Turkistan Islamic Party
The neutrality of this article is disputed. (December 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The Turkistan Islamic Party (TIP, Arabic: الحزب الإسلامي التركستاني) or Turkistan Islamic Movement (TIM), formerly known as the East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM) and other names,[a] is an Islamic extremist organization founded by Uyghur jihadists in western China, considered broadly as a terrorist group. Its stated goals are to establish an independent state called "East Turkestan" in Xinjiang. According to a Chinese report, published in 2002, between 1990 and 2001 the ETIM had committed over 200 acts of terrorism, resulting in at least 162 deaths and over 440 injuries.
|Turkistan Islamic Party|
Since the September 11 attacks, the group has been designated as a terrorist organization by the European Union, Kyrgyzstan, (The Eastern Turkistan Islamic Party, Organization for Freeing Eastern Turkistan, and the Islamic Party of Turkistan were outlawed by Kyrgyzstan's Lenin District Court and its Supreme Court in November 2003.) Kazakhstan, Russia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, China, the United States, and Pakistan outlawed the group. Its Syrian branch Turkistan Islamic Party in Syria is active in the Syrian Civil War.
The area known as Xinjiang had been a protectorate of China as early as 60 BC during the Han dynasty when it was part of the Protectorate of the Western Regions and also a protectorate of Tang dynasty China when it was part of the Protectorate General to Pacify the West, though there are numerous periods of independence from China. The historical area of what is modern day Xinjiang consisted of the distinct areas of the Tarim Basin and Dzungaria, and was originally populated by Indo-European Tocharian and Iranic Saka peoples who practiced the Buddhist religion. The area was subjected to Turkification and Islamification at the hands of invading Turkic Muslims during the Islamicisation and Turkicisation of Xinjiang. In the 18th century the Qing Dynasty reorganized the territory as a province, Xinjiang. Yet, Russian influence was strong. Russian Orthodox Old Believers emigrated from Russia to Xinjiang in the early 19th century, and the Russian Civil War accelerated this immigration by adding white émigrés. During China's warlord era in the 1910s–1920s, the Soviet Union propped up the separatist Second East Turkestan Republic in the Ili region while the rest of Xinjiang was controlled by the Republic of China. The Second East Turkestan Republic dissolved itself on Soviet orders when the Chinese communists established the People's Republic of China after the Chinese Civil War. Nevertheless, the Soviet Union distributed Soviet passports among the Central Asian ethnics in Xinjiang to facilitate emigration to Kazakh SSR. After the Sino-Soviet split, the Soviet Union amassed troops on the Russian border with Xinjiang, and bolstered "East Turkestan" separatist movements, which received moral and material support from other regional militant groups. China accused the Soviets of engineering riots, and improved the military infrastructure there to combat it.
Abdul Hameed, Abdul Azeez Makhdoom, and Abdul Hakeem Makhdoom launched the Islamic Party of Turkistan in 1940. After being set free from prison in 1979, Abdul Hakeem instructed Hasan Mahsum and other Uyghurs in fundamentalist Islam.
In 1989 Ziyauddin Yusuf (Zeydin Yusup) started the group which was originally called East Turkistan Islamic Party(ETIP). The name in Uyghur was (شەرقىي تۈركىستان ئىسلام پارتىيىسى) Sherqiy Türkistan Islam Partiyisi, and in Turkish it was called Doğu Türkistan İslam Partisi. The movement was reshuffled by Hasan Mahsum and Abudukadir Yapuquan in 1997 into its present incarnation. This group was referred to as "East Turkestan Islamic Movement" (ETIM) by the Chinese government but the group itself never used that name. In 1998 Mahsum moved ETIM's headquarters to Kabul, taking shelter under Taliban-controlled Afghanistan. The Chinese government alleges that Mahsum met with leaders of al-Qaeda and the Taliban including Osama bin Laden in 1999 in Afghanistan to coordinate actions, though Mahsum denied this. There, the East Turkestan Islamic Movement dropped the "East" from its name as it increased its domain. The group's infrastructure was crippled after the United States invaded Afghanistan and bombed Al Qaeda bases in the mountainous regions along the border with Pakistan, after which the leader of ETIM, Hasan Mahsum, was killed by a Pakistani raid on an Al-Qaeda camp in 2003.
However, ETIM resurged after the Iraq War inflamed mujaheddin sentiment. The United States Department of State has yet to fully list it as a foreign terrorist organization under Title 8 of the United States Code Section 1189, though the United States Department of the Treasury has blocked the property and prohibited transactions with the terrorist organization according to Executive Order 13224 and the State Department has blocked its members for immigration purpose. In 2006, ETIM circulated a video calling for a renewed jihad, and took advantage of the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing to gain publicity for its attacks. The ETIM is said to be allied with the Pakistani Taliban (Tehreek i Taliban Pakistan) prompting China to urge Pakistan to take action against the militants.
The new organization called itself the Turkistan Islamic Party (TIP) and abandoned usage of the name ETIM, although China still calls it by the name ETIM and refuses to acknowledge it as TIP. The Turkistan Islamic Party was originally subordinated to the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU) but then split off and declared its name as TIP and started making itself known by promoting itself with its Islamic Turkistan magazine and Voice of Islam media in Chinese, Arabic, Russian, and Turkish in order to reach out to global jihadists. Control over the Uyghur and Uzbek militants was transferred to the Pakistani Taliban from the Afghan Taliban after 2001, so violence against the militant's countries of origins can no longer restrained by the Afghan Taliban since the Pakistani Taliban does not have a stake in doing so.
TIP's Ṣawt al-Islām (Voice of Islam) media arm releases video messages. The full name of their media center is "Turkistan Islamic Party Voice of Islam Media Center" Uyghur: (تۈركىستان ئىسلام پارتىيىسى ئىسلام ئاۋازى تەشۋىقات مەركىزى) Türkistan Islam Partiyisi Islam Awazi Teshwiqat Merkizi, Türkistan Islam Partiyisining Islam Awazi Teshwiqat Merkizi.
