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The four main salat postures and associated prayers and recitations.

Salah ("prayer, worship", from Arabicصلاة‎; pl. ‏صلواتṣalawāt), also called salat and namaz (from Persian: نَماز‎), is one of the Five Pillars in the faith of Islam and an obligatory religious duty for every Muslim. It is a physical, mental, and spiritual act of worship that is observed five times every day at prescribed times. When they do this, they must face Mecca. In this ritual, the worshiper starts standing, bows, prostrates himself, and concludes while sitting on the ground.[1] During each posture, the worshiper recites or reads certain verses, phrases and prayers.

The word "salah" is commonly translated as "prayer." Given how that word is generally used in English this can be misleading, as the word "prayer" is also used to translate a different word, "dua", a reverent petition made to God. Salah may be better translated as "divine worship," as it is primarily worship rather than petition.

Salah is preceded by ritual ablution. Salah consists of the repetition of a unit called a rakʿah (pl. rakaʿāt) consisting of prescribed actions and words. The number of obligatory (fard) rakaʿāt varies from two to four according to the time of day or other circumstances (such as Friday congregational worship, which has two rakats). Prayer is obligatory for all Muslims except those who are prepubescent, is menstruating, or are experiencing bleeding in the 40 days after childbirth.[2]

Contents

TerminologyEdit

Salah (ṣalāh [sˤɑˈlɑː] صلاة) in Arabic means to pray or bless.[3] In its English usage, the reference of the word is almost always confined to the formal, obligatory prayers described in this article. Translating salah as "communication" is not usually considered precise enough, as "communication" can indicate several different ways of relating to God. Personal communication or supplication is called duʿāʾ (Arabic: دُعَاء, literally "invocation") in Islamic usage.[citation needed]

Muslims themselves use several terms to refer to salah depending on their language or culture. In many parts of the world, including many non-Arab countries, the Arabic term salat or salah is used. The other major term is the Persian word namāz (نماز), used by speakers of the Indo-Iranian languages (e.g., Persian, Kurdish, Urdu, Sylheti, Balochi, Bengali, Hindi), as well as Turkish, Russian, Chinese, Bosnian and Albanian. In North Caucasian languages, the term is lamaz (ламаз) in Chechen, chak (чак) in Lak and kak in Avar (как). In Malaysia, the term solat is used, as well as a local term sembahyang (means: communication, literally from the word sembah – worship and hyang – god or deity) is used too. Indonesia uses the term shalat.[citation needed]

Salah in the QuranEdit

The word of Salat is used about 90 times, as well as some words connected to salat such as mosque, Wudu, Dhikr, etc., are used 900 times.[4][better source needed] In other words, approximately one-sixth of Quranic verses belong to salat.[4]This includes "Surely my prayer and my sacrifice and my life and my death are (all) for Allah"[a], "I am Allah, there is no god but I, therefore serve Me and keep up prayer for My remembrance"[b].

At least four forms of salat are introduced in the Quran, first, in order to glorify God's servants, God, and the angels practice the salat [c]; Secondly salah is acted by all beings in the heavens and the earth to the expression of universal Islam [d]; every voluntary Muslim performs it to reveals that it is the particular forms of worship belonged to all the prophets [e];Lastly salat is described as the second pillar of Islam and a little defined what components includes.[3]

Purpose and importanceEdit

 
Bosniaks praying in an open field, ca. 1906

The main purpose of salah is to act as a person's communication with God. All beings are not able to see him but Salat provides a situation to ask and thank him because of blessings.[5]

ConditionsEdit

 
Yemeni prayer during North Yemen Civil War

Conditions for salah are classified in two main categories, conditions that make salah invalid and some that make salah acceptable.[6] If worshiper ignores following conditions, his salah is invalid [6]:

  • Facing the qibla, with the chest facing the direction of the Kaaba. The ill and the old are allowed leniency with posture.
  • having the Ritual purity (wudu, tayammum, ghusl)
  • being sane and able to distinguish between right and wrong [7]
  • salah is invalid if performed in the pathway of people (if it will obstruct the people's way), in a graveyard or disrespectable places, on land which has been taken by force
  • Covering the awrah[8]
  • Laughing and Speaking, any extra and unnecessary movements during the salah
  • Breaking wind
  • Burping loudly in such a way that it disturbs other worshippers

The condition for salah to be accepted: [6]

  • cleanness from impurity and dirt, Women are not allowed to pray during their menses and for a period after childbirth[9]
  • covering of the whole body
  • To pray within the time determined for each salah [10]

