List of designated terrorist groups
A number of national governments and two international organisations have created lists of organisations that they designate as terrorist. The following list of designated terrorist groups lists groups designated as terrorist by current and former national governments, and inter-governmental organizations. Such designations have often had a significant effect on the groups’ activities. Many organizations that have been designated as terrorist have denied using terrorism as a military tactic to achieve their goals, and there is no international consensus on the legal definition of terrorism. Some organisations have multiple wings or components, one or more of which may be designated as terrorist while others are not.
This listing does not include unaffiliated individuals accused of terrorism, which is considered lone wolf terrorism. This list also excludes groups which might be widely considered terrorist, but who are not officially so designated according to the criteria specified above.
Organizations currently officially designated as terrorist by various governmentsEdit
Organizations officially designated as terrorist in the pastEdit
Below is the list of organizations that have officially been designated as terrorist in the past, by the respective parties, but have since been delisted.
Process of designationEdit
Among the countries that publish a list of designated terrorist organizations, some have a clear established procedure for listing and delisting, and some are opaque. The Berghof Foundation argues that opaque delisting conditions reduce the incentive for the organization to abandon terrorism, while fuelling radicalism.
Since 2002, the Australian Government maintains a list of terrorist organizations under the Security Legislation Amendment (Terrorism) Act 2002. Listing, de-listing and re-listing follows a protocol that mainly involves the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation and the Attorney-General's Department.
Since 18 December 2001, section 83.05 of the Canadian Criminal Code allows the Governor in Council to maintain a list of entities that are engaged in terrorism, facilitating it, or acting on behalf of such an entity.
Entities are reviewed by the Minister and the Chief Justice of the Federal Court, and finally published in the Canada Gazette. The list is also published on the website of Public Safety Canada.
The European Union has two lists of designated terrorist organisations that provide for different sanctions for the two groups. The first list is copied from the United Nations, and the second is an autonomous list. As of 13 January 2020,[update] there are 21 organizations in the autonomous list.
Kyrgyzstan maintains a consolidated list of "destructive, extremist and terrorist" organizations officially banned by courts. As of 26 December 2018,[update] the list includes 20 organizations and 12 of them are designated as terrorist organizations.
The Ministry of Home Affairs of Malaysia maintains a sanction list of individuals and organizations involved in terrorist activity. The list is regulated by the Anti-Money Laundering, Anti-Terrorism Financing and Proceeds From Illegal Activities Act 2001 and is complementary to the United Nations Security Council sanction lists.
In Myanmar (formerly Burma), the Anti-Terrorism Central Committee is responsible for designating terrorist organisations in accordance with the country's counter-terrorism law. Designations must be approved by the union government before being official. There are only two groups on Myanmar's terror list: the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army and Arakan Army, declared on 25 August 2017 and January 2019
The New Zealand Police are responsible for coordinating any requests to the Prime Minister for designation as a terrorist entity. The designation of terrorist organizations is also guided by the Terrorism Suppression Act 2002. New Zealand also abides by several United Nations resolutions dealing with counter-terrorism including UN Resolutions 1267, 1989, 2253, 1988, and 1373.
Government of Pakistan under section 11-B of Anti Terrorism Act can declare an organization believed to be concerned with terrorism as a Proscribed Organization or put it under surveillance. Ministry of Interior issues the formal notification of proscription of an organization. National Counter Terrorism Authority is primarily concerned with monitoring for any signs of re-emergence through intelligence coordination, once an organization is proscribed.
People's Republic of ChinaEdit
This article needs to be updated.January 2019)(
In 2003, the Ministry of Public Security published a list of "East Turkestan" terrorist organizations on its website mps.gov.cn. This list was translated to English by the Embassy of the People's Republic of China in the US.
The first group to be officially listed as a terrorist organization under the Human Security Act of 2007 is the Abu Sayyaf on 10 September 2015 by the Basilan provincial court. The Department of Foreign Affairs publishes a list of designated terrorist organizations under the Human Security Act or the Terrorism Financing Prevention and Suppression Act of 2012.
The passage of the Anti-Terrorism Act of 2020 automatically recognized all terrorist group designations by the United Nations under Philippine law which includes the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL). Under the same law, the Anti-Terrorism Council was formed to designate groups as terrorists.
A single federal list of organizations recognized as terrorist is used by the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation. The National Anti-Terrorism Committee maintains a list of terrorist organizations on its website nac.gov.ru, named "Federal United list of Terrorist Organizations".