The East Turkestan Islamic Movement (Turkistan Islamic Party) is allied with the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan along with the Pakistani Taliban (Tehreek i Taliban Pakistan) and Al-Qaeda. One of the grievances against China by the TIP was that China implemented restrictions on the number of children, and the demolition of historical Muslim urban areas.
TIP member Abdul Haq al Turkistani joined al-Qaeda's executive leadership council in 2005 and TIP member Abdul Shakoor Turkistani was appointed its military commander of its forces in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan. Abdul Haq was so apparently highly placed in al-Qaeda leadership that he served as a mediator between rival Taliban factions and played an integral role in military planning.
The Uyghurs East Turkestan independence movement was endorsed in the serial "Islamic Spring"'s 9th release by Ayman Al-Zawahiri, the chief of Al-Qaeda. Zawahiri confirmed that the Afghanistan war after 9/11 included the participation of Uighurs and that the jihadists like Zarwaqi, Bin Ladin and the Uighur Hasan Mahsum were provided with refuge together in Afghanistan under Taliban rule.
Other al-Qaeda members such as Abu Yahya al-Libi, and Mustafa Setmariam Nasar─who had met some Uyghurs in Afghanistan where they trained as mujahidin─have also expressed personal support.
Al-Qaeda aligned al-Fajr Media Center distributes TIP material.
Afghanistan and WaziristanEdit
TIP (ETIM) sent the "Turkistan Brigade" (Katibat Turkistani), also known as the Turkistan Islamic Party in Syria to take part in the Syrian Civil War, most noticeably in the 2015 Jisr al-Shughur offensive. Al-Qaeda linked groups in Syria include the Syrian branch of the Chechen Caucasus Emirate, Uzbek militants, and the Turkistan Islamic Party.
TIP has participated in:
- Northwestern Syria offensive (April–June 2015)
- Al-Ghab offensive (July–August 2015)
- Siege of Abu al-Duhur Airbase
- Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War
- Northwestern Syria offensive (October–November 2015)
- Latakia offensive (2015–2016)
- Aleppo offensive (October 2015 – present)
- Siege of Al-Fu'ah-Kafarya (2015)
- Aleppo offensive (April 2016)
- Aleppo offensive (May 2016)
Syrian Churches have been demolished by Turkistan Islamic Party Uyghur fighters, who exalted in the acts of destruction, and in Homs and Idlib battlefields the Turkistan Islamic Party cooperated with Uzbek brigades and Jabhat al-Nusra, Jabhat al-Nusra and IS (ISIL) compete with each other to recruit Uyghur fighters. In Jisr al-Shughur a Church's cross had a TIP flag placed on top of it after the end of the battle. The Uzbek group Katibat al-Tawhid wal Jihad (Tavhid va Jihod katibasi) released a video featuring themselves and the Uyghur Turkistan Islamic Party attacking and desecrating Christian Churches in Jisr al-Shughur. Jabhat al Nusra and Turkistan Islamic Party fighters were accused of displacing Christian residents of rural Jisr al-Shughour, and reportedly killed a Syrian Christian man along with his wife, accusing them of being Syrian government agents. The Saudi news agency Al-Arabiya said that the area was Alawite.
Camps training children for Jihad are being run by the Turkistan Islamic Party in Syria. Uyghur child soldiers being instructed in Sharia and training with guns were depicted in a video released by TIP.
Turkish connections were used by Uyghur fighters to go into Syria and the humanitarian Uyghur East Turkistan Education and Solidarity Association (ETESA) which is located in Turkey sent Uyghurs into Syria, endorsed the killing of the pro-China Imam Juma Tayir, applauded attacks in China, and posted on its website content from the TIP.
The Islamist Turkish publisher "Beyaz Minare Kitap" (White Minaret Book) published a Turkish language book titled "Türkistan'dan Şehadete Hicret Hikayeleri 1" containing the biographies of Turkistan Islamic Party fighters along with praise of TIP fighters by Abdullah al-Muhaysini.
The Uyghur diaspora in the Küçükçekmece, Sefaköy and Zeytinburnu districts of Istanbul are the source of Uyghur Turkistan Islamic Party jihadists in Syria. According to the Turkish-based Uyghur website Doğu Türkistan Bülteni (which supports the TIP), the Uyghur diaspora in Küçükçekmece and Zeytinburnu was fearful after the assassination of Uzbek imam Abdullah Bukhari and reports of Chinese-loyalist Uyghur agents sent to Istanbul to hunt down separatist Uyghurs.
Turkey 3 August 2017, officially recognizes the "East Turkestan Islamic Movement" as a terrorist organization.
Route into SyriaEdit
Ajnad al Qawqaz, Jund al-Sham, Katibat al-Tawhid wal Jihad, Ahrar Ash-sham, Turkistan Islamic Party, Jund al-Aqsa, and Jabhat al Nusra developed an "Emergency plan" to turn Idlib into a Syrian version of the "Tora Bora" complex in Afghanistan, the TIP fighters travel to Syria and Turkey via Laos, Philippines, and Thailand bringing entire Uyghur families.
The NEFA Foundation, an American terrorist analyst foundation, translated and released a jihad article from ETIM, whose membership it said consisted primarily of "Uyghur Muslims from Western China." The East Turkestan Islamic Movement's primary goal is the independence of East Turkestan. ETIM continues this theme of contrasting "Muslims" and "Chinese", in a six-minute video in 2008, where "Commander Seyfullah" warns Muslims not to bring their children to the 2008 Summer Olympics, and also saying "do not stay on the same bus, on the same train, on the same plane, in the same buildings, or any place the Chinese are".
