Open main menu

List of organizations designated by the Southern Poverty Law Center as hate groups

The following is a list of U.S.-based organizations that are classified as hate groups[1] by the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC). The SPLC is an American nonprofit legal advocacy organization specializing in civil rights and public interest litigation. The SPLC defines a hate group as "an organization that — based on its official statements or principles, the statements of its leaders, or its activities — has beliefs or practices that attack or malign an entire class of people, typically for their immutable characteristic."[2] The SPLC states that "Hate group activities can include criminal acts, marches, rallies, speeches, meetings, leafleting or publishing" and adds that inclusion on its hate-group list "does not imply that a group advocates or engages in violence or other criminal activity."[1]

Since 1981, the SPLC's Intelligence Project has published a quarterly Intelligence Report, which monitors hate groups and extremist organizations in the United States.[3] The SPLC began an annual census of hate groups in 1990.[1][2] The SPLC listed 1,020 hate groups and hate-group chapters on its 2018 list—an all-time high fueled primarily by an increase in radical right groups.[2]

The Intelligence Report provides information regarding the organizational efforts and tactics of these groups, and it is cited by a number of scholars as a reliable and comprehensive source on U.S. hate groups.[4][5][6][7] The SPLC also publishes the HateWatch Weekly newsletter, which documents racism and extremism, and the Hatewatch blog.[8]

Pundits, politicians, and some of the designated groups have objected to the SPLC's list. For example, the Family Research Council disputed its designation in 2010,[9] and the Center for Immigration Studies disputed the SPLC anti-immigrant designation in 2016.[10] The SPLC's hate group listings have also been criticized by some political observers and prominent Republicans.[11][12]

Contents

Historical trends

In 1999, the SPLC listed 457 hate groups; that number steadily increased until 2011, when 1,018 groups were listed.[2][13][14] The rise from 2008 onward was attributed in part to anger at Barack Obama, the first black president of the United States.[2] Thereafter, the number of hate groups steadily dropped, reaching a low of 784 in 2014 (a 23% drop). However, between 2014 and 2018, the number of hate groups skyrocketed 30%, reaching 892 in 2015; 917 in 2016; 954 in 2017; and 1,020 in 2018.[15][16][2] According to Mark Potok at the SPLC, Donald Trump's presidential campaign speeches "demonizing statements about Latinos and Muslims have electrified the radical right, leading to glowing endorsements from white nationalist leaders such as Jared Taylor and former Klansman David Duke".[17] The relative strength of hate groups have varied over time; for example, the Ku Klux Klan has markedly declined, while other white supremacist groups have substantially strengthened.[2]:39

In its 2019 annual report (covering the year 2018), the SPLC listed 1,020 organizations as active hate groups, categorized by type, as follows: Ku Klux Klan (51), neo-Nazi (112), white nationalist (148), racist skinhead (63), Christian Identity (17), neo-Confederate (36), black nationalist (264), anti-immigrant (17), anti-LGBT (49), anti-Muslim (100), and "other hate" (163, consisting of 15 hate music groups, 8 Holocaust denial groups, 2 male supremacy groups, 30 neo-Völkisch groups, 11 radical traditional Catholic groups, and 97 other groups).[2]

Groups by type

Ku Klux Klan

Number of Klan groups listed over time[14][18][19][2]
Year Number listed
1990 28
2010 221
2013 163
2014 72
2015 190
2016 130
2017 72
2018 51

The Ku Klux Klan, often abbreviated KKK and informally known as "the Klan", is the name of three distinct past and present groupings.[20]

The following groups have been listed as active Klan groups in the SPLC's annual reports (years in parentheses refer to the year in which the group is included):