ComponentsEdit

Each salah is made up of repeating units or cycles called rakats. The number of rakats for the five daily occasions of obligatory worship can be found below. One form of performing a rakah is given below: on minor details, there are different views in different schools of thought, but the major elements are universally agreed upon.[citation needed]

(People who find it physically difficult can perform Salah in a way suitable for them.)[note 1][citation needed]

IntentionEdit

While most of the obligations of the prayer are visible and outward, the inward intention to perform the prayer is also a requirement. A Muslim must be mindful the particular salah, among all of the different types, that is being offered, whether it is obligatory, catch-up for prayers missed in their appointed time (qadha), performed individually or in the congregation, shortened worship by a traveler, etc. The explicit verbalization of this intention is not required.[citation needed]

StandingEdit

 
A Muslim raises his hands to recite Takbeeratul-Ihram in prayer
 
Men standing in prayer in Tulehu, Indonesia.
  • If this is the first rakah then prayer is commenced by the saying of the takbīr, which is اَللهُ أَكْبَرْ (transliteration "allāhu 'akbar", meaning "Allah is greater/greatest"). The hands are raised to the shoulders with palms facing the front, i.e., Qibla. This is done before, with or after saying the takbir. Both arms are placed on either the chest or above the navel.[11]
  • If this is the first rakat, a supplication praising Allah is said such as[citation needed]

سُبْحَاْنَكَ اَلْلّٰھُمَّ وَبِحَمدِكَ وَتَبَارَكَ اسْمُكَ وَتَعَالٰی جَدُّكَ وَلَا اِلٰه غَیْرِكَ
meaning [Glorified be you, all praise is yours, perfect is your name, most high is your majesty and greatness. None has the right to be worshipped but you, the only one God.][citation needed]

Subḥānaka llāhumma, wa-bi-ḥamdika, wa-tabāraka smuka, wa-taʿālā jadduka, wa-lā ʾlāha ġayruk.[11]

  • The recitation of the Quran begins by asking refuge with God from the accursed devil by reciting[citation needed]

أَعُوْذُ بِاللهِ مِنَ الشَّـيْطٰنِ الرَّجِيْمِ

aʿūḏu bi-llāhi mina š-šayṭāni r-rajīm.[11]

  • Surah Al-Fatiha is recited.[citation needed]
  • For the first or second rakat only, the recitation of Al-Fatiha is followed with a recitation from any other surah from the Quran of choice.[11] The customary practice is reciting the ayahs in the order found in the Qur'an.[citation needed]
  • The takbīr is repeated and the hands are raised as previously described and the next position, bowing or ruku', begins.[11]

Bowing ( Ruku' )Edit

 
Bowing in prayer.
  • The palms are placed on the knees. Ideally, fingers are spaced out.[citation needed]
  • Some of many types of remembrances of God are recited for this situation such as سبحان ربي العظيم (transliteration subḥāna rabbī l-ʿaẓīm, meaning "Glorified be Allah, the Tremendous") three times or more.[11]

Second standingEdit

  • I'tidal is the standing again after ruku'. The back is straightened, and the hands are raised as in takbir as mentioned before (not raised in Hanafi and Maliki schools) while saying سمع الله لمن حمده (transliteration samiʿa allāhu li-man ḥamidahu, meaning "God listens and responds to the one who praises him.")[11]
  • Some of many praises to God are said for this situation such as ربنا لك الحمد (transliteration rabbanā laka al-ḥamd, meaning "O Lord, all praise is for you.")[11]
  • The takbīr is said and the hands can be raised as mentioned before as the next position (not raised in Hanafi and Maliki schools).[11]

ProstrationEdit

 
Muslims in prostration in Syria.

Each rakah contains two prostrations.[11] During the prostration:

  • The forehead (and nose) are placed on the ground along with the knees, palms and toes.[11]
  • Some of many types of remembrances of God are recited for this situation such as سبحان ربى الأعلى وبحمده (transliteration subḥāna rabbī al-'aʿlā wa-bi-ḥamdihi meaning "Glorified be my God, the highest.") three times or more.[11]
  • The takbīr is repeated and the hands can be raised as mentioned before (not raised in Hanafi and Maliki schools) while the next position, kneeling, begins.[11]

SittingEdit

 
Men sit and pray in Kosovo
  • The person performing the prayer sits between the two prostrations.[citation needed]