Terrorism expert Rohan Gunaratna has said that ETIM is closely associated with the World Uyghur Congress (WUC), and that there are "many sympathizers and supporters" of ETIM in the WUC. China has accused the WUC of orchestrating the 2009 ethnic violence in Urumqi; similarly, Gunaratna said that one of ETIM's aims is to "fuel hatred" and violence between the Han and the Uyghur ethnic groups, adding that it represented a threat to China and the Central Asia region as a whole.
|Memetiming Memeti||Abdul Haq||Leading the organization, inciting ethnic tensions in 2006 and 2007, buying explosives, organizing terrorist attacks against the 2008 Summer Olympics||Thought to have been killed in North Waziristan drone attack Resurfaced in 2014|
|Aibu Abudureheman, Saifula, Abdul Jabar||Threatening to use biological and chemical weapons against servicepeople and Western politicians for the 2008 Olympics, disseminating manuals on explosives and poisons||Killed in North Waziristan drone attack|
(Memet Tursun Imin)
|Abuduaini||Raised funds for ETIM, tested bombs in the run-up to the Olympics||Since 2008, Western Asia|
(Memet Tursun Abduxaliq)
|Metusun Abuduhalike, Ansarui, Naijimuding||Attacked government organizations, money laundering for ETIM operations, buying vehicles and renting houses for attacks||Unknown|
|Saiyide||Recruiting for ETIM in the Middle East, blew up a Chinese supermarket||Unknown|
|Assisted Xiamisidingaihemaiti Abudumijiti in the supermarket attack||Unknown|
|Abudujilili Aimaiti, Abudula, Punjab||Sneaked into China illegally to gather information on Chinese neighborhoods, a failed suicide attack against oil refinery||Killed in North Waziristan drone attack|
|Mubaixier, Nurula||Organizing a terror team for the 2008 Olympics, buying raw materials for them and requesting chemical formulas for explosives||Killed in North Waziristan drone attack|
Guantanamo Bay detaineesEdit
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
The United States captured 22 Uyghur militants from combat zones in Afghanistan in 2006 on information that they were linked to Al-Qaeda. They were imprisoned without trial for five to seven years, where they testified that they were trained by ETIM leader Abdul Haq, at an ETIM training camp. After being found No Longer Enemy Combatant, i.e. never having been enemy combatants, a panel of judges ordered them released into the United States. Despite the alarm of politicians that the release of embittered former Guantanamo detainees into the United States was unsafe and illegal, they could not be released back to China because of its human rights record.
- In 2007, ETIM militants in cars shot Chinese nationals in Pakistani Balochistan and sent a videotape of the attack to Beijing, in retaliation for an execution of an ETIM official earlier that July.
- ETIM also took credit for a spate of attacks before the 2008 Summer Olympics, including a series of bus bombings in Kunming, an attempted plane hijacking in Urumqi, and an attack on paramilitary troops in Kashgar that killed 17 officers.
- On 29 June 2010, a court in Dubai convicted two members of an ETIM cell of plotting to bomb a government-owned shopping mall that sold Chinese goods. This was the ETIM plot outside of China or Central Asia. The key plotter was recruited during Hajj and was flown to Waziristan to train.
- In July 2010, officials in Norway interrupted a terrorist bomb plot, another instance of ETIM branching out of its original regions and cooperating with international groups. New York Times correspondent Edward Wong says that ETIM "give[s] them a raison d'être at a time when the Chinese government has... defused any chance of a widespread insurgency... in Xinjiang."
- In October 2013, a suicide attack in Tiananmen Square caused 5 deaths and 38 injuries. Chinese police described it as the first terrorist attack in Beijing's recent history. Turkistan Islamic Party later claimed responsibility for the attack.
Critics say that the threats ETIM itself makes are exaggerated, and that ETIM embellishes its own image and commits psychological warfare against China for its false threats, including forcing it to increase security. Dru C. Gladney, an authority on Uyghurs, said that there was "a credibility gap" about the group since the majority of information on ETIM "was traced back to Chinese sources", and that some believe ETIM to be part of a US-China quid pro quo, where China supported the US-led War on Terror, and "support of the US for the condemnation of ETIM was connected to that support." The Uyghur American Association has publicly doubted the ETIM's existence.
On 16 June 2009, Representative Bill Delahunt convened hearings to examine how organizations were added to the US blacklist in general, and how the ETIM was added in particular. Uyghur expert Sean Roberts testified that the ETIM was new to him, that it wasn't until it was blacklisted that he heard of the group, and noted that "it is perfectly reasonable to assume that the organization no longer exists at all."[dead link] The Congressional Research Service reported that the first published mention of the group was in the year 2000, but that China attributed attacks to it that had occurred up to a decade earlier.[dead link]
Stratfor has noted repeated unexplained attacks on Chinese buses in 2008 have followed a history of ETIM targeting Chinese infrastructure, and noted the group's splintering and subsequent reorganization following the death of Mahsum.
Intelligence analysts J. Todd Reed and Diana Raschke acknowledge that reporting in China presents obstacles not found in countries where information is not so tightly controlled. However, they found that ETIM's existence and activities could be confirmed independently of Chinese government sources, using information gleaned from ETIM's now-defunct website, reports from human rights groups and academics, and testimony from the Uyghur detainees at Guantanamo Bay. Reed & Raschke also question the information put out by Uyghur expatriates that deny ETIM's existence or impact, as the Uyghurs who leave Xinjiang are those who object most to government policy, are unable to provide first-hand analysis, and have an incentive to exaggerate repression and downplay militancy. They say that ETIM was "obscure but not unknown" before the September 11 attacks, citing "Western, Russian, and Chinese media sources" that have "documented the ETIM's existence for nearly 20 years".