Sri Lanka named the following organizations as terrorist groups under the 'Prevention of Terrorism (Temporary Provisions) Act, No. 48 of 1979 regulations, cited as the Prevention of Terrorism (Proscription of Extremist Organizations). According to the government, the decision to ban these groups was made in "good faith for the purpose of ensuring the continuance of peace within the country and in the interest of national security, public order, and the rule of law, the organizations..."
- The United Thawheed (Thowheedh) Jamma'ath (UTJ)
- Ceylon Thawheed (Thowheedh) Jamma'ath (CTJ)
- Sri Lanka Thawheed (Thowheedh) Jamma'ath (SLTJ)
- All Ceylon Thawheed (Thowheedh) Jamma'ath (ACTJ)
- Jamiyathul Ansaari Sunnathul Mohomadiya (JASM) alias
- Jamma'ath Ansaaris Sunnathil Mohomadiya Organization alias
- All Ceylon Jam-E- Athu Ansaris Sunnathil Mohammadiya alias
- Ansaris Sunnathil Mohammadiya Association alias
- Jama'ath Ansaris Sunnathil Mohammadiya
- Dharul Adhar alias Jamiul Athar Mosque alias
- Dharul Athar Quran Madrasa alias
- Dharul Aadhaar Ath'thabawiyya
- Sri Lanka Islamic Student Movement (SLISM) alias
- Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) alias
- Al-Dawlah al-Islamiah Dawla Islamia,
- Save the Pearls alias
- Save the Pearl Society and Super Muslim
In Ukraine, the Donetsk and Luhansk People's Republics are designated as terrorist organizations. Ukrainian authorities claim that the two organizations are made up of a rigid hierarchy, financing channels and supply of weapons with the purpose of deliberately propagating violence, seizing hostages, carrying out subversive activity, assassinations, and the intimidation of citizens.
United Arab EmiratesEdit
The Cabinet of the United Arab Emirates periodically issues resolutions to include individuals and organizations on its terrorist list. As of 4 March 2020,[update] issued resolutions are 2014/41, 2017/18, 2017/28, 2017/45, 2018/24 and 2018/50.
The United Nations does not have a list of all terrorist organizations. Instead, it has several lists focusing on international sanctions in particular contexts. The United Nations Security Council Resolution 1267 established lists focused Al-Qaeda, the Taliban and their associates. The listing process was later extended to include the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.
- List of charities accused of ties to terrorism
- List of non-state groups accused of terrorism
- List of criminal enterprises, gangs and syndicates
- List of Islamic terrorist organizations
- Violent non-state actor
- United States designation of Al-Mourabitoun was done as an alias of Al-Mulathameen.
- Al-Nusra Front is considered an alias of Hayat Tahrir al-Sham by Canada, New Zealand and the United States. It is considered an alias of Al-Qaeda by the United Kingdom. Australia acknowledges that Al-Nusra Front is part of the umbrella group Hayat Tahrir al-Sham, but it does not list Hayat Tahrir al-Sham as a terrorist organization.
- Iraq and United States lists Ansar al-Sharia in Libya as two separate organizations: Ansar al-Shari’a in Benghazi and Ansar al-Shari’a in Darnah.
- Boko Haram and Islamic State's West Africa Province are listed as two separate entities by the United Nations and the United States.
- Egyptian Islamic Jihad is considered an alias of Al-Qaeda by Canada.
- Harkat ul-Ansar is considered an alias of Harkat-ul-Mujahideen by the United Nations.
- The United Kingdom considers Hayat Tahrir al-Sham as an alias of Al-Qaeda.
- Jama'at Nasr al-Islam wal Muslimin is considered an alias of Al-Mourabitoun by Canada.
- Turkistan Islamic Party is considered an alias of the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan by Canada. Bahrain and Malaysia list it under its former name, East Turkestan Islamic Movement.
- Ansar Bait al-Maqdis is considered an alias of Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant – Sinai Province by Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States.
- Australia lists Ansar Khalifa Philippines under the Islamic State East Asia entry.
- Australia lists Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters under the Islamic State East Asia entry.
- Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades are subsumed into Hamas by Canada and the United States.
- Canada, Malaysia and the United States list Hezbollah as a whole.
- The term "Irish Republican Army" is intended by the British government to "embrace all emanations, manifestations and representations of the IRA, whatever their relationship with each other", including the Provisional Irish Republican Army.
- note the United State Department lists the 2 different geographic branches of the group as ISIS-Democratic Republic of the Congo and ISIS-Mozambique.
- Kurdistan Freedom Hawks is considered an alias of Kurdistan Workers' Party by Australia.
- Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan list the Kurdistan Workers' Party as the Kurdistan People's Congress.