Second prostrationEdit

  • Second prostrations are done exactly like the first time.[citation needed]
  • The head is raised and the takbir is repeated, and the hands can be raised as mentioned before (not raised in Hanafi and Maliki schools). For every second and last rakat, only you would go to the sitting position again. Otherwise, the standing position begins again for the start of a new rakat.[citation needed]

Second sittingEdit

  • If this is the second raka'ah, sitting is done as before. If this is not part of the second raka'ah, then the left thigh is leaned against the ground, and both feet are protruding from the right side with the right foot either upright or along the ground. The left palm leans on the left knee.[citation needed]
  • The right index finger is pointed towards the qibla.[11]
  • The Tashahhud is recited.[citation needed]
  • Greetings on Muhammad, called the aṣ-ṣalātu ʿalā n-nabī are recited.[citation needed]
  • If this is not the last raka'ah, a new raka'ah begins by standing up again with the takbir and the hands can be raised as mentioned before.[11]

TaslimEdit

  • If this is the last raka'ah, the greetings of taslim are said to the right such as السلام عليڪم ورحمة الله (transliteration "as-salāmu ʿalaykum wa raḥmatu llāh," meaning "Peace and God's mercy be upon you") and then similarly to the left.[11]

The taslim brings the salah to an end.[citation needed]

Performing the Taslim    
Reciting the salam facing the right direction Reciting the salam facing the left direction

Takbir (saying Allah akbar, God is greater)Edit

Every movement from one position to another is accompanied by the takbir except the standing between the ruku and sujud, and the ending which has a derivation of the Muslim greeting As-salamu alaykum.[12]

Differences in practiceEdit

 
A turbah (Arabic: تربة ; Persian: مهر mohr) is a small piece of soil or clay, often a clay tablet, used during salat to symbolize earth. The use of a turbah is compulsory in most Shi'a schools of Islam.[citation needed]

Muslims believe that Muhammad practiced, taught, and disseminated the worship ritual in the whole community of Muslims and made it part of their life. The practice has, therefore, been concurrently and perpetually practiced by the community in each of the generations. The authority for the basic forms of the salah is neither the hadiths nor the Qur'an, but rather the consensus of Muslims.[13]

This is not inconsistent with another fact that Muslims have shown diversity in their practice since the earliest days so the salah practiced by one Muslim may differ from another's in minor details. In some cases the Hadith suggest some of this diversity of practice was known of and approved by the Prophet himself.[citation needed]

 
A Sunni Muslim (Left) beside a Shia Muslim (right) during 16 March 2018 Tehran Friday prayer, Iran. Shia Muslims offering Salat with both open hands.

Most differences arise because of different interpretations of the Islamic legal sources by the different schools of law (madhhabs) in Sunni Islam, and by different legal traditions within Shia Islam. In the case of ritual worship these differences are generally minor, and should rarely cause dispute.[14]

Differences also occur due to optional articles of prayer procedure (for example, which verses of the Quran to recite).[citation needed]

Specific differencesEdit

Common differences, which may vary between schools and gender, include:[citation needed]

  • Position of legs and feet.
  • Position of hands, including fingers
  • Place where eyes should focus
  • The minimum amount of recitation
  • Loudness of recitation: audible, or moving of lips, or just listening

While there is universal agreement on the principal elements of the prayer, there are differences of opinion on which of those elements are indispensable, versus those which are highly recommended or optional.[15][16][17][18][19][20]

Shia Muslims, after the end of the prayer, raise their hands three times, reciting Allahu akbar whereas Sunnis look at the left and right shoulder saying taslim. Also, Shias in the second Rakat often read "Qunoot," which for Sunnis is usually done after salah.[citation needed]

Ahmadi Muslims have the same Salah practices as those belonging to the Hanafi madhab.[citation needed]

A 2015 Pew Research Center study found that women are two percent more likely than men to pray on a daily basis.[21]

Types of prayersEdit

Prayers in Islam are classified into categories based on degrees of obligation. One common classification is fard, wajib, sunnah, and nafl.[22]

The Five Daily PrayersEdit

 
Display showing prayer times in a Turkish mosque.