In Beijing's Xidan district, a bus bomb killed two people on 7 March 1997 and Uyghur separatists boasted that they were behind the attack. The participation of Uyghurs in the bus bombing was dismissed by the Chinese government even while the Turkey-based "Organisation for East Turkistan Freedom" boasted to committing the attack. Violent attacks were carried out by Turkey, Afghanistan, and Central Asian based groups.
In 2010 responsibility for attacks in China was claimed by the Turkistan Islamic Party.
Several attacks in 2011 in Xinjiang were claimed by the Turkistan Islamic Party.
Nick Holdstock, in a New York Times interview claimed that no organization is taking responsibility for attacks in Xinjiang, and that there is not enough proof to blame any organization for the attacks, that most "terrorism" there is "unsubstantiated", and that posting internet videos online is the only thing done by the "vague and shadowy" ETIM. Wall Street Journal claimed that Al-Qaeda was not connected to Uyghurs and claimed that no attacks were performed by ETIM (TIP). French journalist Ursula Gauthier claimed that the ETIM is currently not classified as terrorist by the USA approvingly cited people who called into question whether it is real, suggesting that they are wrongly being blamed by China for violent attacks and she claimed "probably" "abuse, injustice, expropriation" of Uighurs justified retribution in the form of mass slaughter at a coal mine. Reuters cited claims that there is no group called ETIM (TIP). The "Doğu Türkistan Bülteni Haber Ajansı" which supports the TIP, cited a Reuters article which claimed that Uyghurs are viewed as terrorists in China. The "Doğu Türkistan Bülteni Haber Ajansı" praised a TIP member, Hamza (Muhammad Ali Told Rahim), who joined the Turkistan Islamic Party as one of the "mujahideen" fighting in Khorasan (Afghanistan) on 15 December 2006 and returned to Kashgar to participate in the 2011 Kashgar attacks in which he was killed, citing from a Human Rights Watch report which praised Hamza.
Gordon G. Chang in an interview with Clarion Project attacked the designation of ETIM as terrorist and tried claiming that Uighurs have little terrorists among them. Freedom House tried to throw shade on the idea that the attackers in the 2013 Tiananmen Square attack were Uighurs, and then justified the attack by saying the attacker must have been in "desperation" if it was Uighur.
Lebanese American political scientist and Al Akhbar columnist As'ad AbuKhalil slammed and criticized western media for not reporting on the massive Turkistan Islamic Party inghimasi participation in the Aleppo offensive (June–August 2016) since it goes against their agenda. He criticized Charles Lister, Fabrice Balanche and New York Times reporter Roger Cohen for this. The Long War Journal confirmed that Al Qaeda affiliated Uyghur Turkistan Islamic Party Jihadists fought in Aleppo. A suicide bomber who blows up after using up all his conventional weapons first is an inghimasi.
Richard Bernstein in the New York Review of Books tried to deny that Syria had any Uyghur jihadist presence. as did the Daily Mail and The Sydney Morning Herald. David Volodzko admitted that the Al-Qaeda allied Uyghur Turkistan Islamic Party was fighting in Syria, and refuted and disproved the claims that Uyghurs were not in Syria made by "The Sydney Morning Herald", the Daily Mail, and Bernstein's article in the New York Review of Books. Muhanad Hage Ali wrote an exposé on Uyghur Turkistan Islamic Party jihadists in Syria.
Andrew McGregor wrote about the Turkistan Islamic Party's presence in North Waziristan. The Uighur fighters were praised by Zawahiri, the leader of Al-Qaeda before a Turkistan Islamic Party performed the Bishkek bombing on 30 August. The Turkistan Islamic Party slammed and attacked Assad, Russia, NATO, the United States and other western countries in its propagand outlets like the "Islamic Turkestan" magazine and its Telegram channel.
- ^a The official name of the organization since 1999 is the "Turkistan Islamic Movement", but in English it is known by its old name and acronym, ETIM. Other aliases adopted over the years are "East Turkistan Islamic Party", "Allah Party", and "East Turkistan National Revolution Association".
- Sami Moubayed (29 September 2015). Under the Black Flag: At the Frontier of the New Jihad. I.B.Tauris. pp. 161–. ISBN 978-0-85772-921-7.
- http://world.huanqiu.com/roll/2010-03/730693.html. Missing or empty
- "Turkestan Islamic Party emir thought killed in 2010 reemerged to lead group in 2014". The Long War Journal. 11 June 2015. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- "TIP Leader Congratulates Attack in Hotan in Video". SITE Intel Group. 10 June 2015. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- MacLean, William (23 November 2013). "Islamist group calls Tiananmen attack 'jihadi operation': SITE". Reuters.
- "Video of Turkestan Islamic Party (TIP) Training Camp in Pakistan". LiveLeak.com. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- "TIP Division in Syria Releases Video Promoting Cause, Inciting for Jihad". SITE Institute. 6 June 2014. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
- turkistanhaber (6 February 2016). "Türkistan İslam Cemaati'nden Yeni Video " Zafer Sadece Allahtan'dır 2 " |". Doguturkistanbulteni.com. Archived from the original on 29 March 2016. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- "Micro Syria Guide For The Perplexed American: Know Your Terrorists". Syriawatch.intoxvs.info. 22 February 2016. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- Zelin, Aaron Y. "New video message from al-Muhājirūn: "The Return of Jaysh al-Fataḥ" | JIHADOLOGY: A clearinghouse for jihādī primary source material, original analysis, and translation service". Jihadology.net. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- "Turkistan Islamic Party leader criticizes the Islamic State's 'illegitimate' caliphate | FDD's Long War Journal". Longwarjournal.org. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
- "China's Counter-Terrorism Calculus". 25 January 2016.
- "Beijing, Kunming, Urumqi and Guangzhou: The Changing Landscape of Anti-Chinese Jihadists". Jamestown Foundation. 23 May 2014.
- "Exile Group Denies Terror Link". Radio Free Asia. 2 November 2012.