  • American Christian Dixie Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (2017, 2018)[19][2]
  • American Christian Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (2018)[2]
  • American Confederate Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (2017)[19]
  • American White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (2018)[2]
  • Aryan Knights of the Invisible Empire (2018)[2]
  • Aryan Nations Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (2014, 2015)[13][14]
  • Christian American Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (2016)[18]
  • Church of the American Christian Knights (2017)[19]
  • Church of the National Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (2016, 2017, 2018)[18][19][2]
  • Confederate White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (2015, 2016, 2017, 2018)[14][18][19][2]
  • East Coast Knights of the True Invisible Empire (2015, 2016, 2017, 2018)[14][18][19][2]
  • Eastern White Knights of the KKK (2015)[14]
  • Exalted Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (2017)[19]
  • Fraternal Order of the Cross (2014)[13]
  • Georgia Knight Riders of the Ku Klux Klan (2016)[18]
  • Global Crusaders: Order of the Ku Klux Klan (2017, 2018)[19][2]
  • Great Lakes Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (2016)[18]
  • Honorable Sacred Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (2018)[2]
  • Imperial Klans of America, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (2014, 2015)[13][14]
  • International Keystone Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018)[13][14][18][19][2]
  • Karolina Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (2015)[14]
  • KKKRadio (2014, 2015)[13][14]
  • Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018)[13][14][18][19][2]
  • Knights of the White Disciples (2016, 2017)[18][19]
  • Knights Party Veterans League (2014, 2015)[13][14]
  • Ku Klos Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (2014, 2015, 2016, 2017)[13][14][18][19]
  • Loyal White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018)[13][14][18][19][2]
  • Militant Knights Ku Klux Klan (2015, 2016)[14][18]
  • Mississippi White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (2014, 2015, 2017, 2018)[13][14][19][2]
  • Noble Klans of America (2018)[2]
  • Nordic Order Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (2016, 2017, 2018)[18][19][2]
  • North Mississippi White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (2017)[18]
  • Oklahoma Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (2015)[14]
  • Old Dominion Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (2016)[18]
  • Old Glory Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (2016)[18]
  • Original Knight Riders Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (2014, 2015, 2016, 2017)[13][14][18][19]
  • Original Knights of America, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (2017, 2018)[19][2]
  • Outlaw Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (2016)[18]
  • Pacific Coast Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (2016, 2017, 2018)[18][19][2]
  • Patriotic Brigade Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (2016, 2017, 2018)[18][19][2]
  • Rebel Brigade Knights True Invisible Empire (2015, 2016, 2017, 2018)[14][18][19][2]
  • Rocky Mountain Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (2014)[13]
  • Sacred Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (2017)[19]
  • Soldiers of the Cross Training Institute (2014, 2015)[13][14]
  • Southern Mountain Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (2014)[13]
  • Southern Ohio Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (2016, 2017)[18][19]
  • Teutonic Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (2019)[2]
  • Texas Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (2014, 2015)[13][14]
  • Texas Rebel Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (2015, 2016, 2017, 2018)[14][18][19][2]
  • Traditional Confederate Knights (2015)[14]
  • Traditional Rebel Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (2014, 2015)[13][14]
  • Traditionalist American Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018)[13][14][18][19][2]
  • Trinity White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (2014, 2015)[13][14]
  • True Invisible Empire Knights / True Invisible Empire Traditionalist American Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (2014, 2015)[13][14]
  • United Dixie White Knights/United Dixie White Knights Ku Klux Klan (2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018)[13][14][18][19][2]
  • United Klans of America (2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018)[13][14][18][19][2]
  • United Northern and Southern Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018)[13][14][18][19][2]
  • United White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018)[13][14][18][19][2]
  • Western White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (2015)[14]
  • White Camelia Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (2015)[14]
  • White Knights of Texas (2018)[2]
  • White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of America (2017)[19]

Neo-Nazi

Number of Neo-Nazi groups listed over time[14][18][2]
Year Number listed
2003 149
2004 158
2005 157
2006 191
2007 207
2008 196
2009 161
2010 170
2011 170
2012 138
2013 143
2014 142
2015 94
2016 99
2017 121
2018 112