Muslims are commanded to perform prayers five times a day.[23] These prayers are obligatory on every Muslim who has reached the age of puberty, with the exception being those who are mentally ill, too physically ill for it to be possible, menstruating, or experiencing postnatal bleeding.[citation needed] Those who are sick or otherwise physically unable to offer their prayers in the traditional form are permitted to offer their prayers while sitting or lying, as they are able.[citation needed]

Times of prayersEdit

The five prayers are each assigned to certain prescribed times (al waqt) at which they must be performed, unless there is a compelling reason for not being able to perform them on time.[citation needed]

The times are measured according to the movement of the sun. They are: between dawn and sunrise (fajr), after the sun has passed its zenith (zuhr), when afternoon shadows lengthen (asr), just after sunset (maghrib) and around nightfall (isha). Under some circumstances, ritual worship can be shortened or combined (according to prescribed procedures). If a given salah is not performed at the right time, it must be performed later.[citation needed]

Voluntary prayersEdit

Some Muslims offer voluntary prayers immediately before and after the five prescribed prayers. Sunni Muslims classify these prayers as sunnah, while Shi'ah considers them nafil. One schema of the number of rakats for each of the five obligatory prayers as well as the voluntary prayers (before and after) are listed below - once again there are minor differences between schools.[citation needed]

Name Prescribed time period (waqt) Voluntary before fard[t 1] Obligatory Voluntary after fard[t 1]
Sunni Shi'a Sunni Shi'a
Fajr
(فجر)
Dawn to sunrise, should be read at least 10–15 minutes before sunrise 2 Rakats Sunnat-Mu'akkadah[t 1] 2 Rakats[t 1] 2 Rakats[t 1] 2 Rakats[t 1]
Zuhr
(ظهر)
After true noon until Asr 4 Rakats Sunnat-Mu'akkadah[t 2] 4 Rakats 4 Rakats[t 3] 2 Rakats Sunnat-Mu'akkadah[t 2] 8 Rakats[t 1][t 4][t 5]
Asr
(عصر)
Afternoon[t 6][t 7] 4 Rakats Sunnat-Ghair-Mu'akkdah 4 Rakats 4 Rakats - 8 Rakats[t 1][t 4][t 5]
Maghrib
(مغرب)
After sunset until dusk - 3 Rakats 3 Rakats 2 Rakats Sunnat-Mu'akkadah[t 2] 2 Rakats[t 1][t 4][t 5]
Isha (عشاء)[t 8] Dusk until dawn[t 7] 4 Rakats Sunnat-Ghair-Mu'akkadah 4 Rakats 4 Rakats 2 Rakats Sunnat-Mu'akkadah,[t 2]
3 Rakats Witr
2 Rakats[t 1][t 4][t 5]

Many Sunni Muslims also perform two rakats nafl (voluntary) after the Zuhr and Maghrib prayers. During the Isha prayer, they perform the two rakats nafl after the two Sunnat-Mu'akkadah and after the witr prayer.[citation needed]

Table notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j According to Shia Muslims, these are to be performed in sets of two rakats each. This is not the case for Sunni Muslims.
  2. ^ a b c d According to Sunni Muslims, there is a difference between Sunnat-Mu'akkadah (obligatory) and Sunnat-Ghair-Mu'akkadah (voluntary). Unlike for the Sunnat-Ghair-Mu'akkadah, the Sunnat-Mu'akkadah was prayed by Muhammed daily.
  3. ^ Replaced by Jumu'ah on Fridays, which consists of two rakats.
  4. ^ a b c d Mustahab (praiseworthy) to do everyday. (Shias)
  5. ^ a b c d According to Shia Muslims, this prayer is termed nawafil.
  6. ^ According to Imam Abu Hanifa, "Asr starts when the shadow of an object becomes twice its height (plus the length of its shadow at the start time of Zuhr)." For the rest of Imams, "Asr starts when the shadow of an object becomes equal to its length (plus the length of its shadow at the start time of Zuhr)." Asr ends as the sun begins to set.
  7. ^ a b According to Shia Muslims, Asr prayer and Isha prayer have no set times but are performed from mid-day. Zuhr and Asr prayers must be performed before sunset, and the time for Asr prayer starts after Zuhr has been performed. Maghrib and Isha prayers must be performed before midnight, and the time for Isha prayer can start after Maghrib has been performed, as long as no more light remains in the western sky signifying the arrival of the true night.
  8. ^ Further information on the usage of the word "Isha" (evening) see Quran 12:16, Quran 79:46

Fard SalahEdit

 
I. Fajr, II. Zuhr, III. Asr, IV. Maghrib, V. Ishai

The Fard Salah is all of the compulsory Muslim prayers – the five daily prayers, as well as the Friday prayer (Salat al-Jumu'ah) and the Eid prayers (Eid prayers). Non-performance of any of these prayers renders one a non-Muslim according to the stricter Hanbali madhhab of Sunni Islam, while the other Sunni madhhabs consider doing so a major sin. However, all four madhhabs agree by consensus that denial of the compulsory status of these prayers invalidates the faith of those who do so, rendering them non-Muslim. Fard prayers (as with all fard actions) are further classed as fard al-ayn (obligation of the self) and fard al-kifayah (obligation of sufficiency). Fard al-Ayn are actions considered obligatory on individuals, for which the individual will be held to account if the actions are neglected. Fard al-Kifayah are actions considered obligatory on the Muslim community at large, so that if some people within the community carry it out no Muslim is considered blameworthy, but if no one carries it out, all incur a collective punishment.[citation needed]