- "Zarb-e-Azb: Army says 90% of North Waziristan cleared". Tribune.com.pk. 16 November 2014. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- "Operation updates: 22 militants killed in Datta Khel air strikes". Tribune.com.pk. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- "Turkey lists "E. Turkestan Islamic Movement" as terrorists - People's Daily Online". En.people.cn. 3 August 2017. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
- Terri Moon Cronk (7 February 2018). "U.S. Forces Strike Taliban, East Turkestan Islamic Movement Training Sites". U.S. Department of Defense. Retrieved 8 February 2018.
- "Syrian rebels pour men and missiles into frontlines". The Fiscal Times. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
- Bashir, Shaykh (1 July 2008). "Why Are We Fighting China?" (PDF). NEFA Foundation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 June 2012. Retrieved 7 August 2010.
...We are fighting China... China is an enemy who has invaded Muslim countries and occupies Muslim East Turkestan. There is no greater obligation, aside from belief in Allah, than expelling the enemies of Muslims from our countries.... We are fighting China to make them testify that 'there is no God but Allah, Mohammed is the Messenger of Allah' and make them convert to Islam....
- ""East Turkistan" Terrorist Forces Cannot Get Away With Impunity". PRC State Council. 21 January 2002. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
- "Consolidated TEXT: 32002R0881 — EN — 10.10.2015". eur-lex.europa.eu. Retrieved 25 August 2016.
- Ansari, Massoud (3 August 2007). "The New Face of Jihad". Newsline. Archived from the original on 10 June 2009. Retrieved 31 July 2007.
- Tom Lansford (24 March 2015). Political Handbook of the World 2015. SAGE Publications. pp. 818–. ISBN 978-1-4833-7158-0.
- Emmanuel Karagiannis (4 December 2009). Political Islam in Central Asia: The Challenge of Hizb Ut-Tahrir. Routledge. pp. 67–. ISBN 978-1-135-23942-8.
- Emmanuel Karagiannis (4 December 2009). Political Islam in Central Asia: The challenge of Hizb ut-Tahrir. Routledge. pp. 112–. ISBN 978-1-135-23941-1.
- Mariya Y. Omelicheva (13 September 2010). Counterterrorism Policies in Central Asia. Routledge. pp. 131–. ISBN 978-1-136-92372-2.American Foreign Policy Council (30 January 2014). The World Almanac of Islamism: 2014. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 673–. ISBN 978-1-4422-3144-3.J. Todd Reed; Diana Raschke (2010). The ETIM: China's Islamic Militants and the Global Terrorist Threat. ABC-CLIO. pp. 206–. ISBN 978-0-313-36540-9.Terrorism Documents of International and Local Control: Volumes 90 and 91. Oxford University Press. 29 July 2008. pp. 168–. ISBN 978-0-19-538101-6.
- "هؤلاء انغماسيو أردوغان الذين يستوردهم من الصين - عربي أونلاين". 3arabionline.com. 31 January 2017. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
- "List of groups designated terrorist organisations by the UAE". The National (Abu Dhabi). Retrieved 19 May 2015."مجلس الوزراء يعتمد قائمة التنظيمات الإرهابية". Emirates News Agency (WAM) وكالة أنباء الإمارات. 15 November 2014. Archived from the original on 17 November 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2014."UAE cabinet endorses new list of terrorist groups". Kuwait News Agency (KUNA) وكالة الأنباء الكويتية. 15 November 2014. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2014.AFP (15 November 2014). "UAE blacklists 5 Pakistani groups among 83 as 'militant organisations". The Express Tribune. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 30 January 2016. Retrieved 10 February 2016.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- Martina, Michael; Blanchard, Ben; Spring, Jake (20 July 2016). Ruwitch, John; Macfie, Nick (eds.). "Britain adds Chinese militant group to terror list". Reuters.
- "U.S.Department of State Terrorist Exclusion List" (Retrieved on 29 July 2014).
- "Three groups active in Xinjiang banned - Pakistan". Dawn.Com. 24 October 2013. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
- "China issues white paper on history, development of Xinjiang (Part One)". Xinhua. 26 May 2003. Archived from the original on 9 June 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2010.
- Lüthi, Lorenz M. (2008). The Sino-Soviet split: Cold War in the communist world. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-13590-8.
- "Regions and territories: Xinjiang". Country Profiles. BBC News. 15 July 2009. Retrieved 7 August 2010.
- Marketos, Thrassy N. (2009). China's Energy Geopolitics: The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation and Central Asia. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-45690-6.
- Arabinda Acharya; Rohan Gunaratna; Wang Pengxin (22 June 2010). Ethnic Identity and National Conflict in China. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 53–. ISBN 978-0-230-10787-8.
- Arabinda Acharya; Rohan Gunaratna; Wang Pengxin (22 June 2010). Ethnic Identity and National Conflict in China. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 54–. ISBN 978-0-230-10787-8.
- J. Todd Reed; Diana Raschke (2010). The ETIM: China's Islamic Militants and the Global Terrorist Threat. ABC-CLIO. pp. 48–. ISBN 978-0-313-36540-9.
- China Perspectives. C.E.F.C. 2003. p. 40.
- "东突"恐怖势力难脱罪责土. 五洲传播出版社. 2002. pp. 5–. ISBN 978-7-5085-0029-4.
- "China: The Evolution of ETIM". Stratfor.com. 13 May 2008. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- Rohan Gunaratna; Aviv Oreg (1 July 2015). The Global Jihad Movement. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 244–. ISBN 978-1-4422-4542-6.
- A. Acharya; R. Gunaratna; W. Pengxin (21 June 2010). Ethnic Identity and National Conflict in China. Palgrave Macmillan US. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-230-10787-8.
- "China: The Evolution of ETIM". Stratfor. 13 May 2008. Archived from the original on 30 June 2009. Retrieved 7 August 2010.