Neo-Nazism consists of post-World War II social or political movements seeking to revive Nazism or related ideologies. Common aspects of modern-day Neo-Nazism include hatred or fear of minorities such as blacks, Hispanics, lesbian, gay, and transgender people, non-white immigrants, and sometimes even Christians but their main hatred is focused on the Jews (their "cardinal enemy").[21][22][23][24]

The following groups have been listed as active neo-Nazi groups in the SPLC's annual reports (years in parentheses refer to the year in which the group is included):

White nationalist

Number of white nationalist hate groups listed over time[14][18][29][2]
Year Number listed
2003 92
2004 99
2005 111
2006 110
2007 125
2008 111
2009 132
2010 136
2011 146
2012 135
2013 128
2014 115
2015 95
2016 100
2017 100
2018 148

The SPLC listed 148 white nationalist groups as active in 2018, noting: "White nationalist groups espouse white supremacist or white separatist ideologies, often focusing on the alleged inferiority of nonwhites. Groups listed in a variety of other categories — Ku Klux Klan, neo-Confederate, neo-Nazi, racist skinhead and Christian Identity — could also be fairly described as white nationalist."[2] The following groups have been listed as active white separatist/white nationalist groups in the SPLC's annual reports (years in parentheses refer to the year in which the group is included):

Racist skinheads

Number of racist skinhead hate groups listed over time[14][18][31][2]
Year Number listed
2003 39
2004 48
2005 56
2006 78
2007 90
2008 98
2009 122
2010 136
2011 133
2012 138
2013 126
2014 119
2015 95
2016 78
2017 71
2018 63

The SPLC defines racist skinhead as "a particularly violent element of the white supremacist movement," often "referred to as the 'shock troops' of the hoped-for revolution."[2] An offshoot of the skinhead subculture, racist skinheads promote antisemitism in addition to white supremacy.[32][33] While racist skinhead groups continue to commit violent acts (against both outsiders and participants in the movement), the number of skinhead groups has declined since 2012, losing ground to "the racist 'alt-right' and new, younger neo-Nazi and white nationalist groups who are organizing themselves across diffuse social networking sites and platforms."[2]

The following groups have been listed as active racist skinhead groups in the SPLC's annual reports (years in parentheses refer to the year in which the group is included):

Extreme antigovernment movement

Number of extreme antigovernment groups over time[2]
Year Number listed
2014 874
2015 998
2016 623
2017 689
2018 612

In 2018, the SPLC identified 612 groups that belonged to the extreme antigovernment movement; about a quarter of these were part of the militia movement.[2] A subset within this movement is the "sovereign citizen" movement. The SPLC states that "Generally, antigovernment groups define themselves as opposed to the 'New World Order, engage in groundless conspiracy theorizing, or advocate or adhere to extreme antigovernment doctrines. Antigovernment groups do not necessarily advocate or engage in violence or other criminal activities, though some have. Many warn of impending government violence or the need to prepare for a coming revolution. Many antigovernment groups are not racist."[35]

The SPLC has listed a number of antigovernment groups, including Oath Keepers, various 3 Percenters groups (also styled III%ers), the John Birch Society, Renew America, the Moorish Science Temple of America 1928.[35][2]

Black separatist/nationalist

Number of black separatist hate groups listed over time[14][18][36][2]
Year Number listed
2003 136
2004 108
2005 106
2006 88
2007 81
2008 112
2009 121
2010 149
2011 140
2012 151
2013 115
2014 113
2015 180
2016 193
2017 233
2018 264

Black nationalist groups espouse black separatism, a movement seeking to create separate institutions for black people. The SPLC notes: "Most forms of black nationalism are strongly anti-white, antisemitic and anti-LGBT. Some religious versions assert that black people are the biblical 'chosen people' of God."[2] The following groups have been listed as active black separatist groups in the SPLC's annual reports (years in parentheses refer to the year in which the group is included):

Neo-Confederate

Number of neo-Confederate hate groups listed over time[14][18][38][2]
Year Number listed
2003 91
2004 97
2005 99
2006 102
2007 104
2008 93
2009 68
2010 42
2011 32
2012 30
2013 36
2014 37
2015 35
2016 43
2017 31
2018 36