Men are required to perform the fard salat in congregation (jama'ah), behind an imam when they are able. According to most Islamic scholars, performing prayers in congregation is mustahabb (recommended) for men,[32] when they are able, but is neither required nor forbidden for women.[citation needed]

Jumu'ahEdit

Salat al-Jumu'ah is a congregational prayer on Friday, which replaces the Zuhr prayer. It is compulsory upon men to perform it in the congregation, while women may perform it so or may perform Zuhr salat instead. Salat al-Jumu'ah consists of a sermon (khutba) given by the speaker (khatib) after which two rakats are performed. There is no Salat al-Jumu'ah without a khutba. Khutba supposed to be carefully listened as it replaces Sawaab of 2 Rakats.[citation needed]

Name Prescribed time period (waqt) Voluntary before fard Obligatory Voluntary after fard
Sunni Shi'a Sunni Shi'a
Jumu'ah
(جمعة)
After true noon until Asr 4 Rakats Sunnat-e-Mu'akkadah 2 Rakats Sunnat/ Mustahab 2 Rakats Furz 4 Rakats Sunnat Mu'akkadah

2 Rakats Sunnat Mu'akkadah 2 Rakats Nafil

2 Rakats Sunnat Mu'akkadah

Wajib salatEdit

Wajib As-salat are compulsory, non-performance of which renders one a sinner. However, the evidence of the obligation is open to interpretation, with some of the madhab saying it is obligatory while others are saying it is optional. To deny that a fard salah is obligatory is an act of disbelief while denying the obligation of a wajib salat is not disbelief. Some believe that as the five prayers are obligatory, it automatically renders all other prayers optional.[citation needed]

Sunnah salahEdit

 
Though not a mandatory part of the course, most Muslims supplicate after completing salah.

Sun'nah sal'ah are optional and were additional voluntary prayers performed by Muhammad—they are of two types[citation needed]—the Sunnah Mu'akkaddah, those practiced on a regular basis, which if abandoned cause the abandoner to be regarded as sinful by the Hanafi School and the Sunnah Ghair Mu'akkaddah, those practiced on a semi-regular practice by Muhammad about which all are agreed that their abandonment doesn't render one sinful.[citation needed]

Certain sunnah prayers have prescribed waqts associated with them. Those ordained for before each of the fard prayers must be performed between the first call to prayer (adhan) and the second call (iqama), which signifies the start of the fard prayer.[33] Those sunnah ordained for after the fard prayers can be performed any time between the end of the fard prayers and the end of the current prayer's waqt.[33] Any amount of extra rakats may be offered, but most madha'ib prescribe a certain number of rakats for each sunnah salah.[citation needed]

Nafl salahEdit

Nafl salah (supererogatory prayers) are voluntary, and one may offer as many as he or she likes almost any time.[34] There are many specific conditions or situations when one may wish to offer nafl prayers. They cannot be offered at sunrise, true noon, or sunset.[citation needed] The prohibition against salah at these times is to prevent the practice of sun worship.[citation needed]

Salat-al-WitrEdit

Witr is performed after the salah of Isha (dusk). Some Muslims consider witr wajib while others consider it optional. It may contain an odd number of rakats from one to eleven according to the different schools of jurisprudence. However, Witr is most commonly offered with three rakats.[citation needed]

To end prayers for the night after Isha, the odd numbered rakats must have the niyyah of "wajib-ul-Lail," which is mandatory to "close" one's salah for that day.[citation needed]