- "Chinese militant "shot dead"". BBC News. 23 December 2003. Retrieved 27 January 2007.
- Guang, Pan (May 2006). "East Turkestan Terrorism and the Terrorist Arc: china's Post-9/11 Anti-Terror Strategy". China and Eurasia Forum Quarterly. 4 (2). ISSN 1653-4212.
- "§1189. Designation of foreign terrorist organizations". U.S. Government Publishing Office. Retrieved 4 August 2016.
- "Other Groups of Concern" (PDF). U.S. State Department. Retrieved 4 August 2016.
- "Individuals and Entities Designated by the State Department Under E.O. 13224". U.S. State Department. Retrieved 4 August 2016.
- "Terrorist Exclusion List". U.S. State Department. Retrieved 4 August 2016.
- "Hu Jintao urges Zardari to crush ETIM extremists". The Nation (Pakistan). Archived from the original on 18 March 2013. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
- Zenn, Jacob (24 June 2013). "On the Eve of 2014: Islamism in Central Asia". Current Trends in Islamist Ideology. Hudson Institute. Retrieved 18 September 2015.
- Zenn, Jacob (2 October 2013). "Increasing Numbers of Central Asian Jihadists in Syria". The Central Asia-Caucasus Analyst. The Central Asia-Caucasus Analyst. Retrieved 18 September 2015.
- "The Taliban". Tony Blair Faith Foundation. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- "Sherqiy Türkistan Radio Téléviziyisi-East Turkistan Radio & Television – Uyghurche". East-turkistan.tv. Archived from the original on 21 April 2016. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- "Xewerler – Sherqiy Türkistan Jumhuriyiti Sürgündiki Hökümiti – East Turkistan Government in Exile". Uy.eastturkistan-gov.org. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- "Sherqiy Türkistan Radio Téléviziyisi-East Turkistan Radio & Television – Uyghurche". East-turkistan.tv. Archived from the original on 23 April 2016. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- "Sherqiy Türkistan Jumhuriyiti Sürgündiki Hökümiti – East Turkistan Government in Exile". Uy.eastturkistan-gov.org. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- Potter 2013, p. 74.
- Potter 2013, pp. 71–74.
- "FOREIGN TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS p. 237" (PDF). Retrieved 25 November 2017.
- McGregor, Andrew (11 March 2010). "Will Xinjiang's Turkistani Islamic Party Survive the Drone Missile Death of its Leader?". Terrorism Monitor. The Jamestown Foundation. 8 (10). Retrieved 14 June 2015.
- Roggio, Bill (23 January 2010). "US airstrike killed 15 Turkistan Islamic Party fighters in Afghanistan". The Long War Journal.
- Roggio, Bill (25 August 2012). "Turkistan Islamic Party leader thought killed in US drone strike". The Long War Journal.
- Potter, Philip B. K. (Winter 2013). "Terrorism in China: Growing Threats with Global Implications" (PDF). Strategic Studies Quarterly. 7 (4): 71–74.
- http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2016/07/zawahiri-praises-uighur-jihadists-in-ninth-episode-of-islamic-spring-series.php https://news.siteintelgroup.com/Jihadist-News/zawahiri-addresses-uyghur-muslims-in-ninth-episode-of-islamic-spring.htmlhttp://jihadology.net/2016/07/02/new-video-message-from-dr-ayman-al-%e1%ba%93awahiri-the-islamic-spring-9-turkistan-patience-and-then-victory[permanent dead link] https://videopress.com/embed/tcYTflzt?hd=0&autoPlay=0&permalink=0&loop=0
- "Turkistan Islamic Party Video Attempts to Explain Uyghur Militancy to Chinese". Raffaello Pantucci. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- Zenn, Jacob (29 April 2016). "An Overview of Chinese Fighters and Anti-Chinese Militant Groups in Syria and Iraq | The Jamestown Foundation". Jamestown.org. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- Mustafa Setmariam Nasar (aliases Abu Musab al-Suri and Umar Abd al-Hakim) (1999). "Muslims in Central Asia and The Coming Battle of Islam".
- Brynjar Lia (January 2008). Architect of Global Jihad: The Life of Al-Qaida Strategist Abu Musʻab Al-Suri. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-70030-6.
- "TIP Enters Jihadist Mainstream | Articles & Analysis". News.siteintelgroup.com. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- "Who is fighting in northern Afghanistan? | Asia | DW.COM | 07.10.2015". Dw.com. 28 March 2016. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- Azami, Dawood (1 October 2015). "Taliban triumph in capture of Kunduz". BBC News. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- Bezhan, Frud (4 May 2015). "Foreign Voices Ring Out In Afghan Spring Offensive". Rferl.org. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- Joseph Goldstein (30 September 2015). "A Taliban Prize, Won in a Few Hours After Years of Strategy". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
- "Afghan US Force Back Taliban in Kunduz". The Australian. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- Weiss, Caleb (23 April 2015). "Turkistan Islamic Party in Syria involved in new Idlib offensive". Long War Journal.
- Weiss, Caleb (30 April 2015). "Turkistan Islamic Party had significant role in recent Idlib offensive". Long War Journal.
- Joscelyn, Thomas (29 September 2015). "US counterterrorism efforts in Syria: A winning strategy?". Long War Journal.
- Gurcan, Metin (9 September 2015). "How the Islamic State is exploiting Asian unrest to recruit fighters". Al-Monitor. Archived from the original on 3 February 2016.
- Zelin, Aaron Y. (1 May 2015). "Ṣawt al-Islām presents a new video message from Ḥizb al-Islāmī al-Turkistānī [Turkistan Islamic Party] in Bilād al-Shām: "Conquest of Jisr al-Shaghūr"". JIHADOLOGY.