The SPLC classifies neo-Confederate groups as those with "a reactionary, revisionist predilection for symbols of the Confederate States of America, typically paired with a strong belief in the validity of the failed doctrines of nullification and secession — in the specific context of the antebellum South."[38]

The following groups have been listed as active neo-Confederate groups in the SPLC's annual reports (years in parentheses refer to the year in which the group is included):

Christian Identity

Number of Christian Identity hate groups listed over time[14][18][40][2]
Year Number listed
2003 31
2004 28
2005 35
2006 37
2007 36
2008 39
2009 37
2010 26
2011 55
2012 54
2013 37
2014 21
2015 19
2016 21
2017 20
2018 17

Christian Identity is a label applied to a wide variety of loosely affiliated believers and churches with a white supremacist and antisemitic theology that claims that White people are the true descendants of the Lost Tribes of Israel.[41]

The following groups have been listed as Christian Identity hate groups in the SPLC's annual reports (years in parentheses refer to the year in which the group is included):

Anti-LGBT

Anti-LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender) or anti-gay can refer to activities in certain categories (or combinations of categories): attitudes against or discrimination against LGBT people, violence against LGBT people, LGBT rights opposition and religious opposition to homosexuality.

The following groups have been listed as active anti-LGBT hate groups in the SPLC's annual reports (years in parentheses refer to the year in which the group is included):

Anti-immigrant

The SPLC categories "the most extreme" nativist and vigilante groups as anti-immigrant hate groups, those which espouse xenophobia.[47][2] The group classifies the Center for Immigration Studies (CIS), Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR) and NumbersUSA, as the "big three" groups in the anti-immigrant movement.[2]

Holocaust denial

Holocaust denial groups are those which reject or deny the history of the Holocaust.[49]

The following groups have been listed as active Holocaust denial groups in the SPLC's annual reports (years in parentheses refer to the year in which the group is included):

Male supremacy

The SPLC added misogynistic male supremacy groups to its hate groups list for the first time in its 2017 report (issued in 2018), stating, "The vilification of women by these groups makes them no different than other groups that demean entire populations, such as the LGBT community, Muslims or Jews, based on their inherent characteristics."[52]

Neo-Völkisch

In its 2017 report (issued in 2018), the SPLC added neo-Völkisch Asatru pagan groups to its hate group list for the first time. The SPLC described these groups as "[b]orn out of an atavistic defiance of modernity and rationalism" and characterized by "organized ethnocentricity and archaic notions of gender."[28]

  • Asatru Folk Assembly (2017, 2018)[28][2]
  • Folkgard of Holda and Odin (2017, 2018)[28][2]
  • Gallows Tree Wotansvolk Alliance (2017, 2018)[28][2] – listed in previous years in neo-Nazi category
  • Gallows Tree Wotansvolk (2017)[28]
  • Hoosier Headhunters Fight Club (2017)[28]
  • Pacific Northwest Wolfpack Kindred (2018)[2]
  • The Gallowglasses Fight Club (2017)[28]
  • The Varangians Fight Club (2017)[28]
  • Wolf Age (2017, 2018)[28][2]
  • Wolves of Vinland (2017, 2018)[28][2] – listed in previous years in white separatist/nationalist category

Hate music

White power music is music that promotes white nationalism and expresses racism against non-whites. Genres include Nazi punk, Rock Against Communism, hatecore and National Socialist black metal.[53][54][55]

The following groups have been listed as active racist music/hate music groups in the SPLC's annual reports (years in parentheses refer to the year in which the group is included):

Radical traditional Catholicism

According to the SPLC, radical traditionalist Catholics who "may make up the largest single group of serious anti-Semites in America", subscribe to an ideology that is rejected by the Vatican.[59]

The following groups have been listed as active radical traditional Catholic hate groups in the SPLC's annual reports (years in parentheses refer to the year in which the group is included):