Shi'ahs offer this as a one rakat salah at the end of salatul layl (the night prayer), which is an optional prayer according to some shi'ah scholars, and a wajib (obligatory) prayer according to others. This is to be prayed any time after Isha, up until fajr. The best time to pray it is the last third of the night (the night being divided into three, between maghrib and fajr of that night). It is considered highly meritorious by all shi'ah Muslims, and is said to bring numerous benefits to the believer, mainly gaining proximity to Allah. There are various methods of salatul-layl's performance, including shorter and longer versions, in the longer version the believer must perform 8 nawafil salah, in sets of 2 rakats each, then they must pray a 2 rakats salah called 'salatul shafa'ah' this is to include surah nas after surah fatihah in the first rakat and surah falaq after surah fatihah in the second rakat, and unusually no qunut (a du'ah recited before going into ruku' of the second rakat of most prayers performed by shi'ahs) It is after this that the believer performs salatul witr, it's long method being - Starting with takbiratul ehram, then surah fatihah, then surah ikhlas, then surah falaq, then surah nas, then the hands are raised to recite qunut, upon which the believer can recite any du'a, however there are many recommended du'as for this purpose. Within qunut, the believer must pray for the forgiveness of 40 believers, then further prayers are read where the believer asks for forgiveness for himself a certain number of times using specified phrases and amounts of time to repeat those phrases. The believer then completes the salah in the usual way, by completing his qunut, reciting takbir whilst rasing his hands, going into ruku' and reciting the usual phrase for that, then returning up right and reciting takbir whilst doing so and upon being upright recites 'sami allahu liman hamida' (verily Allah has heard the one who has praised him) thereupon the believer recites takbir whilst raising his hands and goes into sajda. He recites the proscribed phrase in sajda rises, recites takbir whilst rising and then again whilst returning to sajdah, then rises with takbir again and recites tashahud and salam, thus ending this prayer. It is then optional to recite certain other du'as and dhikr (remembrance of Allah through certain phrases and some of his names being repeated) It is then recommended to perform sajdah ash-shukr (prostration of thanks) and to then recite ayatul kursi (verse of the throne) and then perform another sajdah ash-shukr.[citation needed]

EidEdit

 
Women praying in Najaf, Iraq in Eid ul-Fitr

Eid salah is performed on the morning of Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha. The Eid prayer is most likely an individual obligation (fard al-ayn) and Niyyah for both Eid salah is made as Wajib, though some Islamic scholars argue it is only a collective of the obligation(fard al-kifayah).[35] It consists of two rakats, with seven (or three for the followers Imam Hanafi) takbirs offered before the start of the first rakat and five (or three for the followers of Imam Hanafi) before the second. After the salah is completed, a sermon (khutbah) is offered. However, the khutbah is not an integral part of the Eid salah.[36] The Eid salah must be offered between sunrise and true noon i.e. between the time periods for Fajr and Zuhr.[citation needed]

IstikhaarahEdit

Salat al-Istikhaarah is a prayer performed when a Muslim needs guidance on a particular matter, such as whether they should marry a certain person. To perform this salah one should pray a normal two rakats salah to completion. After completion one should say a du'a called the Istikhaarah du'a. The intention for the salah should be in one's heart to pray two rakats of salah followed by Istikhaarah. The salah can be performed at any of the times where salah is not forbidden.[citation needed]

The salah must be performed in the Arabic language.[citation needed]

QadaEdit

In certain circumstances one may be unable to perform one's prayer within the prescribed time period (waqt). In this case, the prayer must be performed as soon as one can do so. Several Ahadith narrate that Muhammad stated that permissible reasons to perform Qada Salah are forgetfulness and accidentally sleeping through the prescribed time. However, knowingly sleeping through the prescribed time for Salah is deemed impermissible.[citation needed]

Qasr and Jam' bayn as-SalaataynEdit

When travelling over long distances, one may shorten some prayers, a practice known as qasr. Furthermore, several prayer times may be joined, which is referred to as Jam' bayn as-Salaatayn. Qasr involves shortening the obligatory components of the Zuhr, Asr, and Isha prayers to two rakats. Jam' bayn as-Salaatayn combines the Zuhr and Asr prayers into one prayer offered between noon and sunset, and the Maghrib and Isha prayers into one between sunset and Fajr. Neither Qasr nor Jam' bayn as-Salaatayn can be applied to the Fajr prayer.[citation needed]

There is no reference to Qasr during travel within the Qur'an itself; the Qur'an allows for Qasr when there is fear of attack, but does not forbid it for travel in non-hostile circumstances.[citation needed]

Sajdah of forgetfulnessEdit

During the ritual salat prayer, if a person forgets to do one of the actions of prayer he can make up for certain actions by performing two sujud at the end of the prayer. This can only be done if specific types of actions are forgotten by the person praying.[citation needed]

Tahiyyatul masjidEdit

Upon entering the mosque, "Tahiyyatul masjid" may be performed; this is to pay respects to the mosque. Every Muslim entering the mosque is encouraged to perform these two rakats.[citation needed]

Prayer in congregationEdit

 
President Joko Widodo of Indonesia (front row, fourth from left) joining prayer in congregation with Vice President Jusuf Kalla (third from left), other cabinet members, and other worshippers.
 