- http://www.jamestown.org/single/?tx_ttnews%5Bpointer%5D=34&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=43968&tx_ttnews%5BbackPid%5D=7&cHash=f7fb7d0ac0db70a362edc7c9830755ee#.VnJXVfkrKWg http://www.jamestown.org/programs/tm/single/?tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=43968&cHash=618bae17a86c2d23c30b7e219c3c731c#.VnJYI_krKWg http://www.jamestown.org/single/?tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=43968&no_cache=1#.VnJYnPkrKWg http://linkis[permanent dead link]. com/uY8Vs http://syriancivilwararchive.com/Articles/Al-Qaeda-Aligned-Central-Asian-Militants-in-Syria-Separate-from-Islamic-State-Aligned-IMU-in-Afghanistan.html#.VnJEm_krKWg Archived 22 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine
- http://moderntokyotimes.com/?p=3071 http://moderntokyotimes.com/?tag=uyghur-led-turkistan-islamic-party-tip-and-uzbek-led-imam-bukhari-jamaat-ibj-and-katibat-tawhid-wal-jihad
- Hage, Mohanad. "China's proxy war in Syria: Revealing the role of Uighur fighters". Al Arabiya English. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
- "China's proxy war in Syria: Revealing the Uighur fighters' role". Saudi Gazette. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
- Weiss, Caleb (4 September 2015). "Saudi al Qaeda cleric showcases training camp for children in Syria". Long War Journal.
- "TIP Division in Syria Releases Photos of Fighters, Camp for Children | Jihadist News". news.siteintelgroup.com. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
- "TIP Division in Syria Releases Video Photo Album Featuring Young Boys in Training Camp | Jihadist News". news.siteintelgroup.com. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
- Roggio, Bill; Weiss, Caleb (24 September 2015). "Uighur jihadist group in Syria advertises 'little jihadists'". Long War Journal.
- Zenn, Jacob (10 October 2014). "An Overview of Chinese Fighters and Anti-Chinese Militant Groups in Syria and Iraq". China Brief. The Jamestown Foundation. 14 (19). Archived from the original on 18 June 2015. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
- "Seymour M. Hersh · Military to Military · LRB 7 January 2016". Lrb.co.uk. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
- turkistanhaber (18 May 2016). "Türkistanlı Mücahitlerin Beklenen Kitabı Beyaz Minare Yayınlarından Çıktı – Doğu Türkistan Bülteni Haber Ajansı". Doguturkistanbulteni.com. Archived from the original on 11 October 2016. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
- "Türkistan'dan Şehadete Hicret Hikayeleri 1 - Türkistan İslam Derneği - Beyaz Minare Kitap - Biyografi / Hatırat Direniş Kitaplığı Cihad Konulu Kitaplar Şehidler / Şehadet - Tevhid, İlim, Menhec, Küresel Savaş, Tarih ve Siyaset Merkezli Kitaplar Satışı - Online Kitapçınız". Beyaz Minare Kitap. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
- "Uygur Ajan Rabia Kadir, Doğu Türkistanlı Mücahidleri İhbar Etti". Archived from the original on 3 February 2016. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 1 February 2016. Retrieved 28 January 2016.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- turkistanhaber (28 November 2015). "China entered into Istanbul, Turkey with her 150 Spies -". Archived from the original on 19 January 2016.
- turkistanhaber (20 November 2015). "Çin İstihbaratı, 150 Ajan İle İstanbul'a Giriş Yaptı -". Archived from the original on 28 November 2015.
- "إدلب عاصمة "الجهاديين": تحضيرات للمعركة الكبرى". Alalam.ir. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
- "Chinese Islamists threaten Olympics: US group". Agence France-Presse. 7 August 2008. Archived from the original on 12 December 2011. Retrieved 7 August 2010.
- "Xinjiang riot hits regional anti-terror nerve". China Daily. Xinhua. 18 July 2009. Retrieved 1 August 2010.
- "'Eastern Turkistan' terrorists identified". China Daily. Xinhua. 21 October 2008. Retrieved 31 July 2010.
- "Xinjiang fighter 'killed by drone'". Al Jazeera. 2 March 2010. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
The leader of a Chinese separatist movement, believed to have links with al-Qaeda, has been killed in a US missile strike, Pakistani and Taliban officials have said.
- "TIP leader killed in Pakistan drone strike". Neil Doyle. 1 March 2010. Archived from the original on 24 January 2016. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
Walsh, Declan; Schmitt, Eric (24 August 2012). "Militant Leader Believed Dead in Pakistan Drone Strike". New York Times. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
Among the 18 people reported to have been killed was Emeti Yakuf, a senior leader of the East Turkestan Islamic Movement, a group from western China whose members are Chinese Uighur Muslim militants.
- "Badruddin Haqqani: 2IC of Haqani Network allegedly killed in NATO attack". FATA Research Center. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
- Fletcher, Holly; Bajoria, Jayshree (31 July 2008). "The East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM)". Backgrounder. Council on Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on 3 August 2010. Retrieved 31 July 2010.
- Pike, John. "Eastern Turkestan Islamic Movement / Eastern Turkistan Islamic Party (ETIP)". GlobalSecurity.org.
- de Vogue, Ariane; Powell, Dennis; Ryan, Jason (24 April 2009). "Guantanamo Uyghur Detainees: Coming to America?". ABC News. Retrieved 31 July 2010.
- Wong, Edward (9 July 2010). "Chinese Separatists Tied to Norway Bomb Plot". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 August 2010.
- Pantucci, Raffaello (22 June 2010). "Uyghurs Convicted in East Turkestan Islamic Movement Plot in Dubai" (PDF). Terrorism Monitor. Jamestown Foundation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 31 July 2010.
- "Islamist group claims responsibility for attack on China's Tiananmen Square". Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- Clabaugh, Rich (24 April 2009). "Freed from Guantánamo, a Uighur clings to asylum dreams in Sweden". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 7 August 2010.