- Mujahideen Shura Council is considered an alias of Islamic State by Canada.
- Vanguards of Conquest is considered an alias of Al-Qaeda by Canada.
- Previously as East Turkestan Islamic Movement, now delisted claiming that it does not exist anymore.
- Williamson, Myra (2009). Terrorism, War and International Law: The Legality of the Use of Force Against Afghanistan in 2001. Ashgate. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-7546-7403-0. Archived from the original on 20 February 2017. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
- Schmid, Alex P. (2011). "The Definition of Terrorism". In Alex P. Schmid (ed.). The Routledge Handbook of Terrorism Research. Taylor & Francis. p. 39. ISBN 978-1-136-81040-4. Archived from the original on 20 February 2017. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
- "Security Council Committee pursuant to resolutions 1267 (1999) 1989 (2011) and 2253 (2015) concerning Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (Da'esh), Al-Qaida and associated individuals, groups, undertakings and entities". United Nations Security Council. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
- "Narrative Summaries of Reasons for Listing (ISIL & Al-Qaida Sanctions Committee)". United Nations Security Council. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
- Ministerio de Justicia y Derechos Humanos de la Nación. "RePET" (in Spanish). Retrieved 20 February 2020.
- "Bahrain Terrorist List (individuals – entities)". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Kingdom of Bahrain. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
- "Currently listed entities". Public Safety Canada. Government of Canada. Archived from the original on 1 March 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
- "Lists associated with Resolutions 1267/1989/2253 and 1988". New Zealand Police. 24 February 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
- مجلس الوزراء يعتمد قائمة التنظيمات الإرهابية.. Emirates News Agency (WAM) (in Arabic). 15 November 2014. Archived from the original on 17 November 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- "UAE publishes list of terrorist organisations". Gulf News. 15 November 2014. Archived from the original on 17 November 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- "UAE cabinet endorses new list of terrorist groups". Kuwait News Agency. 15 November 2014. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- "Proscribed terrorist groups" (PDF). Home Office. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
- "Foreign Terrorist Organizations". United States Department of State. Archived from the original on 27 February 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
- "Listed terrorist organisations". Australian National Security. Archived from the original on 25 October 2016. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
- "LIST OF INDIVIDUALS, ENTITIES AND OTHER GROUPS AND UNDERTAKINGS DECLARED BY THE MINISTER OF HOME AFFAIRS AS SPECIFIED ENTITY UNDER SECTION 66B(1)" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs of Malaysia. Retrieved 10 October 2020.
- "Philippine court designates Abu Sayyaf a terrorist group". Sun Star. 11 September 2015. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
- "Islamic Army of Aden". United Nations Security Council. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
- "List of bannned organization in Pakistan". Express Tribune. 24 October 2012. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012.
- "Единый федеральный список организаций, в том числе иностранных и международных организаций, признанных в соответствии с законодательством Российской Федерации террористическими" (in Russian). 31 August 2020. Archived from the original on 8 October 2020.
- "Terrorist Designation of the al-Mulathamun Battalion". State.gov. 18 December 2013. Archived from the original on 21 January 2017. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
- "Amendments to the Terrorist Designations of al-Nusrah Front". United States Department of State. 31 May 2018. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
- "Jabhat Fatah al-Sham". Australian National Security. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
- Security Council Al-Qaida Sanctions Committee Amends Entry of One Entity on Its Sanctions List Archived 27 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine – UN Security Council, 30 May 2013. Department of Public Information • News and Media Division • New York
- Department, Attorney-General’s. "Jabhat al-Nusra". Australian National Security. Archived from the original on 5 July 2017. Retrieved 13 April 2019.
- "The list of prohibited foreign organizations in Kazakhstan". Electronic government of the Republic of Kazakhstan. 28 November 2019. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
- "List of terrorist and extremist organizations banned in Kyrgyzstan". 24.kg. 5 April 2017. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
- "Saudi Arabia designates Muslim Brotherhood terrorist group". Reuters. 7 March 2014. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
- "The list of terrorists and extremists". National Bank of Tajikistan. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
- "Turkey blacklists al-Nusra Front as terror group". Al Akhbar. 3 June 2014. Archived from the original on 14 September 2018. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
- 3 Haziran 2014 Tarihli ve 29019 Sayılı Resmî Gazete Archived 14 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine (in Turkish)
- "Terrorist Designations of the al-Nusrah Front as an Alias for al-Qa'ida in Iraq". United States Department of State. Archived from the original on 30 January 2017. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
- "Resolutions adopted by the United Nations Security Council since 1946". Un.org. Archived from the original on 15 February 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
- "Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament". Commission of the European Communities. 20 October 2004. Archived from the original (DOC) on 14 June 2007. Retrieved 11 June 2007.