Friday prayer for Muslims in Dhaka, Bangladesh

Prayer in congregation (jama'ah) is considered to have more social and spiritual benefit than praying by oneself. When praying in congregation, the people stand in straight parallel rows behind one person who conduct the prayer, called imam, and face the qibla. The imam is usually chosen to be a scholar or the one who has the best knowledge of the Qur'an, preferably someone who has memorized it (a hafiz). In the first row behind the imam, if available, would be another hafiz to correct the imam in case a mistake is made during the performance of the salah. The prayer is performed as normal, with the congregation following the actions and movements of the imam as he performs the salah.[citation needed]

Standing arrangementEdit

For two people of the same sex, the imam would stand on the left, and the other person is on the right. For more than two people, the imam stands one row ahead of the rest.[citation needed]

When the worshippers consist of men and women combined, a man is chosen as the imam. In this situation, women are typically forbidden from performing this role. This point, though unanimously agreed on by the major schools of Islam, is disputed by some groups, based partly on a hadith whose interpretation is controversial. When the congregation consists entirely of women and pre-pubescent children, one woman is chosen as imam. When men, women, and children are praying, the children's rows are usually between the men's and women's rows, with the men at the front and women at the back. Another configuration is where the men's and women's rows are side by side, separated by a curtain or other barrier, with the primary intention being for there to be no direct line of sight between male and female worshippers, following a Qur'anic injunction toward men and women each lowering their gazes (Qur'an 24:30–31).[citation needed]

ConductingEdit

The prayer commences with the imam saying "Allahu akbar" out loud. For the five daily prayers, the Imam would read the surah fatiha and the following section of the quran out loud only for the first two rakats of Fajr, Maghrib and Isha. To move between positions, the Imam would say "Allahu akbar" out loud, such as when going to the bowing position, except when standing up again from the bowing position, when the Imam would say "SamiAllahu liman hamidah" out loud. The prayer is concluded with the imam saying the taslim out loud.[citation needed]

A worshiper who has joined a congregation prayer late after missing rakats is called a masbuq. The masbuq would participate with the rest of the group in prayer, however, when the taslim is said at the end, he or she would not say the taslim but would instead stand up and continue for the number of rakats missed. If he joined after the bowing stage of a rakat, then he or she would have considered having missed that rakat.[citation needed]

Quranist SalahEdit

The concept of Quranist Salah Timings has been discussed in Hujjat Allah Al-Baligha (Arabic/Urdu) by Shah Waliullah. He said that there are 3 Salah timings (prayers) instead of the 5 Salahs (prayers).[37]

The number of regular Salah mentioned by their respective names in Arabic in the Qur'an are three as follows:[citation needed]

  1. Ṣalāt Fajr (Dawn Prayer) [f]
  2. Aṣ-Ṣalāt al-Wusṭā ( The Middle Prayer) [g][h]
  3. Ṣalāt cIshā' (Night Prayer)[i][j]

The other Salah usually prayed by most Muslims are not explicitly mentioned in Qur'an by specific Arabic terms.[k] Most Muslims pray them by giving reference to the Hadith of Muhammad, and the consensus of Muslims, whereas Quranists may only pray the three times mentioned.[citation needed]

Salah timings according to QuranistsEdit

Salah timings of Qur'an are mentioned, in particular, three salah times are described [l] and that they are recorded in a written document.[m] Also noted is the volume at which the salah should be uttered, somewhere in between spoken aloud and spoken in a low tone.[n]

The time for performing Fajr (Dawn) Prayer starts when the first thin ray of light is observed in the sky[o][p] and ends at the first "Taraf" (terminal) of the day, or sunrise [q]

The time for performing middle or Salat Al-Wusta can be observed from the moment the sun begins its descent from its highest point in the sky (duluk al shams) until sunset but before the darkness of the night (ghasaq al-layl) starts to set in.[r]

'Duluk ash-shams' can also mean 'sunset.' It means 'the rubbing of the sun.' The most accepted meaning is that this means the apparent rubbing of the sun with the horizon at sunset. Although, the meaning of a declining noon sun can also be found in Classical Arabic sources. It can imply a sense of both dusk and dawn in its meaning of a sun making apparent contact, i.e. 'rubbing' with the horizon.[citation needed]