- "» World Uyghur Congress". Uyghurcongress.org. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
- "AFP: US lawmakers seek review of Uighur 'terror' label". Agence France Presse. 16 June 2009. Archived from the original on 24 February 2014. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
- "China: ETIM's Direct Threat to the Olympics". Stratfor. 25 July 2008. Archived from the original on 25 May 2009. Retrieved 31 July 2010.
- Reed, J. Todd; Diana Raschke (2010). The ETIM: China's Islamic Militants and the Global Terrorist Threat. ABC-CLIO. pp. 14–16, 46–47.
- Lecturer in Modern Chinese History in the Department of East Asian Studies Michael Dillon; Michael Dillon (23 October 2003). Xinjiang: China's Muslim Far Northwest. Routledge. pp. 99–. ISBN 978-1-134-36096-3.
- James A. Millward (2007). Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang. Columbia University Press. pp. 333–. ISBN 978-0-231-13924-3.
- Mahesh Ranjan Debata (1 January 2007). China's Minorities: Ethnic-religious Separatism in Xinjiang. Pentagon Press. pp. 170–. ISBN 978-81-8274-325-0.
- China Perspectives. C.E.F.C. 2003. p. 43.
- China Perspectives. C.E.F.C. 2003. p. 42.
- "Militants claim China attacks". Neil Doyle. 10 February 2010. Archived from the original on 26 July 2016. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
- "Turkistan Islamic Party claims western China attacks - World". Dawn.Com. 8 September 2011. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
- Johnson, Ian (13 August 2015). "Q. and A.: Nick Holdstock on Xinjiang and 'China's Forgotten People' - The New York Times". China;Xinjiang (China): Sinosphere.blogs.nytimes.com. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
- Page, Jeremy (25 July 2016). "Over 100 Chinese Fighters Have Joined Islamic State in Syria". Retrieved 25 November 2017 – via www.wsj.com.
- Gauthier, Ursula (18 November 2015). "After the attacks, the solidarity of China is not without ulterior motives". L'Obs. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
- "Britain adds Chinese militant group to terror list". 20 July 2016. Retrieved 25 November 2017 – via Reuters.
- "Doğu Türkistan Bülteni Haber Ajansı". Doguturkistanbulteni.com. 16 March 2016. Archived from the original on 11 October 2016. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
- turkistanhaber. "Türkistan İslam Cemaati Mücahidi Şehit Muhammed Turkistani'nin Hayatı – Doğu Türkistan Bülteni Haber Ajansı". Doguturkistanbulteni.com. Archived from the original on 8 April 2017. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
- Mauro, Ryan (29 September 2013). "China Pursues Hardline Policies Against Muslim Minority". Clarion Project.
- Cook, Sarah (4 November 2013). "Be Skeptical of the Official Story on the Tiananmen Car Crash". Freedom House. Freedom House.
- http://angryarab.blogspot.com/2016/08/chinese-jihadis-among-fighters-in-aleppo.html http://angryarab.blogspot.com/2016/08/the-turkistan-islamic-party-fighters-in.html
- Posted by As'ad AbuKhalil (9 August 2016). "The Angry Arab News Service/وكالة أنباء العربي الغاضب: Charles Lister proves that you can be a respected advocate of Al-Qa`idah in Washington, DC". Angryarab.blogspot.com. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
- Posted by As'ad AbuKhalil (10 August 2016). "The Angry Arab News Service/وكالة أنباء العربي الغاضب: Fabrice Balanche on Aleppo". Angryarab.blogspot.com. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
- Posted by As'ad AbuKhalil (26 August 2016). "The Angry Arab News Service/وكالة أنباء العربي الغاضب: Roger Cohen of the Times refers to Jihadi groups (including Al-Qa`idah and Islamic Turkistan Islamic Party) as Syrian "opposition"". Angryarab.blogspot.de. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
- http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2016/08/jihadists-and-other-rebels-claim-to-have-broken-through-siege-of-aleppo.php http://angryarab.blogspot.com/2016/08/uzbek-ktj-uighur-tip-rebels-in-aleppo.html
- Posted by As'ad AbuKhalil (7 August 2016). "The Angry Arab News Service/وكالة أنباء العربي الغاضب: What is the difference between an Inghimasi and Intihari: The difference between Suicidal and Submerged fighters in Jihadi kooky world". Angryarab.blogspot.com. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
- Bernstein, Richard (8 September 2014). "From China to Jihad?". New York Review of Books.
- Drury, Flora (10 March 2015). "Chinese Muslims from country's western region travelling to Syria to fight alongside ISIS, says Beijing". The Daily Mail.
- "China blames Syrian conflict for Uighur clashes". The Sydney Morning Herald. 1 July 2013.
- Volodzko, David (8 March 2016). "China's New Headache: Uyghur Militants in Syria". The Diplomat.
- Ali, Mohanad Hage (2 March 2016). "China's proxy war in Syria: Revealing the role of Uighur fighters". Al Arabiya English.
- McGregor, Andrew (12 March 2010). "Will Xinjiang's Turkistani Islamic Party Survive the Drone Missile Death of its Leader?". Terrorism Monitor. Jamestown Foundation. 8 (10).
- Botobekov, Uran (29 September 2016). "Al-Qaeda, the Turkestan Islamic Party, and the Bishkek Chinese Embassy Bombing". The Diplomat.
- Botobekov, Uran (17 August 2016). "China's Nightmare: Xinjiang Jihadists Go Global". The Diplomat.
- Clarke, Michael (7 September 2016). "Uighur militants infiltrating Indonesia". The Diplomat.
- Lin, Dr. Christina (13 November 2016). "China's Interests in Syria and the Middle East". Syria Comment. Joshua Landis.
- "Beijing wants Chinese Gitmo detainees". China Daily. 14 December 2008. Retrieved 7 August 2010.