Anti-Muslim

Anti-Muslim hate groups are described by the SPLC as groups which exhibit extreme hostility against Muslims, by depicting Muslims as "fundamentally alien, ... irrational, intolerant and violent" and accusing Islam of "sanctioning pedophilia, coupled with intolerance for homosexuals and women."[63] Anti-Muslim hate groups espouse conspiratorial views of American Muslims, viewing them "as a fifth column intent on undermining and eventually replacing American democracy and Western civilization with Islamic despotism, a conspiracy theory known as 'civilization jihad.'"[63] The following groups have been listed as anti-Muslim hate groups in the SPLC's annual reports (years in parentheses refer to the year in which the group is included):

Other

The following groups have been listed as other or miscellaneous hate groups in the SPLC's annual reports (years in parentheses refer to the year in which the group is included):

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "Hate Map". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved February 24, 2018.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fq fr fs ft fu fv fw fx fy fz ga gb gc gd ge gf gg gh gi gj gk gl gm gn go gp gq gr gs gt gu gv gw gx gy gz ha hb hc hd he hf hg hh hi hj hk hl hm hn ho hp hq hr hs ht hu hv hw hx hy hz ia ib ic id ie if ig ih ii ij ik il im in io ip iq ir is it iu iv iw ix iy iz ja jb jc jd je jf jg jh ji jj jk jl jm jn jo jp jq jr js jt ju jv jw jx jy jz ka kb kc kd ke kf kg kh ki kj kk kl km kn ko kp kq kr ks kt ku kv kw kx ky kz la lb lc ld le lf lg lh li lj lk ll lm ln lo lp lq lr ls lt lu lv lw lx ly lz ma mb mc md me mf mg mh mi mj mk ml mm mn mo mp mq mr ms mt mu mv mw mx my mz na nb nc nd ne nf ng nh ni nj nk nl nm nn Heidi Beirich, The Year in Hate and Extremism: Rage Against Change, Intelligence Report (Spring 2019), issue 166.
  3. ^ "Intelligence Report". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
  4. ^ Rory McVeigh. "Structured Ignorance and Organized Racism in the United States", Social Forces, Vol. 82, No. 3, (March 2004), p. 913 via JSTOR
  5. ^ Chalmers, Mark David (2003). Backfire: how the Ku Klux Klan Helped the civil rights movement, Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 074252311X p. 188
  6. ^ Brett A. Barnett (2007). Untangling the web of hate: are online "hate sites" deserving of First Amendment Protection?. Cambria Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-1934043912.
  7. ^ Montgomery, David (November 8, 2018). "The State of Hate". The Washington Post Magazine. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  8. ^ "Hatewatch". Southern Poverty Law Center.
  9. ^ Frumin, Ben (November 20, 2010). "Family Research Council Rips SPLC Over 'Slanderous' Hate Group Designation". talkingpointsmemo.com. Talking Points Memo. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  10. ^ Sherman, Amy (March 22, 2017). "Is the Center for Immigration Studies a hate group, as the Southern Poverty Law Center says?". Politifact Florida. Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
  11. ^ Silverstein, Ken (March 22, 2010). "'Hate,' Immigration, and the Southern Poverty Law Center". Harpers.org. Harper's Magazine. Retrieved May 2, 2017.
  12. ^ Jonsson, Patrik (February 23, 2011). "Annual report cites rise in hate groups, but some ask: What is hate?", Christian Science Monitor. accessed 2 May 2017.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x "Active Hate Groups in the United States in 2014". Southern Poverty Law Center. March 10, 2015. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fq fr fs ft fu fv fw fx fy fz ga gb gc gd ge gf gg gh gi gj gk gl gm gn go gp gq gr gs gt gu gv gw gx gy gz ha hb hc hd he hf hg hh hi hj hk hl hm hn ho hp hq hr hs ht hu hv hw hx hy hz ia ib ic id ie if ig ih ii ij ik il im in io ip iq ir is it iu iv iw ix iy iz ja jb jc jd je jf jg jh ji jj jk jl jm jn jo jp jq jr js jt ju jv jw jx jy jz ka kb kc kd ke kf kg kh ki kj kk kl km kn ko kp kq kr ks kt ku kv kw kx ky kz la lb lc ld le lf lg lh li lj lk ll lm ln lo lp lq lr ls lt lu lv lw lx ly lz ma Active Hate Groups in the United States in 2015, Southern Poverty Law Center (February 4, 2016).