The Qur'an, if we take the understanding of 'a declining noon sun' implies that the time of the Middle prayer ends with sunset.[s]

Some Quranists, however, believe that there are only two Salah, dawn, and dusk including the times of night close to these two periods; which is Based on the Qur'an (24:58). Some groups like Ahl Al-Quran and The Submitters believe that the 5 Salah as they are practiced by Muslims today were passed down from Abraham generationally through the Arabs and the Children of Israel, to then be inherited by those who adopted the Qur'an (and rejected by most Jews and Christians), as a ritual of the religion of Abraham. The emphasize on always mentioning of God in holy books, is believed to be about the believers' righteous endeavors and not just performing Salah. For instance, in (51:56) when God states: "I did not create the jinn and the humans except to worship Me;" worshiping God could not mean just performing the prayer ritual all day long.[citation needed]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ For the non-disabled, leaning or not standing upright invalidates the prayer. For those who are not able to, they can perform salat while sitting down (in case of illness or any situation like traveling in a vehicle, on a horse, etc.), while lying down (in case of disease) and even with indication.[citation needed]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "True Islam - Number of Salat". True Islam - Number of Salat. Retrieved 20 February 2016.
  2. ^ Multicultural Handbook of Food, Nutrition, and Dietetics, p. 43, Aruna Thaker, Arlene Barton, 2012
  3. ^ a b Chittick, William C.; Murata, Sachiko. The vision of Islam. Paragon House. ISBN 9781557785169.
  4. ^ a b "how many times is salat repeated in Quran?". Fars news. Retrieved 17 December 2012.
  5. ^ Sheihul Mufliheen. Holy Quran's Judgement. XLIBRIS. p. 57. ISBN 978-1479724550.
  6. ^ a b c Ramzy, Sheikh. The Complete Guide to Islamic Prayer (Salāh). AuthorHouseUK. ISBN 978-1477214640.
  7. ^ Ismail Kamus (1993). Hidup Bertaqwa (2nd ed.). Kuala Lumpur: At Tafkir Enterprise. ISBN 983-99902-0-9.
  8. ^ "Amr ʻAbd al-Munʻim Salīm, ''Important lessons for Muslim women'', Darussalam, 2005, page 174". Books.google.com. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
  9. ^ "Women In Islam Versus Women In The Judaeo-Christian Tradition". twf.org.
  10. ^ "Rules of Salat (Part III of III)". Al-Islam.org.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Haddad, Yvonne Yazbeck; Smith, Jane I. (1 January 2014). The Oxford Handbook of American Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 162. ISBN 9780199862634.
  12. ^ al-Hassani, Abu Qanit (2009). The Guiding Helper: Main Text and Explanatory Notes. p. 123.
  13. ^ Al-Mawrid Archived 24 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ Abdal Hakim Murad. "Understanding the Four Madhhabs". Retrieved 25 May 2010.
  15. ^ "Share Islam" (PDF). islamtomorrow.com.
  16. ^ "Page Title". haqqaninaqshbandiuk.com.
  17. ^ "eShaykh: Salat Guide for Shafi'i". Google Docs.
  18. ^ "Salat According to Shafii Fiqh". sunnah.org.
  19. ^ "SALAH ACCORDING TO THE HANBALI SCHOOL OF THOUGHT". daruliftabirmingham.co.uk.
  20. ^ "Imam Ali Foundation - London". najaf.org.
  21. ^ Swanson, Ana (30 March 2016). "Why women are more religious than men". The Washington Post. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
  22. ^ "Understanding Salat" from Albalagh
  23. ^ Muslim, Prayer Times NYC. "5 Prayers in Islam". Prayer Times NYC. PBC Times. Retrieved 26 July 2017.
  24. ^ "Rules of Salat (Part III of III)". Al-Islam.org.
  25. ^ a b "Virtue and times of regular Sunnah prayers (Sunnah mu'akkadah) - islamqa.info". islamqa.info.
  26. ^ "prayers". islamicsupremecouncil.com.
  27. ^ "Ruling on Eid prayers". Islam Question and Answer. Retrieved 2 January 2007.
  28. ^ "Islam Today". Islam today. Archived from the original on 17 October 2007.
  29. ^ "Hujjat Allah Al-Baligha (Arabic / Urdu) by Shah Waliullah / Shah Wali Ullah". scribd.com.

Further readingEdit

  • A Guide to Salat (Prayer) in Islam
  • Smith, Jane I.; Haddad, Yvonne Yazbeck (1993). The Oxford Handbook of American Islam (1st ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 162–163.

External linksEdit