- "O Brasil e o terrorismo internacional". Congresso em Foco (in Portuguese). 1 June 2011. Retrieved 10 October 2020.
- "Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Jiang Yu's Remarks on the Killing of Al-Qaeda Leader Bin Laden in Pakistan". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China. 2 May 2011. Archived from the original on 25 May 2019. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
- "Banned Organizations". Ministry of Home Affairs (India). Retrieved 1 March 2020.
- Moody, John (12 June 2007). "Iran Wants to Talk With U.S.; Just Not About Nukes". Fox News. Archived from the original on 25 December 2013. Retrieved 25 December 2013.
[...] Al Qaeda, which Shiite-dominated Iran considers a terrorist organization [...]
- "Criminal Justice (Terrorist Offences) Act 2005". 27 May 2014. Archived from the original on 27 May 2014. Retrieved 9 October 2020.
- "Summary of indictments against Al-Qaeda terrorists in Samaria". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 21 March 2006. Archived from the original on 21 June 2017. Retrieved 4 May 2011.
- "LIST OF DECLARATIONS AND ORDERS – Unofficial Translation". Archived from the original on 10 August 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
- Diplomatic Bluebook (2002). "B. Terrorist Attacks in the United States and the Fight Against Terrorism" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 June 2007. Retrieved 11 June 2007.
- "Paraguay adds Hamas, Hezbollah to terrorism list". Middle East Monitor. 20 August 2019. Archived from the original on 20 August 2019. Retrieved 20 August 2019.
- "Turkey's Contributions to International Community's Efforts to Fight Terrorism". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 16 February 2020.
- Youssef, Nancy A.; Adam Baron (7 March 2014). "Saudi Arabia declares Muslim Brotherhood a terrorist group". Kansas City Star. Archived from the original on 8 March 2014. Retrieved 8 March 2014.
- "Ansar al-Shari'a Organizations and Leaders Terrorist Designations of Three Ansar al-Shari'a Organizations and Leaders". U.S. Department of State. 10 January 2014. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
- "BBC News – Tunisia declares Ansar al-Sharia a terrorist group". Bbc.co.uk. 27 August 2013. Archived from the original on 16 August 2018. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
- "Currently listed entities". Public Safety Canada (published 21 June 2019). 3 February 2021. Retrieved 3 February 2021.
- Security Council Al-Qaida Sanctions Committee Adds Boko Haram to Its Sanctions List Archived 31 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine – UN Security Council, 22 May 2014. Department of Public Information • News and Media Division • New York
- "Security Council Committee pursuant to resolutions 1267 (1999) and 1989 (2011) concerning Al-Qaida and associated individuals and entities: QE.E.131.11. EMARAT KAVKAZ". United Nations. 29 July 2011. Archived from the original on 5 November 2014.
- "Designation of Caucasus Emirate". United States Department of State. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
- "Designations of Foreign Terrorist Fighters". US Department of State. 24 September 2014. Archived from the original on 21 January 2017. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
- Canada lists Harkat ul-Ansar under the Harkat-ul-Mujahideen entry.
- "Turkey designates Syria's Tahrir al-Sham as terrorist group". Reuters. 31 August 2018. Archived from the original on 30 May 2019. Retrieved 13 September 2019 – via reuters.com.
- "Three groups active in Xinjiang banned". Dawn News. 24 October 2013. Archived from the original on 17 November 2016. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
- "Pakistan issues list of 68 proscribed organizations". The News International. 5 March 2019. Archived from the original on 2 July 2019. Retrieved 2 July 2019.
- Wahlisch, Martin (2010). "EU Terrorist Listing – An Overview about Listing and Delisting Procedures" (PDF). Berghof Peace Support. Berghof Foundation. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 October 2014. Retrieved 3 November 2014.
- 习近平就我国公民被恐怖组织杀害事件发表讲话 (in Chinese). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China. Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
- "Egypt brands jihadist ISIL a 'terrorist group'". Hürriyet Daily News. 30 November 2014. Archived from the original on 21 December 2014. Retrieved 20 December 2014.
- "Ya'alon declared the organization "Islamic State" as a terrorist organization: Report". haaretz. 3 September 2014. Archived from the original on 7 September 2014. Retrieved 3 September 2014.
-  Archived 14 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 June 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "State Department Terrorist Designations of Jamaat-ul-Ahrar and Mohamed Abrini". State.gov. 3 August 2016. Archived from the original on 14 April 2019. Retrieved 5 August 2016.