  15. ^ "The Year in Hate and Extremism". Southern Poverty Law Center.
  16. ^ "Hate groups in US grow for third straight year: SPLC". www.aljazeera.com.
  17. ^ Williams, Casey (April 27, 2016). "How Anonymous Is Fighting White Supremacy Online". Huffington Post.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fq fr fs ft fu fv fw fx fy fz ga gb gc gd ge gf gg gh gi gj gk gl gm gn go gp gq gr gs gt gu gv gw gx gy gz ha hb hc hd he hf hg hh hi hj hk hl hm hn ho hp hq hr hs ht hu hv hw hx hy hz ia ib ic id ie if ig ih ii ij ik il im in io ip iq ir is it iu iv iw ix iy iz ja jb jc jd je jf jg jh ji jj jk jl jm jn jo jp jq jr js jt ju jv jw jx jy jz ka kb kc kd ke kf kg kh ki kj kk kl km kn ko kp kq kr ks kt ku kv kw kx ky kz la lb lc ld le lf lg lh li lj lk ll lm ln lo lp lq lr ls lt lu lv lw lx Active Hate Groups 2016, Intelligence Report (February 15, 2017).
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad 2017 KKK hate groups, Southern Poverty Law Center.
  20. ^ See, in general:
  21. ^ Lee McGowan (2002). The Radical Right in Germany: 1870 to the Present. Pearson Education. pp. 9, 178. ISBN 0582291933. OCLC 49785551.
  22. ^ Lee, Martin A. 1997. The Beast Reawakens. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, pp. 85–118, 214–34, 277–81, 287–330, 333–78. On Volk concept", and a discussion of ethnonationalist integralism, see pp. 215–18
  23. ^ Ondřej Cakl & Klára Kalibová (2002). "Neo-Nazism". Faculty of Humanities at Charles University in Prague, Department of Civil Society Studies. Retrieved December 8, 2007. Neo-Nazism: An ideology that draws upon the legacy of the Nazi Third Reich, the main pillars of which are an admiration for Adolf Hitler, aggressive nationalism ("nothing but the nation"), and hatred of Jews, foreigners, ethnic minorities, homosexuals and everyone who is different in some way.
  24. ^ Werner Bergmann; Rainer Erb (1997). Anti-Semitism in Germany: The Post-Nazi Epoch Since 1945. Transaction Publishers. p. 91. ISBN 1560002700. OCLC 35318351. In contrast to today, in which rigid authoritarianism and neo-Nazism are characteristic of marginal groups, open or latent leanings toward Nazi ideology in the 1940s and 1950s
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa 2017 neo-Nazi hate groups, Southern Poverty Law Center.
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u "Active Neo-Nazi Groups". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl "Active White Nationalist Groups". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l 2017 neo-Volkisch hate groups, Southern Poverty Law Center.
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay 2017 white nationalist hate groups, Southern Poverty Law Center.
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Active Anti-Immigrant Groups". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved July 9, 2014.
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa 2017 racist skinhead hate groups, Southern Poverty Law Center.
  32. ^ "White Power Music". Anti-Defamation League. 2005. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved October 7, 2007.
  33. ^ "Immigration Fueling White Supremacists". CBS News. February 6, 2007.
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v "Active Racist Skinhead Groups". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  35. ^ a b Antigoverment Movement, Southern Poverty Law Center.
  36. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v 2017 black nationalist hate groups, Southern Poverty Law Center.
  37. ^ a b c d e f g "Active Black Separatist Groups". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved July 9, 2014.
  38. ^ a b c d e f g h i 2017 neo-Confederate hate groups, Southern Poverty Law Center.
  39. ^ a b c d e f g h "Active Neo-Confederate Groups". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t 2017 Christian identity hate groups, Southern Poverty Law Center.
  41. ^ For background see:
