil leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi reportedly killed in US forces raid". Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group Limited. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  221. ^ Mansoor, Sanya (27 October 2019). "'He Died Like a Dog': President Trump Announces ISIS Leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi Dies in U.S. Military Raid". Time. New York City: Meredith Corporation.
  222. ^ "President Erdogan says Turkey captured al-Baghdadi's wife". Al Jazeera. 7 November 2019. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  223. ^ "Baghdadi's wife revealed IS group secrets after capture". Channel News Asia. 7 November 2019.
  224. ^ Varghese, Johnlee (13 April 2015). "Has Isis Leader Abu Bakr al Baghdadi Married a German Teen?". International Business Times. Jerusalem: IBT Media. Retrieved 19 September 2016.
  225. ^ Groisman, Maayan (29 February 2016). "ISIS leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi's teen wife 'flees terror group' as Islamist fiend sends troops to re-capture her". The Jerusalem Post. Jerusalem. Retrieved 19 September 2016.
  226. ^ Miskin, Shoshana (29 February 2016). "Report: German wife of ISIS leader escapes". Israel National News. Jerusalem: Arutz Shiva. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
  227. ^ a b c d Mullen, Jethro (3 December 2014). "Mystery surrounds arrest of woman who may be ISIS leader's wife". CNN. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  228. ^ a b Windrem, Robert (3 December 2014). "ISIS Head Baghdadi and Wife Fell in Love On-Line, Say Sources". NBC News. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
  229. ^ a b Varghese, Johnlee (27 July 2014). "Images of ISIS Leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi's Wife, Sons Leaked". International Business Times. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  230. ^ "Photos surface of ISIS leader Baghdadi's wife". Al Arabiya. 17 July 2014. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
  231. ^ "Iraq says woman detained in Lebanon is not Baghdadi wife". Brantford Expositor. Reuters. 3 December 2014. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  232. ^ a b c d e "Lebanon 'holding IS leader's daughter and ex-wife'". BBC News. 4 December 2014. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  233. ^ "Officials: ISIS leader's wife, son detained in Lebanon". Al Jazeera. 2 December 2014. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
  234. ^ "Al-Qaeda in Iraq leaders 'killed'". Al Jazeera.
  235. ^ Jerrid Dawes. "Iraqi Security Forces kill top 2 AQI leaders – United States Forces – Iraq". usf-iraq.com. Archived from the original on 2 November 2011.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  236. ^ "Lebanon says detained woman was Baghdadi wife for three months". Reuters. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  237. ^ Hashem, Ali (3 December 2014). "IS leader's 'captured wife' may not be who she says she is". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
  238. ^ "Lebanon formally arrests ISIS chief's ex-wife Dulaimi". The Daily Star. Lebanon. 10 December 2014. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
  239. ^ "ISIS chief's ex-wife released in Lebanon-al Nusra prisoner swap". 1 December 2015. Retrieved 21 May 2016.
  240. ^ a b "Ex-wife of ISIS leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi: I want a new life in Europe". 1 April 2016. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  241. ^ "As 'caliphate' ends where is its leader Baghdadi?". 23 March 2019. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  242. ^ "Turkey 'captures sister of killed ISIS leader' Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi". itv.com. 4 November 2019.
  243. ^ "Turkey captures sister of dead IS leader in Syria: Turkish officials". Reuters. 4 November 2019.
  244. ^ "Turkey says it captured slain ISIS leader's sister in Syria". Stripes. 4 November 2019. Archived from the original on 6 November 2019. Retrieved 6 November 2019.
  245. ^ a b c Hashem, Ali (23 March 2015). "The many names of Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi". Al-Monitor.
  246. ^ Moore, Jack (6 November 2019). "Abu Bakr Al Baghdadi's brother travelled in and out of Istanbul as his courier for months". The National.
  247. ^ Chulov, Martin (29 October 2019). "Nowhere left to run: how the US finally caught up with Isis leader Baghdadi". The Guardian.
  248. ^ "The ex-wife: My escape from the highest leader of ISIS". 31 March 2016. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  249. ^ Thomas Joscelyn (3 July 2018). "Baghdadi's son killed fighting Syrian and Russian forces, Islamic State says". Long War Journal. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
  250. ^ "Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi: IS leader 'dead after US raid' in Syria". BBC. 28 October 2019.
  251. ^ "Pentagon releases photos, video of raid on ISIS leader Baghdadi". Stripes.com. 30 October 2019.
  252. ^ Sidhu, Sandi; Griffiths, James (26 April 2019). Ripley, Will; Shelley, Jo; Formanek, Ingrid; Watson, Ivan; Wright, Rebecca; Athas, Iqbal (eds.). "Sri Lanka bombing suspects may still be on the run, police warn". Cable News Network. Turner Broadcasting System, Inc. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
  253. ^ "Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi's nephew killed in airstrike east of Ramadi". 3 February 2016.
  254. ^ "Syrian Kurds say spy stole Baghdadi's underpants for DNA test". The Guardian. 28 October 2019.


  • Hosken, Andrew (2015). Empire of Fear: Inside the Islamic State. Oneworld Publications. ISBN 978-1-78074-933-4.

External links

Political offices
Preceded by Emir of the Islamic State of Iraq
Succeeded by
as Caliph of the Islamic State
Regnal titles
Preceded by
as Emir of the Islamic State of Iraq
Caliph of the Islamic State
Succeeded by