- "Syrian terrorist list produces 163 names and no agreement". Reuters. 17 February 2016. Archived from the original on 2 June 2017. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
- "State Department Terrorist Designation of Jund al-Aqsa". State.gov. 20 September 2016. Archived from the original on 3 February 2017. Retrieved 19 February 2017.
- "State Department Terrorist Designation of Katibat al-Imam al-Bukhari". U.S. Department of State. 22 March 2018. Archived from the original on 6 July 2019. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
- "UNSC sanctions". Archived from the original on 10 September 2016. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
- "Commission Regulation (EC) No 1754/2002 of 1 October 2002 amending for the fourth time Council Regulation (EC) No 881/2002 imposing certain specific restrictive measures directed against certain persons and entities associated with Usama bin Laden, the Al-Qaida network and the Taliban, and repealing Council Regulation (EC) No 467/200". EUR-Lex. 1 October 2002. Archived from the original on 25 September 2017. Retrieved 19 February 2017.
- "China seeks int'l support in counter-terrorism(12/15/03)". China-embassy.org. 15 December 2003. Archived from the original on 20 October 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
- "Единый федеральный список организаций, в том числе иностранных и международных организаций, признанных судами Российской Федерации террористическими". fsb.ru, 2019.
- Yi, Yang (3 August 2017). "China, Turkey underscore security, counter-terrorism cooperation". Xinhua. People's Republic of China. Archived from the original on 28 June 2019. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
- "Eur-Lex – - En". Eur-lex.europa.eu. Archived from the original on 22 July 2012. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
- "Agnad Misr officially labelled a terrorist group". Al-Ahram. 22 March 2014. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 11 March 2015.
- "Terrorist Designations of Ajand Misr and Ibrahim al-Rubaysh". State.gov. 18 December 2014. Retrieved 28 January 2015.
- "Lists associated with Resolution 1373". New Zealand Police. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
- department, Attorney-General's. "Listed terrorist organisations". www.nationalsecurity.gov.au. Retrieved 6 April 2021.
- "Egyptian court says Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis a terrorist organization". Egypt Independent. 14 April 2014. Archived from the original on 16 April 2014. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- "Islamic State East Asia". Australian National Security. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
- "State Department Designation of Ansarul Islam". State.gov. 20 February 2018. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
- "Exclusive: Is this the final confrontation for the Rohingya?". Dhaka Tribune. 27 August 2017. Archived from the original on 29 August 2017. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
- National Police Agency (Japan) (2009), "The White Paper on Police 2009 (平成21年警察白書, Heisei Nijūichi nen Keisatsu Hakusyo), GYOSEI Corporation, English p. 160.
- "Implementation of the Measures including the Freezing of Assets against Terrorists and the Like". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 5 July 2002. Archived from the original on 6 April 2013. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
- Ricks, Thomas E. "Balochistan is seething, and that can't make China happy about investing". Archived from the original on 20 May 2019. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
- Raza, Irfan (10 April 2006). "BLA declared terrorist organisation, banned". Dawn. Archived from the original on 4 September 2018. Retrieved 10 April 2006.
- "Terrorist Designations of Balochistan Liberation Army and Husain Ali Hazzima and Amendments to the Terrorist Designations of Jundallah". U.S. Department of State. 2 July 2019. Archived from the original on 2 July 2019. Retrieved 2 July 2019.
- "US brands BLA as global terrorist group". Dawn News. 2 July 2019. Archived from the original on 2 July 2019. Retrieved 2 July 2019.
- "Advisory: On the List of Groups Designated as Terrorist Organizations by the Philippines". Department of Foreign Affairs of the Philippines. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
- "Terrorist Designation of Conspiracy of Fire Nuclei". U.S. Department of State. Archived from the original on 19 April 2017. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
- Про Заяву Верховної Ради України "Про визнання Україною юрисдикції Міжнародного кримінального суду щодо скоєння злочинів проти людяності та воєнних злочинів вищими посадовими особами Російської Федерації та керівниками терористичних організацій "ДНР" та "ЛНР", які призвели до особливо тяжких наслідків та масового вбивства українських громадян"//Verkhovna Rada
- Постанова Верховного Суду щодо визнання діяльності терористичною//Supreme Court of Ukraine
- "Security Council Committee pursuant to resolutions 1267 (1999) and 1989 (2011) concerning Al-Qaida and associated individuals and entities: QE.E.88.02. EASTERN TURKISTAN ISLAMIC MOVEMENT". United Nations. 7 April 2011. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 2 September 2014.