    • Eck, Diane (2001). A New Religious America: How a "Christian Country" has become the world's most religiously diverse nation. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. p. 347.
    • Buck, Christopher (2009). Religious Myths and Visions of America: How Minority Faiths Redefined America's World Role. Praeger. pp. 107–08, 213. ISBN 978-0313359590.
    • "Christian Identity". Adl.org. Archived from the original on January 19, 2012. Retrieved January 24, 2012.
    • Barkun, Michael (1996). "preface". Religion and the Racist Right: The Origins of the Christian Identity Movement. University of North Carolina Press. pp. x, xii, xiii. ISBN 0807823287.
  42. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v "Active Christian Identity Groups". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved July 9, 2014.
  43. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao "Active Anti-LGBT Groups". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved July 9, 2014.
  44. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao 2017 anti-LGBT hate groups, Southern Povety Law Center.
  45. ^ "SPLC adds 'Sodomist Semen' pastor's church to list of anti-LGBTI hate groups". Gay Star News. May 16, 2015. Retrieved August 10, 2016.
  46. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak "Active Hate Groups in the United States in 2014 – General Hate". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved February 4, 2016.
  47. ^ "Extremist Files: Ideology: Anti-immigrant". Southern Poverty Law Center.
  48. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u 2017 anti-immigrant hate groups, Southern Poverty Law Center.
  49. ^ In general see:
  50. ^ a b c d e f g h 2017 Holocaust denial hate groups, Southern Poverty Law Center.
  51. ^ a b c d e f g h "Active Holocaust Denial Groups". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved July 9, 2014.
  52. ^ a b c "The Year in Hate: Trump buoyed white supremacists in 2017, sparking backlash among black nationalist groups". Southern Poverty Law Center. December 8, 2017. Retrieved February 21, 2018.
  53. ^ Intelligence Report: a project of the Southern Poverty Law Center, Issues 133–136; Southern Poverty Law Center, Klanwatch Project, Southern Poverty Law Center. Militia Task Force, Publisher Klanwatch, 2009.
  54. ^ Messner, Beth A., Art Jipson, Paul J. Becker and Bryan Byers. 2007."The Hardest Hate: A Sociological Analysis of Country Hate Music: From Rebel Records to Prussian Blue: A History of White Racialist Music in the United States". Popular Music and Society. 30(4):513–31.
  55. ^ Pulera, Dominic J.,Sharing the Dream: White Males in a Multicultural America, pp. 309–11.
  56. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o 2017 hate music groups, Southern Poverty Law Center.
  57. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Active Racist Music Groups". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  58. ^ Schmid, Thacher (February 21, 2017). "A Northeast Portland Record Label Lands on a National Hate-Group Registry: The Alberta Street company's top-selling product is the music of an alleged neo-Nazi band from England". Willamette Week. Retrieved May 9, 2017.
  59. ^ Radical Traditional Catholicism, Intelligence Files, Southern Poverty Law Center, 2011.
  60. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Active Radical Traditional Catholicism Groups". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  61. ^ a b c d e f g h i j 2017 radical traditional Catholicism hate groups, Southern Poverty Law Center.
  62. ^ Heidi Beirich, Radical Powerhouse, Intelligence Report, Southern Poverty Law Center (2015).
  63. ^ a b "Anti-Muslim". Southern Poverty Law Center.
  64. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb 2017 anti-Muslim hate groups, Southern Poverty Law Center.
  65. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae "Active Anti-Muslim Groups". Intelligence Report. Southern Poverty Law Center. Spring 2015.
  66. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag 2017 General Hate groups, Southern Poverty Law Center.

External links